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THE O ratio Catechetica exhibits perhaps better than 
any other single work the characteristic features 
of the mind and thought of its author. As such it 
serves as an introduction to the study of Gregory of 
Nyssa. The present edition is intended to render as 
sistance to students in placing the treatise in its proper 
historical setting, and to supply such illustrative com 
ment as seemed necessary. 

While much has been written in recent times upon 
Gregory s teaching, the problems connected with the 
text and exegesis of his works have received scant at 
tention. The labours of Krabinger, Forbes, and Oehler 
are the only serious contribution in modern times to 
the former, while the volume of translations in the 
Library of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers is the first 
English contribution to the latter. 

The text of the present edition is based upon a 
collation of the more important MSS of the treatise, 
the majority of which have not hitherto been used for 
the purposes of an edition. The editor is indebted to 


the Managers of the Hort Fund for the grants which 
have made it possible for him to obtain collations or 
photographs of these MSS. He has also to acknow 
ledge much kindness and personal assistance rendered 
to him by the authorities of the various libraries to 
which he has had access. In this connexion a special 
debt of gratitude is clue to Dr Mercati of the Vatican 
Library, and to M. Omont of the National Library, 
Paris. To Mr C. H. Turner he is indebted for valuable 
information and suggestions in connexion with the 
textual problems of the treatise. His thanks are also 
due to Dr H. Jackson for useful references and sugges 
tions, and to the Rev. J. F. Bethune-Baker for criticisms 
and discussions of particular passages. Above all he 
has been indebted throughout to the unfailing courtesy 
and kindness of the General Editor of the present series 
of Patristic Texts, Dr A. J. Mason, who has placed his 
advice unreservedly at the service of the present editor, 
and who has read through the whole work in manu 
script and proof, and offered numerous suggestions and 

The more important works to which reference has 
been made are mentioned in the Notes, and more fully 
in the List of Books given in the Introduction. 

J. H. S. 

Easter, 1903. 



sj r. On the character, date, genuineness, and literary 
history of the Oratio Catechetica . . 

2. On some points in the teaching of Gregory of 

3. History of the Text 



I. Subjects 165 

II. Scripture Texts ... .170 

III. Greek Words 172 




THE central period of the literary activity of Gregory of 
Nyssa falls within the years 379 394. Within those 
years must be placed nearly all his more important 
works. It was the death of Basil in 379 which brought 
him prominently forward, and placed him in the position 
of the champion of Catholicism in Cappadocia. The 
time \vas rich in opportunities. The year \vhich pre 
ceded the death of Basil had witnessed the fall of 
Arianism and the triumph of the Nicene cause, for 
which Gregory had borne his witness not only in 
teaching, but by submitting to banishment at the hands 
of an Arian governor 1 . 

In the stirring events of the years which followed 
Gregory played an important part. It was his own 
position as one of the foremost leaders of the Nicene 
cause in the East, rather than the importance of his see, 
which led to his being summoned to the Council of 
Constantinople in 381, and to his being named in the 
edict of the Emperor as one of the bishops with whom 
communion was required as a test of orthodoxy. 

1 See Basil Epp. 237, 239. Cp. Greg. Naz. Ep. 72 (ed. Ben.). 


At Constantinople he made the acquaintance of 
Jerome, who had been attracted thither by the fame of 
Gregory of Nazianzus, and it was on this occasion that 
Jerome heard Gregory recite his work against Eunomius 1 . 
The period which followed the Council of Constantinople 
was full of hope for the leaders of orthodoxy. Arianism, 
though still fairly strong in the East, had received its 
death-blow at Adrianople. The way was opened for the 
restoration of the Catholic faith. In that task Gregory 
of Nyssa played a leading part. But with the restoration 
of the faith a fresh presentation of it in the terms of a 
scientific theology became necessary. That was a con 
viction which had already begun to occupy the minds 
of Basil and Gregory of Nazianzus. They were both 
students of Origen, whose theological system, though 
not accepted in its entirety, \vas the only adequate form 
of Christian scientific thought known to that age. The 
compilation of the Philocalia? is a testimony to their 
belief that Origen s thought contained the principles by 
means of which the faith might be presented as a rational 
theology. It is in their attempt to realize this dream of 
a league between Faith and Science 3 that the importance 
of the Cappadocian Fathers largely consists. Gregory of 
Nyssa shared this belief 4 , and was more deeply imbued 
with the spirit of Origen than either Basil or Gregory of 

1 Jerome de Vir. III. c. 128. The work which Jerome heard recited 
was probably an earlier draft of the work which we possess. See infra. 

2 On the Philocalia see the letter sent by Gregory of Nazianzus (about 
382) to Theodosius, Bp of Tyana (Ep. 115). On the obligations of both 
Basil and Gregory of Nazianzus to Origen see Socrates //. K. iv 26. 

;! Cp. Harnack //. of Dogma (Eng. tr.) iv 89. 

4 See de Vita Moysis (written in old age), p. 336 (Migne). &rn yap TL 
Kal TTJS w waidevaews irpbs <rvvylav rf^Cjv els rexvoyovlav dpeTr/s OVK curd- 
P\TJTOI>. Kal yap T/ r)9iKr) re Kal (j>v<nicf) 0iAo<ro0ta yevoiro av Trore TO; 
v\l/ri\orpLi) /Sty av^vyos re Kal <pi\Tj Kal KOIVUVOS rrjs far)s. 


Nazianzus, The Oratio Catechetica approaches more 
nearly to the spirit of the de Principiis than any other 
work of the fourth century 1 . 

The attempt to establish the doctrines of orthodoxy 
by rational thought was both opportune and necessary. 
In the first place current religious conceptions had been 
profoundly affected by the influence of Neoplatonism. 
It was rather as an attitude of mind than as a philo 
sophical system that Neoplatonism played a part in the 
moral culture of the heathen world. It influenced men s 
way of looking at religious truth, by leading them to 
dwell upon the inner world, the life of thought and 
spirit, and to find in it the explanation of the universe. 
The result was a more spiritual conception of God. 
According to Plotinus the Divine Being is of the nature 
of thought and is indivisible 2 . This marked a great 
advance upon the materialistic conceptions of Deity 
which characterized Stoic teaching and popular thought, 
even within the Church 3 , and it rendered easier the task 
of those who had to state the Christian doctrine of the 
Trinity and defend it against the Unitarian or tritheistic 
conclusions which so readily followed from a materialistic 
view of being. Again, the speculations of philosophers 
on the existence of hypostases within the Divine Being 4 
had made it easier to present to men s minds the unity 
and co-eternity of the Persons of the Godhead 5 . Once 

1 Cp. Harnack H. of Dogma (Eng. tr.) iv 334. 

2 See e.g. Ennead. v i. 3 sq. Cp. Bigg Neoplatonism (S. P. C. K.), 
p. 1 66 sq. 

* Tertullian is an example. We have a later illustration in the anthro 
pomorphism of the Egyptian monks. 

4 On the Trinity of Numenius see Bigg Bampton Lect. p. 251. On the 
Trinity of Plotinus see Ennead. v i. 6 sq. 

5 There is of course a wide gulf between the Trinity of Plotinus and the 
doctrine of the Church. The former taught the unity and co-eternity of 


more, the widespread fatalism 1 of the age and the 
existence of Manichaeism 2 called for some adequate 
treatment of the Divine Providence 3 , the origin of 
evil, and the nature and destiny of man 4 . Lastly 
there was the task of justifying to current thought 
the Christian doctrines of the Incarnation and Atone 

Such were the circumstances under which the Oratio 
Catechetica was produced. The purpose of the treatise 
is stated in the opening words of the Prologue. It is 
intended not for catechumens, but for catechists, in 
order to enable them to present in a rational form to 
those whom they taught the contents of the Christian 
revelation. Yet it does not profess to set forth a com 
plete system of doctrine. While it abounds in philosophic 
thought, the aim throughout is practical. The object of 
the writer is to enable the catechist to remove objections 
and to win conviction. When he calls to his aid the 
speculations of philosophers, he does so, not so much 
because he regards them as the necessary form of truth, 
as because they provide a common ground for argument. 
The apologetic character, in fact, is strongly marked 

the hypostases, but excluded the idea of their co-equality. The Intelligence 
is inferior to the One, and the Soul is inferior to the Intelligence. Both 
Intelligence and Soul are emanations from the One, which is infinitely 
raised above them both. Cp. Bright Age of Fathers i p. 93. 

1 See Gregory s treatise irepi elfj.ap/ui.vrjs. 

- Cp. Or. Cat. prol. 77 trpbs rbv ^lavi^cuov /m^??, c. 7 ol rots Maiuxcu- 
Kols ooy/Jiaffi Trapaffvp^vres. Edicts were issued against them throughout 
this period. See reff. in Gieseler EccL Hist. (Kng. tr.) i 369 note 3. 

3 See further notes on cc. 5 8. 

4 Gr. s polemic against Manichaeism also throws light upon his language 
on the aTro/cardcTTao ts in c. 26 (see notes) and his defence of human genera 
tion in c. 28. 


The work falls roughly into four divisions : 

I. Chs. i 4, in which he expounds the doctrine of 
the Trinity. 

II. Chs. 5 8, in which he treats of the creation of 
man and the origin of evil. 

III. Chs. 9 32, which deal at length with the 
Incarnation, removing objections, and showing its con 
sistency with the moral attributes of God. In the same 
section Gregory treats of the method of the Atonement. 

IV. Chs. 33 40, which treat of the Sacraments of 
Baptism and the Eucharist, and the moral conditions 
(faith and repentance) which are necessary for their 
right use. 

The only indication supplied by the book itself as to 
its date is the reference in c. 38 (in it.) to his earlier con 
troversial treatises on the faith. This has generally been 
taken to refer, or at least to include a reference, to his 
work against Eunomius. That work had been taken in 
hand as a reply to Eunomius, who had answered Basil s 
refutation of his former apology by an Apologia Apo- 
logiae. Eunomius book had appeared either shortly 
before or shortly after the death of Basil 1 . The rough 
draft (TO, o-^e^dpia) of Gregory s reply, as we gather 
from the prefatory letter to his brother Peter 2 , had 
already been made before Gregory s return from Ar 
menia, where he had been towards the end of the year 
380, probably, as Tillemont thinks, for the consecration 
of his brother Peter as bishop of Sebasteia 3 . It was 
only in response to the urgent requests of friends that 

1 For a discussion of the question see Heyns (p. 55, note i) and 
Diekamp Gotteslehre d. h. Gregor. v. A T yss. p. 126, note 2. 
- p. 237 (Migne). 
3 See Tillemont Mem. EccL ix 578. 


Gregory was led to publish his book. How far it was 
advanced at the time when Jerome heard Gregory recite 
it at Constantinople 1 it is difficult to say, but it seems 
probable that the completed work, which is by far the 
longest of all Gregory s works, was not published before 
382 or 383 2 . In 383 Gregory was present at a synod at 
Constantinople and delivered his oration dc Deitate Filii 
et Spiritus Sancti, which also contains an attack upon 
the Anomceans 3 . These works fully satisfy the de 
scription which Gregory gives in c. 38 of his previous 
controversial and critical works on faith 4 . Thus the 
Or. Cat. would seem to be later than 383. But it is 
probably not much later. Though the danger from the 
Anomoean teaching does not occupy a prominent place 
in the book, it is still before his mind 5 . It is probable 
then that the Oratio Catechetica was written in one of 
the years immediately following 383. 

The title is given in the best MSS as \6yos Kai-rj^- 
TLKOS. Similarly Photius (Bibl. Cod. 233) and Maximus, in 
his comment on Ps.-Dionys. dc Eccl. Hier. iii. 1 1, allude 
to it as o KaTrixnTiKos*. But in some MSS and in the Paris 
editions the words 6 /ct^ya? have crept into the title 7 . 

1 v. supra p. x. Rupp s suggestion (p. 134, note 4) that the last two 
books of Basil s Refutation, which are wrongly attributed to him, are the 
work which Gregory read to Jerome and Gregory Nazianzen, is devoid of 
any support. See Diekamp op. cit. p. 125, note 4. 

2 For a discussion of the relation of Gr. s work to the apologies of 
Eunomius see Diekamp op. cit. p. 126, note 3. 

3 On the date of this work see Ceillier Antcurs sacrds viii 353. 

4 His shorter treatises de Fide, Quodnon sinttres dii, and de S. Trinitate 
(which probably belongs to Gregory, rather than to Basil) were addressed 
to private individuals. 

5 See/r0/. and cc. 38, 39. 

6 Similarly Euthymius and the Disputatio Theoriani. 

7 The earliest MS which has the words 6 /meyas is the Paris codex 
Gr. 1268 (Omont 294). 


Its genuineness is well attested, as it is referred to 
by a succession of later writers. It is quoted by 
Theodoret 1 in his Dialogues, and by Leontius of By 
zantium in his treatise against Nestorius and Eutyches. 
John of Damascus in the dc Fide Orthodoxa borrows 
largely from its language on the Trinity and again on 
the Eucharist. Germanus, Patriarch of Constantinople 
(ob. 733), in a work which Photius had read (Bibl. 
Cod. 233), refers to it. There are also clear reminiscences 
of some of its language on the Trinity in Ps. -Cyril de S. 
Trinitatc. Euthymius Zigabenus in the twelfth century 
incorporates large sections of it into his Panoplia Dog- 
matica. In another twelfth century work containing the 
account of a discussion held between Nerses or Noreses, 
the Catholicos of Armenia, and Theorianus, who had 
been sent by the Emperor Manuel Comnenus to win 
him over to the doctrines of Chalcedon, there is a re 
production of Gregory s chapter on the Eucharist. But 
though the work is frequently cited as belonging to 
Gregory, a careful perusal of its contents excited the 
suspicions of orthodox readers. The traces of Origenistic 
teaching, especially on the aTro/carac-racrt?, in the writings 
of one who ranked amongst the three great Fathers of 
the Eastern Church, needed explanation. Accordingly 
an attempt was made to prove that Gregory s writings 
had been interpolated by the Origenists. This idea first 
appears in the book written by Germanus, to which 
Photius refers. The work was entitled A^raTroScmKo? 
i} Az;o#euT09. In the first part of the book Germanus 
refuted the teaching of Origen on the purgation of 
wicked spirits. In the latter part he maintains that 
the works of Gregory of Nyssa had been falsified by 

1 For fuller reffs. see infra. 


the Origenists, who had inserted many passages from 
Origen s writings. The works to which he referred are, 
according to Photius, the de Anima et Resurrectione, 
the Oratio Catechetica and the de Vita Perfecta. But the 
idea of a universal restoration occurs too frequently in 
Gregory s writings 1 to be disposed of by a theory of 
interpolation, which further receives no support from 
any change of style. 

An objection of a different character has been raised 
against the concluding chapter of the treatise by Au- 
bertin 2 , on the ground that Gregory, after treating of 
Baptism in cc. 34 36, and of the Eucharist in c. 37, 
again returns to Baptism in c. 40. But the objection is 
of little value, as the whole section, cc. 38 40, deals 
with the moral conditions which are essential to the life 
of grace, and as baptism marks the initiation into that 
life it is naturally chosen as the point of reference for 
his remarks. 

The spurious addition to c. 40, found in the Paris 
editions and in some late manuscripts, is an extract 
from a work on the Incarnation by Theodore of Rhaithu, 
a monk of the seventh century, and its presence in the 
text is due to a blunder of transcription. 

The Oratio Catechetica has received considerable at 
tention in modern times as representing more adequately 
than- any single treatise the characteristic features of 
Gregory s teaching. Uebenveg, who in his History of 
Philosophy (p. 326) speaks of Gregory as the first who 
sought to establish by rational considerations the whole 

1 Other passages in which Gregory teaches an dTro/caracrracris are de 
Honi. Opif. c. 21, in Psalmos i 9, Or. in ilhtd Tune ipse Filhis (of doubtful 
genuineness) p. 1316 (Migne), de Mortuis pp. 524, f. (Migne), in C/ir. 
Resurr. Or. i pp. 609, f. (Migne). 

2 de Sacrain. Eucharist. ii 487 (quoted by Rupp p. 147). 


complex of orthodox doctrines/ devotes a special section 
to this work. 

Gregory s style has been frequently praised for its 
excellence. Photius speaks of it 1 as ryXv/cvrciTos /cal 
\afjL7rpos /cal i]8ovrjs a>aii> dTroard^coi . His rhetorical 
training 2 is manifested in the elaboration of his periods, 
his frequent use of digressions, and above all his love of 
similes 3 . At the same time these features combine to 
make his language often obscure and difficult of inter 


The purpose of the Oratio Catcchetica is to set forth 
in a manner suited to the needs of those engaged in the 
instruction of converts the contents of the Baptismal 
Creed. Gregory starts from the religious beliefs of the 
Greek and the Jew, and maintains that the Christian 
doctrine of God is the mean between Greek polytheism 
and Judaism. The former recognised a distinction of 
hypostases, the latter the unity of nature, in the Divine 
Being. He refers to non-Christian conceptions of a 

1 Bibl. Cod. 6. 

2 See the letter of Gregory of Nazianzus (Ep. rr, ed. Ben.) written to 
Gr., reproving him for his excessive devotion to rhetorical studies, which 
had led him to resign his office of avayvuffTr/s. 

* The Or. Cat. abounds in similes. Especially characteristic are the 
following : the mixture of water with the oil of a lamp (c. 6), the mind of 
man wandering at will over the universe (c. to), the flame of the wick 
(ibid.}, the dog letting fall his food to catch at its reflection in the water 
|c. 21), the comparison of Satan to a ravenous fish who swallows both 
hook and bait (c. 24), the doctor waiting for the disease to come to a head 
(c. 29), the snake which has received its death-stroke, but still shows signs 
of life (c. 30). 


Word of God, and further seeks to convince the Greek 
of the existence of a Word and Spirit of God by an 
appeal to general ideas, based on the facts of human 
nature 1 . On the other hand he seeks to lead the Jew, 
from indications contained in the Old Testament 2 , to 
accept, as consonant with his earlier teaching, the Catholic 
faith. In dealing with the Greek his treatment is specu 
lative. In dealing with the Jew he appeals to Scripture. 
In both cases he makes use of the facts of history. The 
miracles of Christ, the rise, growth, and extension of the 
Church 3 , all are adduced to confirm the impression of 
the truth of Christianity which has been gained from an 
examination of its contents. The argument from pro 
phecy and Old Testament types, which played such an 
important part in earlier apologies, does not find a place 
in his treatment. But he states in the clearest way, when 
treating of the Incarnation, the moral argument Again 
and again he appeals to the moral glory exhibited in 
God s plan of redemption 4 . The Incarnation was an 
exhibition of the Love of God and was consistent with, 
and worthy of, His moral nature. This he regards as 
the sole and sufficient answer to all objections. It is 
consistent with God s honour to succour the needy. 
Such a work supplied the most splendid occasion for 
the exercise of His power. That His power could 
condescend so low was a greater miracle than any of 
the wonders of Creation. That Gregory appeals to each 
of these three classes of arguments, speculative, historical, 
and moral, is, as Rupp says 5 , a proof of the impartiality 
of his judgment and of his theological acuteness. 

1 See/r<?/. cc. 3, i, 5. 2 See c. 4. 3 See cc. 12, 18. 

4 See cc. 8 (sn/> Jin.), 9, 15, 17, 20, 24, 26. 

5 Gregors Leboi und Meinungen p. 246. 


Gregory, as has been already remarked, does not 
attempt a complete scientific treatment of his subject. 
His aim is not to produce a de Principiis suited to the 
needs of the fourth century and based upon the Nicene 
Creed. He has in view the immediate, practical needs 
of Christian teachers. Yet there are at least the outlines 
of a theological system in the Oratio CatecJietica, and it 
is to this fact that its resemblance to the work of Origen 
is due. 

The influence of Origen upon Gregory s work is seen 
in three points. 

1. In the first place his general treatment of his 
subject shows how deeply he had imbibed the spirit of 
Origen. His attempt to illustrate and explain Christian 
truth with the help of the philosophical conceptions of 
Greek thought is inspired by Origen 1 . Like his great 
master he too would seek to claim the philosophy of the 
heathen world as a friend and partner in the pursuit of 
the higher life 2 . 

2. Again, Gregory s exegesis of Scripture is derived, 
like that of Basil, from Origen. He expounds the 
principles of the allegorical method of interpretation 
in c. 32 of the Or. Cat., where he is dealing with ob 
jections to the manner of Christ s death. All words 
and acts of the Gospel have, he declares, a higher and 
more Divine meaning 3 than that which lies upon the 

1 Cp. Rupp, I.e. Origen is great by virtue of the single thought of 
bringing philosophy into union with religion, and producing thereby a 
theology. With Clement of Alexandria this was still a mere instinct. 
Origen gave it consciousness, and so Christianity began to have a science 
of its own. 

2 Cp. de Vit. Moysis, I.e. supra. 

3 Kara TOV v\f>ij\6Tp6v re /cat deibrepov \oyov. 

s. b 


surface. There is in all passages alike an admixture of 
the Divine element with the human. The voice or 
action proceeds after a human manner, while the hidden 
meaning 1 manifests the Divine element. So in the 
Death of Christ we can recognize the human element, 
the shame and weakness, while the outstretched arms of 
the Sufferer preach the Divine lesson of the all-embracing 
love of God. The early chapters of Genesis he treats, as 
Origen had done before him, as allegories. The stories 
of Paradise and the coats of skin 2 contain doctrines 
written in the form of a narrative and after the manner 
of history 3 . The coats of skin do not refer to literal 
skins. The inner meaning of the story, expressed in 
veiled language 4 , is that physical death was appointed 
by God as a merciful provision for undoing the effects 
of man s fall. Once more Gregory accuses the Jews of 
having misunderstood all that the Law had expressed 
in veiled language for those who were able to under 
stand the inner meaning 5 . Such a method of exegesis 
was common in the age of Gregory. Allegorism was 
practised by all parties alike, when it suited their 
purpose. Some of these mystical interpretations of 
particular passages had passed into the current tradition 
of the Church 6 . The allegorical method was, moreover, 
particularly suited to the work of the apologist. It 
enabled him to claim the Old Testament in support of 
Christian belief and to harmonize it with the doctrines of 
the Church. At the same time it afforded him a weapon 

1 TOV Kara TO KpVTTTov VOOV/JL^VOV. 2 cc. 5, 8. 

3 iffTopiKwrepov. 4 di alviy/j,a.Tuv (c. 8). 

5 ova. irapa TOV vo^ov dC alviyfj.drwv rots /JivaTiKuis ^Traieiv Tri<rTa/j.tvoi$ 

6 E.g. in c. 32 Gr. claims to have received the interpretation which he 
gives of the Cross CK Tra 


wherewith to repel the counter-claims of Judaism. Be 
hind Gregory s use of allegorism, however, there is often 
a profoundly spiritual conception of the meaning of 
Scripture 1 . 

3. Once more it is in his whole conception, of the 
Divine Providence that Gregory shows himself the 
disciple of Origen. To him, as to Origen, the history 
of the world represents a vast movement from a be 
ginning to an end, embracing all created beings, and 
advancing towards a final unity in which God will be 
all in all 2 . To both alike it is God s goodness which is 
the cause of Creation 5 . In the system of Origen, how 
ever, man does not occupy quite the same central 
position in Creation as he does in the teaching of 
Gregory. According to Origen man is but one factor 
in the world of spirits 4 . Gregory returns to the view of 
earlier Fathers and regards man as the sole cause and 
the end of Creation 5 . In him the two worlds of sense 
and spirit find a meeting-point 6 . Origen s view was 
necessitated by his belief in the pre-existence of souls 

1 See a fine passage in c. Eunoni. vii p. 744 (Migne) dia TOVTO tracra 
ypafir) de6wvev(TTOs X^yercu, did TO rrjs deias e/ATTfeucrews eiVcu di8aa"Ka\iai>. 
fi TrepiaipedfiT) rb <rw / ucm/c6i TOV \6yov TrpoKd\v/j./j.a, TO Xeiirb/Jitvov Kvpi6s 
<TTL /ecu fwrj Kal irvev/Jia., /card re TOV /mtyav IIaO\oi>, /ecu Kara TT]V TOV 
evayyeXiou ^wvrfv. For further passages illustrating Gr. s principles of 
exegesis see in Cant. Cantic. p. 756 sq. (Migne), and (on the <rvyKa.Tdpa.ais 
of Scripture) de Comm. Not. p. 181 (Migne). 

2 St Paul s words, i Cor. xv 28, are a favourite text with Or. as with 
Origen. Cp. e.g. de An. et Res. p. 104 (Migne). 

3 See Or. Cat. c. 5. Cp. Origen de Princ. ii 9. 6. 

4 See c. Celsiim iv 99 {Philocalidi c. 20, p. 150, ed. Rob.) ol/icu dy 
ct7ro5e5ei;(^i cu ecc TUIV Trpoip-rj/m.fri>}v, TTWS avOpwiri^) /cat iravTi \oyiK(3 TO, irdvTa, 


5 Or. Cat. c. 5. 

6 Or. Cat. c. 6 TOV aladrjTov Trpos r6 vorjTov ylveTal rtj /cara dfiav <ro<pia.v 



and a pre-temporal fall, which Gregory rejects. But in 
his treatment of free-will and the origin of evil Gregory 
again shows himself the disciple of Origen 1 . The pos 
session of free-will was necessary to the perfection of 
that image of God" in which man was made. The 
result of its possession was that the participation in 
good was made the reward of virtue. It is through 
this endowment of free-will that evil becomes possible. 
For evil springs from within and is due to the action of 
man s will in turning away from what is good. Evil has 
no substantive existence but arises from the absence of 
virtue. The insistence on man s free-will, which had 
characterized Origen s teaching when face to face with 
the predestinarian views of the Gnostics, was no less 
important at the time when Gregory wrote, in face of 
the fatalism which characterized heathen thought, and 
above all in view of the danger from Manichaeism. 
The conception of the negative character of evil Gregory 
shares with other teachers of his age. It appears in 
Athanasius and Basil, and is an indication of their 
common debt to Origen. At the same time it marks 
a point of contact with Platonism 3 , originating as it 
does in the identification of TO d^adov and TO 6V. But 
it is in the application of these two ideas of man s free 
will and the negative character of evil to the larger 
question of the Providence of God that Gregory far 
outdistances his contemporaries and shows himself a 
thoroughgoing disciple of Origen. It is one of the 
merits of both teachers that they are able to assign a 

1 For Origen s treatment of free-will see de Principiis Bk iii (Philocalia, 

C. 2l). 

2 For the whole of what follows see Or. Cat. c. 5. 

3 See notes on c. 5. 

4 Cp. Archer Hind Timacus of Plato pp. 31 33. 


real importance to man s free-will in their system of 
thought. But man s free-will cannot defeat the final 
purpose of God, and evil, from its unsubstantial character, 
cannot be eternal. God must finally be all in all/ The 
purpose of God includes the redemption and restoration 
to God of all created spirits, Satan included. The puri 
fication of man is the work of grace. But those who 
have not passed through the gate of Baptism have none 
the less their own appropriate purification. The Divine 
Power in contact with evil acts as a refining fire. Satan 
himself will be purged by it and be led to acknowledge 
the justice and redemptive power of God. Then, when 
the purifying fire has done its work, there will arise from 
all Creation a chorus of praise 1 . This doctrine of OLTTO- 
Kardo-Tadis, which proved such a stumbling-block to 
later ages and led to the suggestion that Gregory s 
works had been interpolated, shows how completely 
Gregory had made his own the main outlines of Origen s 
system 2 . In their conception of a purifying discipline 
in the after-life both Origen and Gregory are re-echoing 
the thoughts of Plato in the Gorgias*, but the former 
certainly believed himself to be interpreting the language 
of Scripture 4 , while the great text of St Paul, already 
referred to, supplied them both with the Scriptural basis 

1 See cc. 8, 16, 35. 

2 For reff. to Origen see notes on the passages quoted above. For other 
passages in which Gr. adheres to traditional language on the subject of 
future punishment see notes on c. 26. 

3 For reff. see notes on c. 8. 

4 E.g. i Cor. iii 15. For other reft", see Bigg Bampton Lcct. p. 230. 
Gr. s teaching on the Kadapvis applies to a different stage in the history of 
the soul from that of the Western doctrine of Purgatory. The former 
takes place after the resurrection, the latter between death and judgment. 
Again the former deals with the purification of the bad, the latter with the 
purification of the good. See Mason Purgatory pp. 18 20. 


which they sought for their belief in the final restoration 
of all created spirits to God. 

In his treatment of human nature in the Or. Cat. 
Gregory departs from Origen, who adopted St Paul s 
terminology of body, * soul, and spirit. It suited 
better the purpose of Gregory s apology to adopt the 
simpler division into intelligible and * sensible or 
invisible and visible/ in order that he might exhibit 
man as the centre of creation and the meeting-point of 
the two worlds of matter and spirit. At the same time 
his method enables him to assert the closeness of the 
union between the two 1 . 

Once more Gregory appears to emphasize more 
clearly than Origen the antithesis of God and the world. 
Thus when dealing with Creation in its relation to God 
he no longer uses the antithesis of TO VOTJTOV and TO 
ai<r0r)Tov, which would place all spiritual beings in the 
same category, but abandoning here Plato and Origen, 
he draws a contrast between created and uncreated 2 . 
This enabled him to assert the transcendence of God, 
an idea on which he is continually dwelling in his other 
works 3 . 

It is a sign of Gregory s independence of thought 
and versatility of mind that, while he has shown himself 
a true disciple of Origen and has followed him in some 

1 He uses the words /ui ^ts, drd/cpacm, (rvvavaKpao-is of this union. See 
c. 6. Gr. s treatment of the union of soul and body, and the relation of 
his thought to that of Plotinus is discussed by Bergades de. Universe ct de 
Aninia hominis doctr. Greg, Nyss. 9 13. 

2 c. 27. 

3 Cp. de An. et Res. p. 92 sq. (Migne), esp. the words E?rei <5^ ovv 
Travrbs dyadou 77 dda <pv<ris. See also c. Enno/n. ii p. 473 (Migne), 
iii p. 601, de Honi. Op. c. 11. This feature, which Gr. shares with 
Athanasius and Gregory Nazianzen, marks a point of contact with the 
Neoplatonists. See, however, Diekamp op. cit. pp. 183, 184. 


of his most daring speculations, he has also shown him 
self susceptible to influences from another teacher who 
led in his day a reaction from Origen, and even figured 
as one of his most determined opponents. 

The influence of Methodius upon Gregory s thought 
in the Oratio CatccJietica is unmistakeable, and extends 
not only to important conceptions, but even to similarity 
of literary expression 1 . In the first place Gregory shares 
Methodius conception of the place occupied by death in 
the Divine order. According to Gregory 2 death was a 
temporary institution 3 , not a necessity of man s nature. 
It affects only the physical or sensuous part of man, and 
the work which it fulfils in the remedial purpose of God 4 
is to free man s physical nature from the evil implanted 
in it by sin, by dissolving it and refashioning it 5 in its 
original beauty. He illustrates this by the case of a 
potter, who, when he finds that some ill-disposed person 
has filled with molten lead the vessel which he has 
fashioned, breaks up the unbaked clay and remodels it. 
Methodius account is similar. According to him God 
devised death that by this means we might be rendered 

1 The illustration of the potter in Or. Cat. c. 8 appears to be derived 
from Methodius dc Resurrectione Lib. i c. 44 (ed. Bonwetsch, p. 146). 
Again the description of death in Or. Cat. cc. 16, 35 recalls the language 
of Method, de Re.mrr. Lib. i c. 38 (ed. Bon. p. 132) ovdev yap &\\o 6 
6dva.Tos 77 diaKpiffis KO.I XW/HOTAOS ifsvxfis diro crw^uaros. Gr. s description of 
the angel of the earth and the (pdbvos of Satan (Or. Cat. c. 6) recalls the 
passage in Method, de Resnrr. Lib. i c. 37 (ed. Bomv. p. 130). For the 
coats of skin (Or. Cat. c. 8) cp. Method, de A esurr. Lib. i c. 39 (ed Bomv. 
p. 136). The illustration derived from human generation (Or. Cat. c. 33) 
is found in Method, de Resnrr. Lib. ii c. 20 (ed. Bonw. p. 235). 

2 Or. Cat. c. 8. 

3 oi>x cl>s det irapafj-eveiv and ibid. ?rp6s Kaipov. 

4 rov TT]V KaKiav r\^v larpfvovra^ ibid. 

5 irpos TO e dpxrj* KciXXos 


altogether free from blemish and injury l ; and he ex 
plains his meaning by the two illustrations of the worker 
in metal and the potter. Yet in adopting the point of 
view of Methodius with regard to the physical nature of 
man, Gregory shows his originality by combining with it 
the idea of the purification of the soul by the practice of 
virtue in this life and the purificatory discipline of the 
after-life 2 . Starting from this conception of the re 
demption of the body, we find that both Methodius 
and Gregory take the same view of the redemptive 
work of Christ. According to the somewhat confused 
language of Methodius, Adam represents the whole of 
humanity which was assumed by Christ 3 . When man 
went astray, Christ the Shepherd came to seek him and 
bare him up and wrapped Himself around him 4 that 
he might not again be overwhelmed and swallowed up 
by the waves and deceits of pleasure. For in this way 
the Word assumed man, in order that, overcoming the 
serpent, He might through Himself destroy the con 
demnation which had followed upon man s ruin. For 
it was fitting that by no other should the Evil One be 
overcome, but by him whom he had deceived and over 
whom he was boasting that he had gained the mastery ; 
for in no other way was it possible that sin and con 
demnation should be destroyed, unless that same man, 
on whose account it had been said, " Earth thou art and 
unto earth shalt thou return," should be refashioned 5 and 

1 de Resurr. Lib. i c. 42 sq. (ed. Bonw. pp. 142 sq.). 

2 Or. Cat. c. 8 tv i^kv rfj wapova-r] fay TO TTJS dpeTrjs <pdp/j.a/<oi> ets dfpa- 
ireiav T&V TOLOVTWV Trpoffer^drj Tpav/jLaTwi . et 5e ddepdirevros /J.VOL, v TO; 
/jLerd TO.VTO. fiiiij Terctyiu euTai i) GepaTreia. 

3 See Conviv. iii 6 OVTW 5?) trd\iv KCLL tv TOJ dyetX^ort X/SICTTO} rbv 
A5a/i -rrdvres faoTron)6it)<nv (ed. Jahn, p. 19). Cp. also iii 4. 7, 8. 

4 ibid. paardaavTos avrbv TOV Kvpiov /cat d/ 


undo the sentence which on his account had issued forth 
upon all, that, as in Adam formerly all die, even so 
again in Christ, who assumed Adam, all should be 
made alive 1 . 

There are resemblances in this exposition to the 
earlier teaching of Irenaeus 2 , but the many points of 
contact with Methodius conceptions and the form in 
which he illustrates them 3 seem to show fairly con 
clusively that Gregory chose the latter as his model. 
According to Gregory 4 Christ assumed humanity for 
the purpose of knitting together in an inseparable union 
the body and soul which had been severed in death, and 
recalling the primal grace 5 which had belonged to 
human nature. As the principle of death had passed 
throughout the whole of human nature, so the principle 
of life resulting from Christ s Resurrection passes to all. 
He first united the soul which He had assumed in an 
indissoluble union with His own body by His resurrec 
tion. Then on a larger scale 6 he inaugurated the same 
union for all humanity. Thus He becomes the meeting- 
ground 7 of life and death, by arresting the process 
of dissolution in man s nature, and Himself becoming 

1 ibid. Cp. also the words in c. 7 #TTWJ 6 KI//HOS, r; d<f>dap(rla 
viKrjaaaa TQV ddvarov, ei/^ws rty dvdaraffiv fj^eX^drja-r] rrj (rapid, JJ.T] edtras 
avrrjv K\-rjpovofj.-t]6rivai TrdXiv VTTO TT}S (pQopds. See also the mystical appli 
cation to the Church of the story of the creation of Eve, ibid. c. 8. The 
refif. throughout are to Jahn s edition. 

2 See Harnack Hist, of Dogma (Eng. tr.), vol. iii p. 105 (cp. ii 239 flf. ). 

3 See supra, p. xxv, note i. 

4 Or. Cat. c. 1 6. 

5 cos av i) irpurr) irepl r6 avdpuTrivov X<*P tJ dvaK\~rj6eirj. Cp. c. 35 wore 
rrfs KaKias ev rrj 5ia\i>(Tei TOV aw/j-aros Kal rrfi ^VXTJS eKpvelffTjs TraXiv dia TTJS 
d^acrrdcrecos crQiov Kal aTradrj Kal aK^paiov Kal Trdcnys TTJS Kara Kaidav 
d\\6rpiov a.vaffToi-x_ei.u6 ijvai TO 

6 yeviKUTtpy nvl \6ya3. 

7 /j.e66pioi>. 


the originating- principle of the union of the severed 
portions 1 . 

In these somewhat realistic expositions of the work 
of redemption we find certain clearly marked concep 
tions which are held in common by Methodius and 
Gregory. There is the same idea of the purpose of 
death as a means of removing the evil which had 
entered man s physical nature through the Fall. There 
is the same idea of Christ s union with humanity as a 
whole. And lastly there is the same conception of the 
reconstitution of human nature through the Resurrection 
of Christ. These conceptions form the leading features 
of Gregory s doctrine of redemption. 

Gregory s treatment of the Incarnation exhibits in 
detail many points of resemblance to that of Athanasius. 
As we have seen his general conceptions follow in the 
main those of Methodius. It is rather on the apologetic 
side that his expositions recall those of Athanasius. 
Both writers recognize the importance of history. They 
both appeal to the miracles of Christ 2 , and to His Virgin- 
Birth and Resurrection ; also to the witness of facts as 
exhibited in the rise and growth of the Church and in the 
decline of heathenism and Judaism*. They both deal 
with the question Why did not God restore man by a 
mere fiat ? , though they answer it in different ways 4 . 
Both appeal to the immanence of God in Creation in 
order to justify the idea of an Incarnation 5 . Both treat 

1 See further the expositions in Or, Cat. cc. 32, 35, esp. the words in 
c. 32, TI TOV /j.^povs ai>d<TTacri5 eirl TO TTO.V die^epxerai, Kara TO 

T]v<j}fj.^vov TTJS 0i}creus e/c TOV /mepovs eiri TO 6\ov ffweKoioo^v^. 

2 Or. Cat. cc. 12, 13. Cp. Ath. <& Inc. cc. 18, 38, 49, 50. 

3 Or. Cat. cc. 13, 18. Cp. Ath. dc Inc. cc. 40, 46, 55. 

4 Or. Cat. cc. 15, 17. Cp. Ath. de Inc. 44, Or. c. Ar. ii 68. 

5 Or. Cat. c. 25. Cp. Ath. de Inc. cc. 41, 42. 


of the necessity of the death of Christ 1 , but Gregory has 
emphasized more clearly than Athanasius the fact that 
death was necessary in order that Christ s assumption 
of human nature might be complete. The particular 
manner of the death, Crucifixion, is also discussed by 
both writers, though more fully by Athanasius 2 . Both 
see in the outstretched arms of Christ a manifestation 
of His purpose to unite all men to Himself 3 . While 
Athanasius asserts that man s ills could not be cured 
by any external remedy 4 , Gregory maintains that man 
needed to be touched in order to be cured 5 . On the 
other hand Athanasius emphasizes far more clearly 
than Gregory the purpose of the Incarnation to restore 
in man the knowledge of God which had been blurred 
by sin 6 . In one or two respects Gregory added to the 
expositions given by Athanasius, as when he deals with 
the question why the Incarnation was delayed, and 
answers it by the analogy of the physician who waits 
till the disease has reached a climax before applying a 
cure 7 . 

Gregory deals with the question, why sin has not 
ceased to exist since the Incarnation, by adducing the 
simile of a serpent 8 which has received its death-blow, 
though life continues for a time in its extremities. And 
again he answers the question why grace has not come 
to all by saying, in language that recalls Butler in later 
times, that God has left something to man s initiative 
and made him free to accept or refuse God s offer 9 . On 

1 Or. Cat. c. 32. Cp. Ath. de Inc. cc. 21, 12. 

- Or. Cat. c. 32. Cp. Ath. de Inc. cc. 23 25. 

3 Or. Cat. c. 32. Cp. Ath. de Inc. c. 25. 

4 Ath. de Inc. c. 44. 5 Or. Cat. c. 27. 6 de Inc. cc. n 19. 

7 Or. Cat. c. 29. Cp. Ath. Or. c. Ar. \ 29, ii 68. 

8 Or. Cat. c. 30. 9 ibid. 


the whole, however, Gregory s treatment of the Incarna 
tion lacks the completeness and profundity which is 
found in Athanasius 1 . 

What has been said above of Gregory s relation to 
Origen has served also to bring into notice the debt 
which both Fathers owe to Plato. Gregory s other 
works exhibit his intimate acquaintance with Plato s 
Dialogues 2 , and show how freely he employed Plato s 
thoughts in setting forth the doctrine of the Trinity 3 . 
Yet Gregory fully understood the limits within which 
Platonism might be of service to the theology of the 
Church. It was at best a useful ally, which might be 
enlisted to strengthen and illustrate his exposition of 
the faith. It is thus that he employs the Platonic 
psychology to illustrate the doctrine of the Trinity in 
the opening chapters of the Oratio Catechetica*". 

1 In his treatment of the Divine Word in Or. Cat. c. i Gr. uses 
language which resembles that of Athanasius, e.g. his statement that God 
was never without a Word (cp. Or. c. Ar. i 19), and his contrast between 
the Divine Word and its transitory, human counterpart (cp. Or. c. Ar. 


2 See passages quoted by Diekamp Gotteslehre d. h. Gregor. v. N. 

P- 33- 

3 E.g. in the treatises c. Etinomittm, Quod non sint tres dii and de Conini. 
Notionibus. See Rupp Gregors Leben und Meimmgen p. 136. Barden- 
hewer (Patrologie p. 278) speaks of him as anticipating the extreme 
Realism of the Middle Ages. 

4 Of the influence of the later Platonists there is in the Or. Cat. 
apparently little trace. Similarly there is only a sparing use made of 
Aristotle. In his chapter on the Eucharist (c. 37) Gr. employs the Aris 
totelian antithesis of duva/ and evepyeia, and form (elSos) and matter. 
But in this case he was probably only availing himself of terminology 
which had entered into the current eclectic philosophy of the day. His 
treatment of elSos in other works (e.g. de Honi. Op. c. 27) shows the 
influence of both Methodius and Origen. See Diekamp op. cit. p. 44, 
note 2. See further notes on dXXoiomK??* and reff. to Aristotle s doctrine 
of nutrition in c. 37. 


We may now proceed to consider some points in the 
teaching of the Oratio Catechetica in which Gregory s 
independence of earlier Fathers is most apparent. First 
in order stands his presentation of the doctrine of the 
Trinity. His treatment of the subject is somewhat 
slight when compared with the length at which he 
discusses the Incarnation. There were two reasons for 
this. His earlier works had expounded at full length 
his ideas upon the subject 1 . And again it is assumed 
by him that in an apologetic work such as the Oratio 
Catechetica professes to be, there was less need to deal 
at length with objections to this doctrine than was the 
case in the doctrine of the Incarnation. The general 
ideas of the Greek might be regarded as predisposing 
him to believe that there was a Word of God and a 
Spirit of God, while the indications in the Old Testa 
ment of hypostases within the Godhead might serve to 
convince the Jew 2 . But in what he does say his treat 
ment is original and suggestive. He is the first Father 
to illustrate the doctrine of the Trinity from the psy 
chology of human nature. Starting from the Platonic 
analysis of human consciousness as consisting of you?, 
Xo7o<>, "tyvxfi, he proceeds to argue that in the case of the 
Godhead this implies three distinct hypostases within 
the Divine Being. The Divine Logos and Spirit must 
correspond to the Divine Nature and be proportionately 
higher than their human counterparts. They must ac 
cordingly be living and have life in themselves. And 
in order to have life in the fullest sense they must be 
personal, possessing will and the power to perform what 
they will. Gregory s illustration is based upon the 

1 C P . c. 38. 

2 Cp. the opening words of c. 5, where he also states the difficulties 
likely to be felt about the Incarnation. Cp. also c. 9. 


belief, which he exhibits in other works, that human 
nature is a mirror, which faithfully reflects the traits of 
its Divine archetype 1 . At the same time Gregory is 
conscious of the inadequacy of our faculties to explore 
the mode of the existence of Deity, and he acknowledges 
that we can only attain a moderate degree of appre 
hension of the Divine Being 2 . 

Another contribution which Gregory makes to Chris 
tian thought in the O ratio Catechetica is his treatment 
of the relation of the work of redemption to the attri 
butes of God 3 . These he represents as four, power, 
righteousness, goodness, and wisdom 4 . The goodness 
of God was shown in his desire to rescue man, His 
wisdom in the method chosen to carry into effect this 
desire 5 . The power of God, which is not in its exhi 
bition divorced from love 6 , was shown in the surpassing 
wonder of God s condescension, which enabled Him to 
come down to the level of man. Such humiliation was 
a wonder no less than that a flame should stream down 
wards, instead of upwards 7 . The righteousness of God 
was displayed in His manner of dealing with the great 
adversary of man 8 . In treating of this question Gregory 

1 Cp. de An. et Res. p. 41 (Migne) ourws v rrj ^pax^T-rjTL TT)S r/^ter^pas 
<f>v<Tti)S T&V a.(ppa.(TTUv fKfivwv Tijs deoTr]TO<s ldi(t)/J.dT(i)i> at fiKoves e/cXdyu.Troi/crii : 
de Mortuis p. 509 (Migne) firi //.e/ yap TTJS cv TO; KaToirTpq yu.op07?s rj eiicuv 
?rp6s TO apxcTVirov ffXi)futTifeT(U eVi de TOV TTJS "^VXTJS %apa/cr^pos, TO 
/x7raXii> i>vor)Ka/j.ev Kara yap TO Oelov /caXXos TO TT?S ^VXTJS eldos aTreiKovL- 
ferat. ofiKovv OTO.V Trpos rd apx^Tvirov eai r^s /SX^Tr^ ij ^v\rj r6re oC d/cpi/Sems 
eauTTjj/ Kadopq.. There are many such passages. The passage in Quid sit 
ad imag. Dei\>. 1333 (Migne), which recalls Gr. s language in the Or. Cat., 
cannot be adduced in illustration, as the treatise is almost certainly a later 
work, probably by Anastasius Sinaita. See Ceillier viii 248. 

2 c. 3 init. 3 cc. 19 26. 

4 c. 20. 5 c. 23 sub fin. Cp. c. 20. 

6 Cp. c. 24, TO, t<f>er)s TOV /jLVffTrjpiov dia<r/co7r77<ra>/xe>>, iv ofs fj.d\iffTa 
oe iKVVTa.t. ffvyKCKpa/JL^vrj Trj (piKavdpuiriq. r) OVVOL^L^. 

7 ibid. 8 cc. 2123, 20 - 


is led to discuss the nature of the Atonement, and in so 
doing he develops in a highly original manner the 
theory which earlier Fathers had framed upon the 
subject 1 . His teaching finds a parallel in that of 
Ambrose and later writers, and the idea of a ransom 
paid to Satan and a deception practised upon him, 
though rejected by one or two important Fathers, 
became widely current in East and West until Anselm 
brought it to an edifying end 2 . His argument is as 
follows. As we had freely sold ourselves to evil, He 
who sought to restore us to liberty could not resort to 
arbitrary and tyrannical methods, but must proceed by 
methods of strict justice. This involved the payment 
to Satan, as owner of mankind, of such a ransom as he 
was willing to receive. The spectacle of Christ s miracles 
led the adversary to select Him as the ransom-price, 
while the veil of Christ s human nature, hiding the God 
head, removed all cause for fear, and led him to desire 
Christ as his prey. In reply to the argument that this 
involved an act of deception, since the Godhead of 
Christ was veiled from Satan, Gregory replies that it 
was an act of strict justice. Satan was requited ac 
cording to his deserts, in that the deceiver was in turn 
deceived. But he adds a further answer. Behind the 
justice of God and this apparent act of deception there 
was a beneficent purpose. Just as a physician deceives 

1 For these earlier theories see reff. in notes on c. 23. It is a significant 
fact that in his exposition of the atonement Gregory does not treat of the 
ideas of propitiation or satisfaction, or of the relation of the sacrifice of 
Christ to the sacrifices of the Old Testament. In the passage in Chr. 
resurr. Or. \ p. 612 (Migne) he speaks of the sacrifice of the lamb but 
only in connexion with the Eucharist. In c. Eunotn. ii p. 473 (Migne) 
the shedding of the blood is the ransom price by which we are delivered 
from death. 

2 See notes on c. 23. 


his patient by mixing a drug with his food, so the pur 
pose of the deceit practised in the Incarnation was to 
benefit the adversary himself. Satan himself will be 
purged by the Divine power, acting as a refining fire, 
and will be led at last to acknowledge the saving power 
of Christ s work of redemption 1 . In this exposition, with 
its combination of the thoughts of his master Origen 
and his own ingenious fancies, Gregory s imagination 
attains its highest flight. In his whole treatment of 
the Atonement Gregory falls far short of the more 
profound and Scriptural teaching of Athanasius. 

The concluding section of the Oratio Catechetica is 
devoted to an exposition of the doctrine of the Sacra 
ments 2 . Gregory defends the principle involved in the 
Divine working through sacramental channels on general 
grounds by the same appeal to the Divine immanence 
which he had employed in dealing with the Incarnation . 
But the assurance that God is present and works through 
such means is based upon His promise to be present in 
this particular way 4 . The validity of the sacramental 
rite accordingly depends upon the cooperation of our 
wills with the promise of God to act through these 
means. The prayers which are offered by us at baptism 
neither effect nor hinder the validity of the Sacrament, 
which depends upon the promise of God 5 . 

Another feature in Gregory s treatment of the Sacra 
ments is his insistence that through them there is a 
continuation of the process of the Incarnation. Thus 

1 c. 26. 

2 cc. 3340- 

3 cc. 34, 36, esp. the words in c. 36, rt s yap Trapeari. -jrbvos r irpa.yfj.aTi, 
TTHTTevvai iravraxov rbv debv dvai; 

4 c. 34, xal deov trapeffeffdai rots yivo/mtvois fTrr]yy\fJ.^vov /ecu rr\v irap J 
favrov 5vvajj.iv evredtiKOTOS ry Zpyy, xa 

5 ibid. 


he says of Baptism 1 : Since the method of our salvation 
was made effectual, not so much by instruction in the 
way of teaching, as by the very acts of Him who has 
established a fellowship with man, and has effected life 
as an actual fact, in order that, by means of the flesh 
which He has assumed and at the same time deified, 
everything kindred and related to it may be saved 
along with it, it was necessary that some means should 
be devised by which there might be in the baptismal 
process a kind of affinity and likeness between him who 
follows and Him who leads the way. Similarly, in 
dealing with the Eucharist*, he says that the Incarnate 
Christ infused Himself into our perishable nature, that 
by communion with Deity mankind might at the same 
time be deified. Then he proceeds : For this end it 
is that by dispensation of His grace He disseminates 
Himself in every believer through that flesh, whose 
substance is from bread and wine, blending Himself 
with the bodies of believers, that by this union with 
that which is immortal man too may be a sharer in 

In both passages the idea is that the process of dei 
fication which was consummated in the humanity of 
Christ by the hypostatic union of the Word with it, is 
continuously effected in mankind at large through union 
with Christ in the Sacraments. Gregory s language pre 
sents a fairly close parallel to the similar treatment of 
the question in the de Trinitate of St Hilary. 

In his treatment of Baptism Gregory emphasizes the 
importance of a right faith for the practical needs of the 
Christian life. By his reference to his former contro 
versial works on the Trinity 3 he clearly shows the inner 

1 c. 35. 2 c. 37 sub fin. 3 c. 38. 

s. c 


spiritual significance of the battle which the Church had 
been fighting with Arianism. It is of importance that 
he who is regenerate should know what is his spiritual 
parentage and into what manner of life he is born in 
baptism 1 . To believe that the Son and Spirit are 
created beings is to make a man s salvation dependent 
on something which is imperfect and which itself needs 
redemption 2 . His exposition of the inner significance of 
Baptism ;{ recalls the language of Cyril s Catecheses and 
is based on St Paul s teaching. Baptism involves re 
pentance and a dying with Christ unto sin. It is also 
the beginning of a resurrection unto a life of blessedness. 
But he realizes the incapacity 4 of man at present for a 
complete reproduction in himself of the death and resur 
rection of Christ. Still baptism marks the first stage. 
It is a break with evil 5 , and a preliminary rehearsal 6 of 
that which will be completely accomplished hereafter. 
He insists strongly on the necessity of baptism for the 
resurrection to the life of blessedness. All will rise 
again, but there will be a difference. Each will go to 
his appropriate place. He who has been purified in the 
waters of baptism will pass to a passionless life of bless 
edness. For him who lacks such purification there 
waits the refiner s fire, which shall purge the nature 
through long ages and restore it at last pure to God 7 . 

It is however in his treatment of the Eucharist that 
Gregory s teaching is most distinctive. His chapter on 

1 Trapa TWOS yevvaTai KCLI TTOLOV yiveTai fyov. 

C. 39, imrjTTOTe \ddri TTJ eXXtrret (fiixrei xai deo/mtvy TOV dyaOvvovTOS eavrbv 
..~tuv. 3 C. 35. 

4 Toaovrov fj.L/j.ov/uLda TTJS vTrepexovarjs dwd/j-eus, o<rov %wpet r}/j.&v i) 
TTJS 0ucrews, ibid. 

7 ibid. On the /cd#ap<m of souls see antea. 


the subject marks an epoch in the history of the doctrine 
of the Eucharist in the Eastern Church. The frequency 
of its occurrence among patristic selections in later 
manuscripts, and the use made of it by John of Da 
mascus, Euthymius Zigabenus, and the author of the 
dialogue Theoriani disputatio cum Ncrsete shows the 
importance assigned to it. 

Gregory begins 1 by stating the distinction between 
Baptism and the Eucharist. In Baptism the soul is 
knit to Christ through faith. But the body needs no 
less than the soul to be brought into union with its 
Saviour, and the Eucharist is specially intended for the 
body. This is the significance of the bodily participa 
tion of the Eucharistic food, which must be eaten, in 
order that the communicant s body may be transformed 
into the nature of the immortal Body of Christ. We 
notice here the same method of treatment which has 
characterized Gregory s doctrine of redemption 2 . In 
thus insisting on the effect of the Eucharist upon the 
body he is using language which undoubtedly finds 
parallels in earlier Fathers 3 and which asserts an im 
portant principle, i.e. that the whole man shares in the 
healing and life-giving work of grace. But his one 
sided treatment has the effect of seeming to lower the 
Eucharistic gift to a mere principle of life for the 
body. At the same time, however, he insists on the im 
portance of faith in the recipient 4 . 

A second feature of his teaching is his clear assertion 
of the fact that the consecration of the elements is 
effected by the prayer of consecration. It is by the 

1 c. 37. 2 See antea, pp. xxvii, xxviii. 3 See reff. in notes. 

4 E.g. the phrases : rcus Tocraurcus r&v TTUJT&IV (jLvpiaai ev & <rois ij Trtcrrts 
e<TTi Tracrt rots 7re7ri<rTeu/c6(n rrj olKovo/J.i<jt. rrjs xdptros rots (rw^acrt -T&V 

C 2 


power of the blessing 1 that the Word transforms the 
nature of the visible elements to the immortal Body 
of Christ. Thus the change effected is, according to 
Gregory s view, an objective change. 

A more difficult question is the relation in which, 
according to Gregory s teaching, the consecrated ele 
ments of bread and wine stand towards the Body and 
Blood of Christ, and the exact nature of the change 
which he regards them as having undergone by conse 
cration. From the days of the Paris editor, Fronto 
Ducaeus, Gregory s words have been used to support 
the Western doctrine of Transubstantiatioir. The ques 
tion which Gregory sets himself to answer in his chapter 
on the Eucharist is as follows. How can the one Body 
of Christ, while continually distributed to multitudes 
of believers, become in its entirety the possession of 
each through the portion received, and yet remain an 
undivided whole? In order to answer this question he 
makes use of an analogy derived from the process of 
nutrition. Bread and wine are potentially flesh and 
blood, since they become such by the process of diges 
tion. In the case of Christ s earthly Body bread and 
wine became in this way His Body and His Blood, 
while that Body, whose substance was from bread and 
thus in a manner was bread, was consecrated by the in 
habitation of God the Word. So now in the Eucharist 
the bread and wine, which are consecrated by the Word, 
become the Body of the \Vord, no longer by eating, 
as in His earthly life, but immediately. The purpose 
of Gregory s illustration is to compare the relation in 

1 T V T ?)s fvXoyias dvi>d/j.L (c. ^ifm-}- On the question of what is meant 
by the evXoyia, and the use which Gr. makes of the words of institution, 
see notes. 

2 See reff. in notes. 


which bread and wine stand to the person of Christ 
in the Eucharist with that which the bread eaten by 
Him while on earth had to His earthly Body. The 
change in both cases is a change of relation. His 
language suggests a real change 1 , but does not indicate 
the exact manner of the change. In view of the use 
which has been made of Gregory s language, and the 
ambiguity which attaches to such words as nature/ 
form, change/ it is important to grasp clearly the 
conceptions which underlie the terms employed by him 
in his illustration from the process of digestion. Gregory 
is availing himself of ideas upon the body s flux and 
the relation of its elements to its form/ which he 
has treated of at length elsewhere-. In the background 
of his thought there is a perfectly consistent theory of 
eZSo? and aro^eta, and the terms which he employs 
are correctly used and implicitly involve such a theory, 
even though they do not explicitly state it. He is 
thinking of the change effected when the constituent 
elements (o-rot^eta) of bread and wine are, in the pro 
cess of digestion, rearranged under a new form (elSo?), 
so that they acquire the properties of body/ With 
this idea his use of the words eZSo?, Averts, /jLeraTroieio-Qat 5 
is perfectly consistent. The elements of bread and 

1 Gr. s language goes beyond that of Theodoret Dial. i p. 25 (Schulze) 
ov TT]v <f>vcnv [jieTafiaX&v, ctAXo. TT)V x. ( ^f ( - v T V (f>v<rei TrpocrTedetKibs. But the 
word 0i5(rts is here used in a different sense from that in which Gr. uses it, 
as is shown by the same writer s statement in Dial, ii p. 126 (Schulze), 
Ovdf yap /Liera rbv ayia<rjuL6i> TO. fj-variKa ff6/j.So\a TTJS olKclas ^t crraTcu 0iVews 
fitvet yap tiri rrjs Trpor^pas overlap /cat TOV cr^Tj/xaros Kal rov ciSous, nal opard 
eanv xai aTTTa ola /cai irpbrepov rjv. 

2 On the flux of the body see Or. Cat. c. 16 and the reff. in notes. On 
the relation of the (rroixa of the body to its elSos see de Horn. Op. c. 27. 

3 See notes on these words and on /j-eraaToixfi-ovv in c. 37, and esp. the 
discussion of the relation of e!5os, oroi^em and </W<TIS in the note on eZSos. 


wine are brought into a new relation and acquire fresh 
qualities. Similarly in the Eucharist there is a change 
of the bread and wine, which acquire by their new 
relation to the person of Christ the properties of His 
Body and Blood. Harnack accordingly is right in his 
statement 1 that Gregory teaches a qualitative unity 
between the bread and wine and the Body and Blood 
of Christ. Thus it is unjustifiable to argue- that the 
words fjieraTroiela-Oai and fjLeracrToi^eiovv involve the idea 
of a change of substance, or a change of the elements 
(aroL^eta) or constituent parts of the bread and wine. 
Gregory s language points to a change of form only. 
He does not teach, as do the later schoolmen, a change 
both of material and form 3 . 

The Western doctrine of Transubstantiation, to 
which Gregory s language has been supposed to ap 
proximate, moves in a completely different circle of 
ideas, and is an attempt to explain the manner of the 
change by the help of the scholastic distinction of 
substantia and accidentia. 

On the other hand Gregory s language must not be 
minimized 4 by comparing it with what he says in the 

1 Hist, of Dogma (Eng. tr.) iv p. 296. 

2 As is done e.g. by the writer in the Dublin Review quoted by Pusey 
Real Presence pp. 166, 167, and by Hilt des hi. Gr. von Nyssa I, e lire voni 
Menschen p. 208. The latter says that Gr. teaches eine vollige und 
wirkliche direkte Umwandlung der Substanz des Erodes in den Leib, and 
he maintains that expressions like /j-fTairoieiadat and per aaToixei-ovi> exclude 
any other supposition. He renders, quite unjustifiably, the concluding 
words of c. 37, durch die Kraft des Segens in jenen seinen Leib das 
Wesen der Gestalten verwandelt habe, and says, Hier haben wir ganz 
klar die Wesensverwandlung des Brodes und Weines, \vie auch die 
Hervorhebung, dass von Brod und Wein nur noch die Gestalten (rd 
<j)aivo/jiei a) iibrig bleiben, da ihr Wesen jetzt der Leib Christi ist. 

3 Cp. Harnack Hist, of Dogma (Eng. tr.) vi p. 237. 

4 As Neander e.g. does, Ch. Hist. (ed. Bohn) iv 438. 


in Baptismum C/tristi 1 . In that work he is simply 
adducing instances in which natural things, when taken 
into sacred uses, acquire a heightened efficacy, like that 
of the water in baptism. He illustrates his meaning 
by reference to the consecration of stone to be an altar, 
of oil for the purpose of chrism, of a man to be a priest 
in ordination, and of bread to be the Body of Christ. 
But his argument does not require us to assume that 
he understood each of these changes to be identical in 

In his assertion of the vital character of the change 
effected in the elements by consecration it may be 
doubted whether Gregory s language intentionally goes 
beyond that of Cyril of Jerusalem and Chrysostom 2 . 
It finds perhaps its closest parallel in the language of 
the de Mysteriis (ascribed to S. Ambrose). 

Gregory s treatment of the question, however, gave 
a direction to the Eucharistic doctrine of the Eastern 
Church which finds its most complete expression in 
John of Damascus 3 . He starts from Gregory s language 
on the subject, and, like him, illustrates the change in 
the elements by the transformation of food in our bodies 
through digestion. But in several important respects he 
advances beyond Gregory s teaching. Thus he teaches 
the complete identity of the consecrated elements with 
the Body and Blood of Christ 4 . Gregory s illustration, 

1 p. 581 (Migne). 

2 On the use of the words ^eraTrotetV, /*eTan06 ai, fj-ediffrdvai, 

see notes on c. 37. On the similar use by other patristic writers 
of /merafiaXXeiv, fj-eTappvO/j-ifciv, [MeTaaKevd^fiif, transfigurare, see Pusey 
Real Presence pp. 162 ff. 

3 de Fid. Ortk. iv 13. 

4 ibid. OVK ?<TTi TVTTOS 6 ftpros /cat 6 olvos TOV trw/otaros /cat ai ^uaros TOV 
XptcrroO (/UTJ ytvoiro), dXX O.VTO TO crw/xa TOV Kvpiov Tedew^vov : ibid, /cat 
OVK etVt dvo, d\\ v /cat TO O.VTO. 


on the other hand, is offered tentatively 1 , and he has no 
intention of denying that the elements still exist in their 
natural substances after consecration. John of Damascus 
further goes beyond Gregory in asserting the identity 
of the Eucharistic with the historical body of Christ, 
a question which Gregory does not discuss. But the 
statement of the former that the Body of Christ does 
not descend from Heaven, but the bread and wine are 
changed into the Body and Blood of God 2 , accords with 
Gregory s idea of an assumption of the elements into the 
Body of the Word. From the points of contact between 
the two writers it will be seen that Gregory s teaching 
has had considerable influence upon that of John of 
Damascus 3 . 

The above discussion of the points handled in the 
Oratio CatccJietica, while it serves the purpose of showing 
Gregory s indebtedness to earlier Fathers, also illus 
trates his individuality and independence. He is never 
a mere copyist, but while adopting the thoughts of 
others he makes them his own, and frequently gives 
to them an original turn. It is this originality which 
gives to the Oratio Catechetica its peculiar character, 
and makes it one of the most interesting treatises of 
the fourth century. 

1 TO.XO. Toivvv tyyvs TOV et /c6ros \6yov yi.v6fj.e6a. 

2 ou% OTL TO ava\T](f>dei> ffu>/j.a e ovpavov KarepxtTai, d\\ OTL avrbs 6 
apros Kal olvos /j-eTcnroiovvTcu els crcDytia KCU CLL/ACL 6eov. 

3 The doctrine of John of Damascus became the recognized doctrine of 
the Eastern Church, as expressed in the Second Council of Nicaea in 787. 
The term /ieroutriWis was first adopted under Roman influence in the 
seventeenth century, and does not appear to have gained universal accept 
ance in the East. 

INTR OD UC TION X 1 i i i 


The earliest printed edition of the Greek text of 
Gregory s works was preceded by several Latin versions 
of separate or collected treatises. Among these there 
appeared a version of the Oratio Catechctica, made by 
P. Morel of Tours, and published at Paris in 1568. 
A few years later, in 1573, there appeared at Paris an 
edition of several treatises, including the Oratio Cate- 
cJietica, in a Latin version made by Gentianus Hervetus, 
Canon of Rheims. The Greek text, accompanied by 
a Latin version, was printed for the first time in the 
Paris edition of 1615 under the editorship of the Jesuit, 
Fronto Ducaeus. The work was in two volumes and 
the Oratio Catechetica occupies pp. 475 542 of the 
second volume. In 1638 appeared a second edition, 
published at Paris by Morel. This latter work was 
a reprint of the edition of 1615 with the addition of 
Gretser s Appendix, which had been published in 1618. 
It consisted of three volumes, the Or. Cat. being found 
in vol. iii, pp. 43 110. The work was done in 
a careless and mechanical manner, as Dr Loofs has 
pointed out (Hauck Realencyklop. vii 147). The Latin 
version in these editions is based upon that of Gentianus 
Hervetus, but has been subjected to revision. In the 
notes of Fronto Ducaeus upon the Oratio Catechetica 
he mentions three MSS employed by him in his work 
as editor : 

1. A MS supplied by Dn J. Vulcobius. 

2. A MS supplied by F. Morel, Regius Professor. 

3. A MS from the Royal Library. 

The readings of the last two MSS, as quoted by 
Ducaeus, exhibit a superior character to those of the 


first, but the text presented in these editions is very 
corrupt, and is disfigured by a series of lacunae (see 

The text of the Oratio Catechetica contained in 
Migne (P. G. xlv) is a reprint of the edition of 1638. 
The only attempt that has been made since the days 
of the Paris editors to produce a critical text of the 
Oratio Catechetica is that of Krabinger, whose edition 
was published at Munich in 1838. He made use of 
three MSS, which, though of late date, exhibit a far 
purer text than that contained in the Paris editions. 
He also used the help afforded by some fragments of 
the Or. Cat. contained in three MSS of the Panoplia 
Dogmatica of Euthymius Zigabenus. With these re 
sources he was able to fill up the lacunae exhibited in 
the common text and to remove many of the corruptions 
which had hitherto disfigured it. Krabinger s critical 
work was of great value, though a wider examination 
of MSS, and, above all, a study of their history, would 
have corrected many of his conclusions. Unfortunately 
his text is disfigured by some bad misprints. 

The amount of material available for a reconstruc 
tion of the text of the Or. Cat. is considerable. The 
MSS which have been either collated in full or examined 
for the present edition are as follows : 

= Cbd. Monac. 23. Royal Library, Munich. Saec. xvi. chart. 

415 foil. It is a folio MS and the Or. Cat. is contained in 

foil. 107 145. See Hardt, Catalogus Codd. MSS. Graec. 

Bibl. Reg. Bavaricae torn, i p. 105. It is quoted by Krabinger 

as A, and by Forbes, in the preface to his text of the Apologia 

in Hexaemeron (torn, i fasc. i p. i), as a. 
= Cod. Monac. 84. Royal Library, Munich. Saec. xvi. chart. 

476 foil. In folio size. The Or. Cat. is contained in foil. 

138 vo 170. See Hardt, op. cit. torn, i p. 477. [Krab. B.] 
-=Cod. Monac. 538. Royal Library, Munich. Saec. xvi. chart. 

125 foil. In quarto size. The Or. Cat. is contained in foil. 

i 26. The MS was written for the use of David Hoeschel 


by Maximus Margunius, Bishop of Cythera, about 1590, and 
the margin contains the conjectural emendations of the latter. 
See Hardt, op. tit. torn, v p. 348. It was formerly at Augs 
burg and appears in Reiser s catalogue (Index MSS. Bibl. 
Augustanae) as No. 77. [Krab. C] 

d= Trinity College, Cambridge, B. 9. i. membr. 213 foil. In folio 
size (144 x 10^- in.), written in a beautiful hand. It consists of 
two parts, which are of various dates : 

(i) A life of St Alexius, of the eleventh century. 
(ii) Various works of St Gregory of Nyssa and Anastasius, 
of the twelfth century. 

It is one of the MSS brought by Bentley from the monastery 
of Pantocrator, JVIt Athos. The Or. Cat. is contained in foil. 
130 vo 162 vo. 

<? = Codex Regius. Paris, Bibl. Nat. Gr. 1268 (Omont 294). 
Saec. XII. membr. 304 foil. Size of page 7^x5! in. It con 
tains works by Justin, Basil, Gregory of Nyssa, and others. 
M. Omont informs me that in the fifteenth or sixteenth century 
it belonged to a Greek monastery, from which also came 
several other volumes that are found in different libraries of 
the West. On fol. 6 there is the ex-libris: TJ /3//3Xos- UVTTJ TOV 
TaXrja-iov Tre Xei. The MS was acquired in the sixteenth century 
by Antonius Eparchus, who on one of the covering leaves has 
written with his own hand a table of contents, concluding with 
the following ex-libris, also by his hand: Kr?//za Arrcoriou TOV 
o 8f8(OKfv i.s (JTj/jiflov fv^apicTTias TU> eVi(^)ni/ecrruT<u 
rat Kparato) fiacriXel KeXrcor. It has successively 
borne the numbers CIDCCCCLXX, 1605, and 2879, m the cata 
logues of the King s Library, drawn up by Rigault, Dupuy and 
Cldment in the seventeenth century. The Or. Cat. is contained 
in foil. 152 vo 1 88 vo. [Forbes g.~\ 

/= British Museum, Add. 22509. Saec. X. or XI. membr. 93 foil. It 
was presented to the Library by Sir G. C. Lewis in 1858. 
It contains various works of Gregory of Nyssa and the de 
Spiritu Sancto of Basil. The Or. Cat. is contained in foil, 
i 51 vo. The opening sentences are missing, the first words 
being ov yap 1 a>v. There are also two leaves missing in 
c. 37- 

-=Cod. Cromw. ix. Bodleian Library, Oxford. Saec. xm. et 
XII. ineuntis (Coxe). membr. 342 foil. It is in quarto size. 
At the end there is the inscription in a later hand : TO napov 
j3i(3\iov p.ov ((TTiv TOV MaviKai rov Mt^aijX, and in the margin 
of p. 682 there is a note stating that the owner was presented 
with the book trap a TOV.../JLOV 8(nroTov olnov/JifviKOv TraTpidp^ov 
Kvpt XXou. It contains various works of Gregory, including the 
Or. Cat. (foil, i 71). It is mutilated at the beginning, the 
opening words being <a\ TO ^ duxpepetv, which occur in 


the latter part of c. i. There is another large gap in 
cc. 32 33. The MS contains many corrections made by 
the original hand, and taken from a MS whose readings 
frequently support the text of/! Another feature of this MS 
is the peculiar system of chapters, which number 21 instead 
of 40 and have in consequence distinct headings from those 
found in other MSS. 

h=- Imperial Library, Vienna. Gr. suppl. 10 (Kollarii suppl. xviii, 
Fabncius, IX. 1 12). Saec. XV. chart. 413 foil. It is in folio size, 
and was presented, as the inscription states, to the Emperor 
Charles VI. in 1723, by Apostolo Zeno, his court poet and 
historiographer. The Or. Cat. is contained in foil. 127 172. 

/= Paris, Bibl. Nat. Gr. 587 (Omont 137). Saec. xv xvi. chart. 
280 foil. In folio size. The Or. Cat. is contained in foil. 
I 40. 

= Cod. Barocc. CCXII. Bodleian Library, Oxford. Saec. XVI. 
chart. 410 foil. In quarto size. The Or. Cat. begins fol. 336. 

/= British Museum, Royal 16 D I. Saec. xin. memhr. 479 foil. 
Size of page 9^ in. x6|in. The MS contains the inscription 
CK TU>V "M[rjrpo(j)dvovs ipop.ova%ov TOV KptToirovXov. Metrophanes 
Critopulus was sent to England by Cyril Lucar in 1616. It 
contains various works of Gregory, including the Or. Cat. 
(foil. 283 vo 309). The original text has been subjected to 
many corrections and erasures by a later scribe, who had 
access to a MS containing a much purer type of text. 
[Forbes c.] 

m = British Museum, Royal 16 D xi. Saec. xiv. chart. 372 foil. 
Size of page I2^x 8^ in. It contains various works of Gregory, 
including the Or. Cat. (foil. 4095 vo). It is the only MS in 
the present list which contains the spurious addition to c. 40 
found in the Paris editions. 

;/ = Vatican Library, Pii ii, cod. gr. 4. Saec. XI. membr. 316 foil. 
In folio. Stevenson says of it (Codices MSS. Gr. regin. Snec. 
et Pii P.P. ii BibL Vaticanae, p. 134): In imo margine 
folii primi et ultimi legitur TOV rponaiocpupov, i.e. monasterii 
S. Georgii. Olim S. Silvestri. It contains 31 works of 
Gregory, including the Or. Cat. (foil. 151 197), and is written 
in a beautiful hand. 

P = Codex Venetus. Venice. Bibl. Marciana, Gr. 67. Saec. XL 
(circiter, Zanetti, p. 45). membr. 432 foil. In quarto size. It 
contains various works of Gregory. The Or. Cat. is found 
foil. 338 vo 366. [Forbes /;.] 

q = Codex Vaticanus. Rome. Vat. Gr. 423. Saec. X. A fragment 
of c. 10 is contained in foil. 36 vo 37. 

r= Codex Coislinianus. Paris. Coisl. cxx olim CCIX (Montfaucon, 
p. 193). Saec. X. Contains the same fragment as q in fol. 

22 22 VO. 


The following MSS of the Panoplia Dogmatica of 
Euthymius Zigabenus contain considerable fragments 
of the Or. Cat. 

i=Cod. Monac. 55. Munich. Saec. xvi. [Krab. Euth. i.] 

2 = Cod. Monac. 367. Munich (formerly at Augsburg = Reiser 

No. 10). Saec. xni. [Krab. Euth. 2.] 

3 = Cod. Monac. 551. Munich (formerly at Augsburg = Reiser 

No. 55). Saec. XV. [Krab. Euth.] 
4= Paris, Bibl. Nat. Gr. 1230 (Omont 171). Saec. xni. 
5 = Paris, Bibl. Nat. Gr. 1231 (Omont 170). Saec. xni. 
6= Imperial Library, Vienna, Gr. 76 (Nessel). Saec. XII. 
7 = Imperial Library, Vienna, Gr. 40 (Nessel). Saec. XV. 

The above list does not contain all the extant MSS 
of the Oratio CatecJietica, but it includes the earliest 
which are known. In addition to the above MSS the 
Vatican Library contains three MSS of the thirteenth 
century, one of the fourteenth, two of the fifteenth, and 
three of the sixteenth. The Laurentian Library at 
Florence contains a MS of the fourteenth century, and 
the National Library at Turin one of the fifteenth, 
and another of the sixteenth century. The treatise is 
also contained in one or more MSS of the fifteenth or 
sixteenth century in the National Library at Paris. 
But most of these are too late to be of much service. 

The quotations of later patristic writers, with the 
exception of those found in Euthymius Zigabenus, do 
not add much to our knowledge of the text. There 
are a few brief quotations, extending only to a few lines, 
in the Dialogues of Theodoret 1 . The greater part of 
c. 37 is reproduced in Theoriani disputatio cum Nersete, 
printed in Mai Script. Vctt. vi 366 fif., the text of which 
is much purer than that of the Paris editors. There is 
also a short extract from c. 10 in the treatise of Leontius 

1 See notes on cc. 10, 16, 32. 


of Byzantium c. Nestor, et Eutych. Bk iii. See Galland 
Bibl. Vet. Pair, xiii p. 699. In the work de S. Trinitate, 
falsely ascribed to Cyril of Alexandria, and in the de 
Fide Orthodoxa of John of Damascus, there are remi 
niscences of the Prologue and of cc. I and 2, but they 
are of no value for critical purposes. There appear to 
be no extracts from this treatise in the Sacra Parallela 
of St John of Damascus. 

The evidence as to the text afforded by a study of 
the MSS may be briefly summarized as follows 1 . 

The MSS fall into two groups : 

(1) a, d,g, h, n, p, and (as far as their readings have 
been observed) i and k. 

(2) c,f, /, m. 

The two MSS e and b (which is dependent on e) 
contain a mixed text, deriving features from either 
group in turn. 

i. The former of these two groups may be sub 
divided into two smaller groups containing respectively 
a, g, p and //, n. 

The remaining MS d appears to incorporate elements 
from both these divisions. 

In the group a,g,p> a is directly descended from />, 
while^ exhibits a text closely allied to/. 

With the text of the second group, comprising //, , 
the text of the fragments of Gregory preserved in 
Euthymius presents a close affinity. The distinctive 
readings of this group, with one exception 2 , appear to 

1 For a fuller discussion of the text of the Or. Cat. see the present 
writer s article in the Journal of Theological Studies Vol. iii, No. ir, 
pp. 421 ff. 

2 I.e. the words in c. 23, /ecu TT}V TUV /caraSi /ccop dt>dppv<rii>, which have 
apparently fallen out of the other MSS and are preserved only in e h n. 


be due to corruption or revision. The tendency to 
revision is still more marked in the distinctive readings 
of the text of Euthymius. 

2. In the second of the two larger groups mentioned 
above, the text of <r, /, ;;/ is closely allied to that of the 
Paris editions, with which it has in common a number 
of corrupt readings and the same series of lacunae 1 . 
These MSS in fact present a late recension of the text, 
which / exhibits in its earlier and purer form. For 
the purposes of criticism the readings of f or / / are 
alone important, as c and ;;/ are only later and still more 
corrupt forms of the same original text. 

We thus get as our primary authorities for the text : 
in Group I, / and n ; in Group 2, / and /, with which 
the readings of the corrector of g are frequently in 
agreement. Of these two groups the former exhibits 
traces of corruption at some early stage, while the 
readings of the latter show the influence of revision. 
But on the whole the readings of / / commend them 
selves as generally more likely to be genuine. 

In the present edition it has not been thought 
necessary to give the readings of the late MSS a, b, c, 
i, k, in, as they possess no independent value. The MSS 
of Euthymius have been quoted collectively as EutJi.\ 
where they differ as EutJi. i, 2, 3 etc. An asterisk is 
used to denote the first hand of a MS, the figure I to 
denote the corrector s hand, e.g. g*, g* y I*, A For con 
venience the readings of the Paris edition of 1638 have 
been cited as vulg. Sirmond s edition of Theodoret and 
the Roman edition have been quoted respectively as 
Thdrt sirm and Thdrt rom . 

1 For these lacunae see cc. 3, 4, 5, 8 (bis), 9, 29 (app. crit.). 


The following books may be found useful for 
reference : 

Select Writings and Letters of Gregory, Bishop of Nyssa, 
Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers. Ser. ii. vol. 5, 1893. 

Dictionary of Christian Biography, vol. ii, Art. on Gregory of 

Hauck, Realencyklopddie, vol. vii, 1899, Art- on Gregory of 
Nyssa by Dr Loofs. 

Bardenhewer, Patrologie, pp. 272 ff. 

Harnack, History of Dogma, Eng. Tr. vols. iii and iv. 

Tillemont, Memoires pour servir a I Hisioire Ecclcsiastique, 
vol. ix. 

Ceillier, Auteurs Sacres et Ecclesiastiques, vol. viii. 

Oudin, de Script. Eccl., vol. i diss. 4, pp. 584 sq. 

St. P. Heyns, Disputatio historico-theologica de Gregorio 
Nysseno. Lugd. Bat. 1835. 

J. Rupp, Gregors, des Bischofs von Nyssa, Lebcn und Meinungen. 
Leipzig, 1834. 

E. G. M oiler, Gregorii Nysseni doctrinam de hominis natura 
et illustravit et cum Origeniana comparavit E. G. M. Halae, 

I. C. Bergades, De universo et de anima hominis doctrina 
Gregorii Nysseni. Thessalonicae, 1876. 

A. Krampf, Der Urzustand des Menschen nach der Lehre des 
hi. Greg. v. N. Wiirzburg, 1899. 

F. Hilt, Des hi. Greg. v. N. Lehre vom Menschen. Koln, 1890. 
F. Diekamp, Die Gotteslehre des hi. Gregor. von Nyssa. 

Miinster, 1896. 

W. Vollert, Die Lehre Gregors v. N. voui Guten nnd Bosen. 
Leipzig, 1897. 


f () TTJ? Karrj^crea)^ \6yos ava^icalo^ JJLGV ecrrt rot? 
TOV /jLvcmjpiov TTJs 6i)cre/3eta?, co? av 

OVVOLTO rfj TrpoaOrjicr) TWV aw^o^ievwv rj 6K/c\rjcria, TOV 
Kara TTJV SiSa^rji^ Tncrrov \6yov TTJ dfcofj rwv a r rrio Twv 

ov jjbrjv o avros TT}? StSacrKiaXta? T^OTTO? 5 
dpfAO(7i Twv TTpoaiovTwv TO) \oyw, oXXct Kara 

lip. i Verba o TTJS KOLT. usque ad /uLvdoirouas (p. 2,1. 15) deperdita sunt 
in f. Desunt folia nonnulla in g |; 2 fj.vaTr)piov] /3tou vulg || 4 rrj aKorj] 

Prologue. 77/t- importance of cate 
chetical teaching. Variety of method 
is necessary in dealing with the 
different standpoints of heresy and 
unbelief. 77ms in dealing with 
atheism we shall adduce the art and 
wisdom s/iown in the ordering of the 
world as a proof of the existence of 
God. In dealing with polytheists 
we shall urge the perfection of God s 
attributes as a proof of the unity of 

i. TT)S /car. Aoyos] the 
catechetical method of discoursed 
The gen. defines the character of 
X6->os. KarTjxeiV is used of Chris 
tian oral instruction in Lk. i 4, 
Acts xviii 25, i Cor. xiv 19, Gal. 
vi 6. An early example of a 
manual of Christian instruction is 
found in the Didache, of which 
Athanasius says (Fest. Ep. 39) that, 
though not included in the Canon, 
it was appointed for the instruction 

of new converts. Under the in 
fluence of the School of Alexandria 
such instruction developed into a 
philosophical presentation of the 
faith to meet the needs of cultured 
heathen. The present Or. Cat. is 
a manual for catechists who are 
engaged in the instruction of edu 
cated converts. 

2. 7rpoe(TT7;\ 6(ri] those who have 
charge of or the ministers of. 
Cp. Rom. xii 8, i Thess. v 2, 
i Tim. v 17. Similarly Justin M. 
speaks (Apol. i 67) of 6 Tr/aoeo-rws 
in the Christian assembly. 

ib. TOV /AV&T.T. eu<r.] i Tim. iii 16. 
To fJLVffT. is often used alone to de 
note the Christian religion or creed. 

3. trpocrOrjKr) T. au^. ] a remini 
scence of Acts ii 47. 

ib. TOV /card TTJV 5. TT. X.] Tit. i 9. 
H 5i5ax~n is the Apostolic deposit 
of faith. 



ra? TWV prja-Keiwv iacops fjieapfjioeiv rrpocrKei ttai 
TTJV tcartj^rj a i v, vrpo? TOV CLVTOV fiev opwvras TOV \6yov 
oi>x o/JLOLOTpoTTtoS oe rat? Karacncevals (/> efcda-rov 
aXXa/9 V a p vTroX^tyeaiv 6 lov^ai^wv 
5 Trpoei\ri7rTai /cal o ra> eXTu^zncryaco avt^wv ere/oat?, o re 
Ai o/zoto? /cat o Mai/^aio? fcal 01 Kara Map/ciwva teal 
QvaKevrlvov fcal ItiacriXeiSrjv KOI o XotTro? /card\oyos 
TWV Kara ra? aipeaets 7T\avwfievu>v l&iais e/cao-ro? viro- 
X?^ecrt r rrpoi\.rip.[jLvoi avayrcaiav TTOLOVCTL TTJV TT^O? ras" 
10 e/ceivcov VTrovoias fj.d^v Kara yap TO eZSo? r?}? voaov xai 

TOP TpoTTOv TT? tpaTreias Trpoo-apfJioaTeov. ov rot? aurot? 
TOV r/ EXX?;z O9 T^ Tro\vd^iav KCU TOV 


KaTa ra? alpeae^ TreTrXa^fteVot? dvaTpe^reis ra? 
s Trepl TWV ouy/jbaTcov fJivOoTroiias ov yap BC 

i om /cat 1 vulg |j 3 om e0 e:acrrou 1 vulg |i 4 ^piafj.evov^ efl vulg || 
5 o TW e\X.] om o vulg || 9 irpoet.X rj/uL/JLei os d j ; rr ^epaTretas] iarpetas I 1 I 1 
15 ou 7ap] incipit f 

^. /caracr^euats] Krabinger rightly throughout the present book. See 

gives the sense non eod em modo in esp. his treatment of the origin of 

singulis probando et confirmando. evil in cc. 5 8, his defence of 

KarcKT/ceuTj a constructive argu- human generation in c. 28, and his 

ment, a proof. teaching upon the air a ratm in 

5. 7r/3oet\7/7rrat] /V pre-possessed c. 26. 

with." 1 13. fj.ovoyevTJ deov] John i 1 8. See 

ib. av^<j)v~\ //^ tJiat is born and Hort s Dissertation on ij.ovoyevrjs 

bred in Hellenism. Cp. de fiapt. debs in Scripture and tradition. 

p. 425 (Migne) ot rats a/ca^apcrtats The phrase /j.ovoyei Tjs debs is found 

(rvwi>res. repeatedly in Athanasius, and was 

6. Av6fj.oi.os] i.e. the extreme also used by Basil. Even Anus 
Arian position, which Gregory at- and Eunomius employed it, giving 
tacks in his work against Eunomius. to it, of course, their own interpre- 
The starting-point of Eunomius tation. For Gr. s use of the phrase 
theology was the idea that the Divine see c. 39, and cp. Quod non sint 
Being is incapable of movement or trcs dii, pp. 129, 132 (Migne); dc 
self-communication, and that the Fide, pp. 136, 137 (Migne). 

being (ovcria) must be distinguished ib. ovde airb T. av.\ Nor ivill 

from the energy (evepyeLa.) of God. you, in the case of those who have 

It was by the latter that all things gone astray among heresies, overthrow 

were called into being. by the same arguments in each case 

ib. Mac t^atcs] whose dualistic their deluded romances concerning 

teaching Gr. has in view continually their doctrines. 


wi> av Tfc? e7ravop6a>aai,To TOP ^aj3e\\iov, 8id TWV 
a)(pe\i](7ei Kal TOV AvojAOiov, ouSe TJ TT/OO? TOV 
Kal TOP lovBaiov ovivrjO iv, a\\a %/o^, 
tU TrpoXf/A/rei? TCOV dvOpdoirwv /3A,e- 
TTCLV Kal Kara TTJV eyKei/AevTjv e/cdaTM irKdv^v iroLelaOau 5 
TOV \6<yov, dp%a$ Tivas Kal TrpOTa&ets ev\o r yov$ e<f) e/cdaTrjs 
7rpo/3aX\6/jii>ov, &)? av &ia T&V Trap a/z^ore- 
6/jiO\o<yov/Jiev(j0v K/ca\v(f)6i^ KaTa TO dKo\ov6ov rj 
d\7J0eia. OVKOVV o~rav TT/OO? Tiva TWV e^KrjVL^ovTwv rj 
SiaXe^LS 77, /caXw? av e%ot, TavTr/v TroielcrOai TOV \6<yov 10 
Trfv ap%r)V. TTOTepov elvai TO Oelov VTrefaij^ev, r) TO) TWV 
dOewv crv/jL(f)peTai ooyf^aTi ; el p,ev ovv f^rj elvai \e<yoi, e /c 

I eTra.vopdwffoi.TO dnp |i 4 vjro\ri\{/eis 1 vulg || 9 aX^^eta] dcavoia vulg || 
^] exstant seqcj in euth 12456 jj 10 ravr^v apx- TT. r. X. dhnp* euth 

i. 2a/3A\toj/] used, as often, 
for an adjective, Sabellian. Sabel- 
lius maintained that the three per 
sonal names, father, Son, and 
Holy Spirit, represent mere phases 
and energies of One Divine Being. 
But, beyond the fact that he denied 
the essential Trinity and identified 
the Father and the Son, there is 
considerable obscurity about his 
teaching. Athanasius (Or. c. Ar. 
iv 25) attributes to him the state 
ment : wairep focupecreis -)(a.pi<j^.6.r(^v 
eicri, TO 5e ai ro Trveu/xa, OUTW /cat 


veTcu. 5e els viov Kal Tr^eu/ua, and 
he implies that Marcellus held the 
same view (Or. c. Ar. iv 13). But 
it is probable that Athanasius in 
attacking Marcellus and proving that 
his teaching led to Sabellianism has 
not carefully distinguished the views 
of the two teachers. See Zahn Mar- 
cellns, 1867, pp. 198 sq., Robertson 
N. and P.N. F. vol. iv, p. 431 sq. 

4. Tr/aoXTji/ eis] preconceptions, 1 
almost prejudices, answering to 
above. The Stoics 

distinguished between Trpo\r)\{/eis, 
conceptions built on experience 
without elaborate reasoning, and 
&/fotcu, conceptions reached by the 
consciously applied reason. 

6. dpxds TCVO.S] propounding in 
each discussion certain principles 
and reasonable propositions? 

9. OVKOUIS] In dealing with the 
representatives of Hellenic thought 
the first step is to make sure that 
they recognize the existence of 
God. The next step is to lead them 
to acknowledge the unity of God. 
The section which follows, as far as 
the end of c. 3, is found in Kuthy- 
mius Zig. Pan. Dog/ii. pt i, tit. r, 
pp. 33 sq. (Migne). 

ib. eXX?7fiC6i TU ] E\\r)i> practi 
cally = heathen as opposed to 
Jew, as in the N.T., e.g. Gal. iii 28. 

12. adcuv} such as the later Aca 
demics. The Epicureans too were 
practical atheists, not denying the 
existence of the gods, but contend 
ing that they took no part in the 
government of the world. 

I 2 


TWV Te^yiKW^ KOL eroc^co? KCLTO, rov KOCT^JLOV 
vwv Trpocra xOrjO eTai Trpos TO &LCL TOVTCOV elvai Tiva 
TTJV eV Tourot? &iaS6iKvv/jivr}v KOI TOV TTCLVTOS 
6fjLO\o f yf)o ai, el $e TO /Jiev eivai yu-r) a/ju<f)i- 
5 /3aXXoi, et? 7T~\.f)0o$ Se 6ewv rat? vjrovoiais K(f>epoiTO, 
TOiavrr) ^prjcrMfAeOa Trpos avTov TTJ drco\ov0ia. TroTepov 
T6\iov 77 eXXtvre? ri<yelTai TO Oelov ; rov 8e Kara TO etVo? 
TYJV TeXeioTrjTa irpocrfJiapTvpovvTos TTJ Geia fyvcrei, TO Sta, 
TTCIVTCOV avTov Twv ev0O)pov/J,evG)v Trj OeoTrjTi Te\iov 
10 dTraiTr/crco/jLev, co? av /JLTJ crv/A/jiiKTov e/c TWV evavTitov 
TO Oelov, ef e XXtTroO? /cal TeXetof. aXX elVe 
Svvafuv, etVe /caTa Tr/t^ ToO dyaOov eirivoiav y 
etVe /caTa TO cro(f)6v T Kol a^OapTov KOL diSiov K.CLI ei 
TL aXXo 0607rp7res voT^a Ty Oewpiq TTpoa-fcei/jievov 
15 ev TcavT\ Tr]v T\iOT7jTa OewpelaOai irepl Tr]V Oeiav 

3 6ta5et/c.] SeiKVVfj.ev tjv ehn euth || 4 afj.(f>ij3a\oL fh || 5 irXydw d || 
^ewv] dfOTfjTwv fl vulg |! 6 xP r l a f JLe ^ a P euth j| 10 a.ira.i.r^a ofj.ev p euth 
-o/xat 1 -w/^at f 12 eTni otaj ] evvoia efl || 14 TI^T; ef 

i. re% t/ca5s /c. cro0ws] Tex 17 - Eunomius second book Gr. dis- 

refers to the finished and artistic cusses this word. Eunomius had 

skill displayed in individual parts disparaged iirivoia. on the ground 

of Creation, while cro0cos refers to that the faculty denoted by it was 

the wise adaptation of means to untrustworthy and created monstro- 

ends. sities. He thus appears to have 

3. dvvafj.i.v] a certain power used it in the sense of fancy. Gr. 

which is plainly manifested in however defends eirlvoLa. and defines 

created things and transcends the it as 0o5os evperiKri rwv dyvoov- 

whole.\ ILVUV, 5ia T&V 7rpoa-X^ v T Ka " L 

5. et s TrX^^os] l>e led astray by a.Ko\ovQwv rrj irpwrrj irepi TO cnrov- 
kis notions to believe in a plurality 8a6/j.ei oi> vorjaei. TO ecfie^TJs e^evpi- 
of gods? aKovaa. It is in his view an in- 

6. aKoAouflip] course of argu- ventive faculty and at the same time 
went? it is more trustworthy than fancy. 

7. rou 5e] And if /ie, as is It is best represented here by 
frobable, testifies to the perfection of imagination or conception. See 
(lit. testifies perfection to) the Divine further on the word Wilson N. and 
Nature, let tts require him to grant P. N. Fathers, vol. v, p. 249. 

that this perfection extends through 13. et TL &\\o] any other thought 

everything that is observed in the worthy of God that might happen 

Deity. to be connected with the subject of our 

12. firivoi.a.v~\ In his answer to contemplation. 



Kara TO ev\oyoi r?}? arco\ov0ias ravrrjs 
TOVTOV Se ooOevTos ov/ceT* av elrj ^jaKeirov TO 
TT}? OLavoias et? TrXijOos Oewv Trpos yiua? OeoTijTo^ Trepi- 
ayayelv ofjLo\oyLav. el yap TO TeXeiov ev Tcavri 80117 Trepl 
TO VTroKei/Jievov 6fjLO\oyelcr0ai, 7ro\\d Be eivai TO, Te\eia 5 
$ia TMV avTwv %apaKTr)pi^6/jieva \eyoi, dvdy/cr] Trdcra evrt 
TWV /jirjoe/jiia jrapaXX-ayfj ^iaK^ivo^vwv a\\ eV rot? 
avTois 0e(opov/jLeva)v rj eVtSet^cu TO LOioi> r;, el /jLySev 
IBia^ovTws KaTdXcLfJipdvoi rj evvoia efi obv TO oiaKplvov 
OVK (TTI, fjir) vTcovoelv TJ]V oidrcpicriv. el yap /jLiJTe Trapd 10 
TO Tr\eov /cat e\aTTOv TTJV Sia(f)opdv l^evpicncoi, SLOTL TTJV 
\dTTd)(7iv 6 Tf/? TeXetoTT/TO? ov TTapaSe^eTat, 7^0709, 
Tr)v Trapd TO %eipoi> Kal TrpOTi/jLOTepov ov yap av 
OeoTijTos viroX.ri ^riv CT^OLTJ ov rj TOV ^eipovos OVK 
Trpocnyyopia fji^Te KaTa TO dp^alov Kal TrpoafyaTov TO 15 
yap /jirj del bv ea) TT)? Trepl TO Oelov evTiv vTro 

3 doOevros] + y/j-iv fl || 9 /cara\a/3ot fl vulg || 13 om TTJV 

euth 126 

+ TtS f TiS 

TTO\1fj\f/lV 1 

i. TO e<r/cefiacr / uei 0f] the thought 
ivhich Jie has dissipated over a 
plurality of gods? 

4. ft yap] The argument of 
Gr. in the following passage is as 
follows. The perfection of God s at- 
tributes prevents us from attributing 
to the Divine Nature any diversity 
or plurality. For such diversity could 
only arise from the differences of 
degree in which the separate entities 
possessed these attributes. Other- 
wise there would be no reason for 
maintaining their distinct and 
separate existence. But such differ- 
ences of degree, involving more 
and less are excluded by the very 
idea of perfection. For if he 
were to admit tJiat lie acknowledges 
absolute perfection in the being of 
whom we speak, but were to maintain 
that there are many of these perfect 
entities, marked by the same charac- 


5. TO VTroKei/j.evoi ] here = the 
subect matter of our discourse. 
eirl rCiv /ur?5.] 


6. eirl rCiv /ur?5.] /// the case 
of tilings which arc distinguished by 
no variation, but are observed to 
possess tJie same attributes? 

8. et i*.t}tv~\ if thought grasped 
nothing in the ivay of peculiarity in 
beings between whom no distingitish- 
ing mark exists, he should cease to 
assume such distinction. 

13. ov yap] a parenthesis. The 
main sentence is resumed after Trpocr- 
rjyopia, and again broken by an- 
other parenthesis rb yap^.v-rroXr)- 

14. VTTO\^LV ffx^] Some MSS 
insert ns, but the subject is the an- 
tecedent of of . For a being, with 
refere>ice to whom the term " worse" 
is not excluded, could no longer be 
supposed to be God? 


et9 KOI 6 ai)ro9 TT}? OeoTrjTos Xo<y09, 
TT;TO? eV ouSei^t /cara TO eiikoyov evpia/cofj-evrj^, dvdyfcrf 
Tracra Trpo? /iua? Oeorrjro^ 6/jLO\oyiav o~vv&\i^r]vai rrfv 
7T67r\avriijLevriv rrepl TOV 7r\rj0ovs TU>V Oewv fyavraaiav. 
5 el yap TO dyaOov /cat TO SL/CCILOV, TO Te aoffrov KOI TO 
Svvarbv a)cravTO)9 Xeyoiro, r; Te d^Oapcria Kol rj ruStoT?;? 
/cat Trdaa evae/Sr)^ Sidvoia /card rov avrov 6/jLO\oyoiTo 
rpoTrov, 7rd(rr)<$ Kara Trdvra \6yov Stafyopds vtfiaipovfjLevTjs 

(TVVV(f)ai,pLTai, KCLT dvdjKlJP TO TWV OtWV 7rX7}^09 djTO TOV 
IO $6<yfjLaTOS, T^9 Sid TraVTWV TaVTOTTJTOS 6/9 TO 6V TT)V TTitTTlV 

1. AXX 67rei&r) Kal o T^? ei)<reySeta? Xoyo? oZSe 

cu5- d 

deorijTos dehnp euth il 6 7; ai5tor?;s] om 

77 d euth 5 vulg 

1 . dXX ets] but the idea of 
Godhead is one and the same, no 

particularity, naturally enough, 
being discovered in any one re- 

2. dvdyKf)] the mistaken fancy 
of a plurality of gods cannot help 
being reduced to confess that Deity 

is one. 

6. ucravTws Xeyoiro] were 
ascribed to it in an equal degree. 
The argument of this passage is re 
produced, and the language closely 
followed in Ps. -Cyril de Trin. 4 
and also in lo. Damasc.c/t /7</. Orth. 
i =.. 


1. In refuting polytheism, hcnu- 
ever, we must defend our argument 
against Judaism. It will be granted 
that Deity lias a Logos ; otherwise 
God would be witfiout reason (&\oyos). 
Biit this Logos corresponds to the 
nature of God, and as God s nature 
is infinitely higher than that of man, 
so must tJie Logos of God be propor 
tionately higher. Man is mortal 
and his logos transitory. In God 
the Logos corresponds to His nature 
and is eternal and self-subsistent. 
At the same time the Logos is living 
and does not s/iare life, but possesses 
it absolutely. This further involves 
the possession of will and the power 
to ejfect what He wills. The will of 

the Logos is directed to good ends, for 
goodness is an attribute of God. TJie 
Universe exhibits the wisdom, power, 
and goodness of tlie Logos. TJie 
Logos, moreover, is distinct from Him 
Whose Logos He is. T/ius is our 
position defined against the errors 
alike of Hellenism and Judaism. 
The Logos is living and active, and 
yet is one in nature and attributes 
with the Father Jrom Whom He is 

12. 6 rrjs eiV.] the doctrine of 
our religion. 

ib. ol8e] Kr. renders solet, but 
it may mean simply is able to 


VTroaTacrewv ev rfj evorrjTi, TT}? (f)V(7(0s /3\.e7Tiv, 
o>9 av yitr) TTJ jrpos TOU? EA.X?7/ a9 l^(i%y irpos TOV 
iQ-fjiov r)ulv o A.6<yo< vTreve^OeLTj, Trd\iv irpocnjicei 
TLJ l Te^viKrj KOI Tr)i> Trepl TOVTO TrXdvrjv 7ravop0a)crao-0ai. 
ov& jap rot? efw TOV tca@ fyyiia? Soy/juaros aXoyov elvai TO 5 
Oeiov v7rei\riTrTai TOVTO 8e Trap* etceivwv o 
ifcavws &iap@pa)(Ti TOV r)fjiTpov \6yov. 6 y(ip 6 
fjir] a\oyov elvai TOV 6eov TrdvTco? \6yov e^eiv TOV p^rf 
aXoyov crvyfcaTaOijcreTai. aXXa fjurjv teal 6 dvOpo^TTLvo^ 

\eyeTai \oyos. OVKOVV el \>yoi /caO 6yu.otor^ra 10 

1. 3 V7rfVf.xdr)O Ta.L e || 7 diopdwet d 

i. uTrocrrdcrewJ ] For a full dis 
cussion of the history of this word 
see Bethune-Baker 71-jcts and 
Studies, vol. vii, no. i, p. 75. In 
its earlier sense it was synonymous 
with oiVt a, as in the anathema of 
the Xicene Creed (e erepas v-jroard- 
crews 7} ovaias). Both Basil and Gr. 
occasionally employ it in this earlier 
sense. Cp. infra c. 4 sub fin. \oyoi> 
ev ovcfiq. /cat iri>u/j.a iv viroardfffi.. 
The later formula however to which 
currency was given by the teaching 
of the Cappadocians was fj.ia ovala 
ev rpLcriv inroffTaaecnv. For the 
distinction of viroaraaLs and ovvia. 
according to this view cp. Basil Ep. 
ccxxxvi 6 ovcria de /cat UTrocrracrts 
To.vrt]v ?x L T V 5ta0opdj/ rjv ^X L 
TO KOLVOV irpbs TO KaQ fKaarov : and 
still more precisely in Ep. xxxviii 
3 rovro ovv tariv i] vTroaraffis, oi x 
rj doptcrros rijs oi crtas Zvvoia, /u,7/5e- 
yu.tai tK TTJS KoivoTrjros rov ff-rjfJ.a.LVo- 
fj-fvov araffiv eupiffKovtra, d\\ i] TO 
KOLVOV re /cat aTrfpiypaTrrov (i> ry 

TiVl TT pdy /J.OLT L 5t(i rdoV TTL(pa.LVOIJ.fV<jJV 

Trapurrukra A at Trepiypd- 
It thus denotes a par 
ticular centre of conscious being. 
As Dr Moberly {Atonement and 
Personality, p. 158 sq.) has pointed 
out, the word is free from many of 
the associations which have gathered 
round the word person in its later 

Western sense. 

ib. 0i/<reu;s] It is not necessary to 
assume that <pvais is here used 
loosely in the sense of oucria. The 
latter word denotes being, while 
(pvais denotes the quality of such 
being, and has reference to the 
attributes. But in many cases where 
the writer might have used ovaia, 
his thought is sufficiently expressed 
by <pi>ffis. 

3. VTrevexdei-T]] our argument 
may not lapse into Judaism, i.e. 
a barren monotheism, admitting of 
no distinction in the Divine Being. 

ib. SiacrroAT? r. r.] a skilful 
distinction, such as is involved in 
the Std/cpi(m VTT. referred to above. 

5. rots w] The most conspicuous 
example is Philo. But the belief in 
a Word as a mediating influence 
was not confined to Alexandria. In 
Palestine it affected the language of 
the Targums. 

ib. &\oyoi>] implies the absence 
of reason as well as word. 

7. Staptfpwcrei] will make our 
argument sufficiently clear. 

i o. OVKOVV} If then he were to say 
that he formed his idea of the IVord 
of God exactly on the analogy of 
our human counterparts, he will 
thus be led on to a higher notion, 
With this illustration from the hu 
man \6yos cp Tert. adv. Prax. c.5. 


TWV Trap rjfjLLV Kal TOV TOV Oeov \6yov virovoeiv, OVTW 
/jueTayOrfaeTai TT/OO? TTJV v^rrfKoTepav vTro\7)~^riv. avayw] 
ydp Trdaa KaTd\\rj\ov elvai TTicrTeveiv Trj cfrvcret, TOV \oyov, 
Co? Kal Ta d\\a TrdvTa. Kal ydp Bvva/ji^ TIS Kal ^wr] Kal 
5 (7O(j)La Trepl TO dv9pa>Trivov /SX-eTrerat dX)C OVK dv rt? e/c 
wvfjiias ToiavTijv Kal eVl TOV Oeov TTJV ^ayrjv r) T^V 
rj TTJV cro<piav VTrovoijaeiev, d\\a Trpos TO r>y? 
TJ}<? rj/jieTepas fjueTpov crvvTaTreivovvTai Kai ai TWV 
TOLOVTWV ovofJidTwv /jL<pdaL^. eTreiBr) ydp (frOapTr) Kal 
10 do~0evij$ TUJLWV TI ^ucrt?, OLCI TOVTO WKVj^opos TJ ^(oij, (IVVTTO- 
ttTra/y?)? 6 \6yos. eTrl &e r?}9 virepKeL- 
TU> /jieya\elft) TOV Oewpov^evov Trdv TO Trepl 
\eyofjievov avveTraipeTat,. OVKOVV KCLV \6yos Oeov 
\eyrjTai, OVK ev Tfj op/jifj TOV (pOeyyojuievov Kal TTJV VTrocrTacnv 
I 5 ^X et/l> vofAKrOijaeTaL) KaO o/jLOiOTrjTa TOV rj/JLeTepov fieTa- 
et? dvvTrapKTOv aXV coaTrep TJ rj/meTepa fyvcris 
ovaa Kal eTTiKrjpov TOV \oyov e^ei, OVTCOS i] 
d(pOapTos Kal del ecrrwcra fyvcris di&tov e%ei Kal 
TOV \6yov. el &rj TOVTO KaTa TO aKoXovOov o t 

5 ra av6 puiriva d |J 6 TOiavTrjv^ + Tiva d 13 avrrjv vulg j; 14 om xai fh 
euth |1 17 eTriKrjpos] avvjrapKTOs f 

3. /carciXX.] corresponding to. nitude see c. 2, p. 14. 

8. <TvvTair.~\ Such words as 14. I Trocrracri^J /V w/7/ not be 

power, life, wisdom have a thought to have its stibsistence in the 

lower significance in the case of men expression of him who speaks. TTTO- 

than in that of God. crracrts is here that in virtue of 

ro. &Kij/j.opos] l fleeting. "* which a thing is what it is, the 

ib. avvTroffTaros] unsubstantial, essence or being of a thing. A 

i.e. having no separate existence human word is merely the ex- 

of its own. Hence shadowy, un- pression of the speaker s mind. It 

real. has no uTrocrracrts apart from such 

11. aTrc^s] lit. not fixed, l un- expression, and in the utterance it 
stable. Similarly Ath. c. Ar. ii 34, passes out of existence (^ra.\wp^v 
35. Cp. Iren. c. ffaer. ii 13. 8. ds avvirapKrov}. The Divine Logos 

ib. vwepKeifj.evr)^ transcendent. is cu Sios and i 0e<rru>?. 
See antea, p. 4, 1. 3 SvvaiMiv TTJV... 16. dXX wcnrep] The argument 

TOV -rravros virepKeifjLevrjv. of this chapter is partly reproduced 

12. Tit} /neya\( i oj] l along witli the in Ps. -Cyril Al. dc Trin. c. 5, 
greatness of the object of our con- and in lo. Damasc. de Fid. Orth. 
temptation? For ^eyaKeiov = mag- i 6. 


TO vtyecrrdvai rov rov deov \6yov <uta>?, dvdyKr) jraaa ev 
%cofj ToO \oyov rrjv V7r6crrao~iv eivcu, ofJLO\o r yelv. ov ydp 
KaO ofjLOLOTijra rwv \L6wv d*^rv*%<tis vfaardvai rov \6yov 
evayes eartv oUaQai. aXX el v^earrjKe voepov TL ^pij/jia 
KOI daoifjiarov wv, %f) TTUVTMS el Se rov %f)v Ke%(Dpicrrai, 5 
ov8e ev vTroardcrei rrdvrw^ ecrriv. aXXa fj,rjv acre/3e? 
TOV rov 0ov \6yov avvrroo-Tarov elvcu. OVKOVV 
Kara TO d/co\ov9ov TO ei> wf) rovrov Oeco- 
rov \6<yov. ttTrXt}? Be TT)? ToO \6yov 
eivai TreTTLarev/jLevij^ Ka\ ouSe/uaz 
ev eavrf/ SeiKVVOvcrrjs, ov/cer^ ai> Tt 
rov \6<yov ei> fofj dewpoirj ov 
ij roiavrrf L/T 
d\\ avayKTf Trdcra, 




Kara jjierov- 
av etcros irj 

TO ertpov ev erepw \eyeiv 

avro^cotjv elvai rov \oyov olecrOai, ov fcor)? ^erovaiav. el 15 
ovi> Crj 6 Xo yo? o ^a] tov, teal Trpoaiperi.Krjv rcdvrws Svva/uuiv 

5 ojv] ov 1 ii 8 (uri] r-f] %uf} 1 || 1 2 ev fan; d. r. \oyov 1 vulg TTJ fay f 
It 15 om eirat f 1| 16 fr] fay e j| o fanj] ws f. dehnp euth j| TrpoaipeTiKyv] -\- 
euth 1456 [j 5vva/j.Lv c^et Trajrws 1 vulg 

it is avvwoffraros like the human 
\6yos, which Gr. has declared to be 

10. dLTr\6r)v] doubleness? At- 
Tr\6r) is used of that which has a 
double character, e.g. the fold of 
a garment, or the overlapping of the 
bones in the skull. Here it is used 
of the combination of different ele- 

n. Kara /merovffiav] consider the 
Word as living by a participation in 
///I . This, ace. to Gr., would 
involve di.7r\6ij and avvOecris, whereas 
he maintains that the Word is cu - 
rofay. The Word does not partake 
of life, as we do. Life is absolutely 
His. Cp. infra avrofa-r]v...ov fays 

i. ev fay...lvai] that the sub- 
sistence of the Word is living. 
For the phrase elvai ev see c. 24 
del yap dia ira.vTwv TO delov ev 
rats irpeTrovffais viro\"f]^ecnv elvai. 
Gr. is illustrating the doctrine of 
distinctions in the Divine Being by 
an analysis of human consciousness. 
But it might be urged that the 
human analogy does not suggest 
the idea of distinct hypostases. 
This further step Gr. attempts to 
prove by showing that all relation- 
ships within the Divine Being must 
be living, and in order to be living 
in the full sense they must be per- 
sonal. Augustine approached the 
same question from the moral con- 
sciousness and the idea of Divine 
Love. See de Trin. vi 5, viii 10, 
ix 2. 

6. oi Se ev vTrocrrda-ei] // does not 
possess any subsistence at all, i.e. 

15. el ovv] As a result of the 
possession of life we must postulate 
that the Word possesses will and the 
power to carry out what He wills. 


ovBev yap aTrpoalpeTov TWV ^(DVTCOV ecrri. rrjv Be 
Trpoaipea-Lv TavTrjv teal BvvaTtjv elvai Kara TO d/c6\ov0ov 
euo-e/3e? eVrt Xo-yiecr$at. el yap /JLTJ rt9 TO Svvarov 
6/jto\oyoir}, TO dSvvarov TrdvTws fcaracrfcevdcrei. dX\d 
5 jjit}v TTOppw TJ}? Trepl TO Oelov vTro\rj^lre(t)<> CCTTI TO 
dBvvaTov. ovBev yap TO)V dTre/j,(f)aiv6vTa)v Trepl TI]V 
Oetav Oecopeirai (frvcriv, dvdytcrj Be nraaa TocravTTjv eivai 
6jJLO\oyelv rov \6yov rrjv ^vvafLW, oar] earl teal 77 Trpo- 
^ecrt?, iva [iij Tt? fw|^5 TWV evavTiwv teal &vv8po/jtrj Trepl 

10 TO CLTT\OVV OtwpoiTO, d^vvafjiias T teal Svvd/uiecos ev TTJ 
avTrj TrpoOeaet Oewpovjjuevwv, e iTrep TO jjuev TL BUVCLITO, Trpo? 
8e TL dbwaTCDS ^X ol/ 7r( ^ l>ra & $vva/j,evr]v Trjv TOV \6yov 
Trpoaipecriv Trpos ov8ev TWV tcaKtov TI]V pOTrrjv 
d\\QTpia yap Trjs Oeias (fujaea)^ rj TT^O? KCLKICLV 

15 d\\d irdv o TI Trep CCTTLV dya66i>, TOVTO KOI /3ov\ecr0at,, 
(3ov\ofjiev7]v Be TrdvTws KOI &vva(T0ai, 8vva/jLevr]v 8e fjirj 
dvevepyrjTOv elvai, d\\d Trdcrav dyaOov TrpoOecnv et? 
evepyeiav ayeiv. dyaOov Se o /cocr/zo? /cal TO, ev CLVTO) 
cro^>co9 Te icai Te^viKcos Oecopovfjieva. dpa TOV 

i favTuv] OVTWV d !! 5 evTLV VTro\ri\l>eus e : 6 TWJ> ctTre/u^. ] aTre/j.- 

<t>a.ivov TWV 1 vulg i! 7 om Se fl vulg || I I TL] rot vulg || 5i i/arat n euth 

! | 12 exft dnp euth om e%ot vulg |j 15 o TL Trep} oirep e ; 1 

4. /caracr/ceuaVet] //^ will prove" 1 of the Word. Po7rvj = inclination, 

or establish. Cp. K.a.Ta.ffK.eva.l s prol. op/j-rj impulse. 

p. 2. 17. dye fp777Toi ] inoperative, 

6. row d,7re/u,0ati 6i Ta)j ] ATre/u- inactive? A common word in Gr. 

<t>aivei.v is to present a different Cp. c. 4 dvevepyyTa. re /ecu cii i Tro- 

appearance, to be incongruous, orara rd Trap p^ara. 

a common word in Gr. Cp. c. 10 18. dya66i>\ The outcome of 

offov evirpfires eo-TL...5et;d/m.ei>os, TO the activity of the Word is to be 

dTTf/u.<f>ali>oi> dTroTrotetcr^w. Cp. also seen in the Universe, which is the 

c. 15 cos dva.pfji.oaTd re /cat airefjuftaL- expression of His character. 

VOVTO. wept TTJS deias 0ucrewj oo*yfj.a.TL- K). cro0c5s] For this predicative 

force of adverbs and adverbial 

8. Trpodeais] used as- almost clauses with deupe tv cp. c. 2, p. 14 

equivalent to Trpoctipecm. fterct Trvtv/jiaTos dewpov/mevov, and esp. 

12. 7rcu>Ta 5eJ A further step in c. 16 TO 5 oVof eV TT? 

the argument, postulating goodness 5ieo5t/cu5s ^ewpetrai. 
as a necessary quality of the activity 



\oyov epya rd jravra TOV fftWo? /jiev /cat, 

OTL 0ov \6yo<f earl, Trpoaipovf^evov Se, on 77 

B Trdv o TL Trep av eX^rat, aipov/jiei ov be TO dyaOov re 

Kal oro(f)6v Tmi TOK, Kal ei TL Ti]<; KpeiTTovos arjfjLacria^ 

eo~riv. evret ovv dyadov TL 6 Koaao^ ofjioXoyeiTai, 5 

Se Sid TWV clprffMevwv TOV \6yov epyov TOV 
elvai, TOV TO dyaOov Kal alpovp,evov Kal Svva- 

, O > ^670? OUTO? 6T6/30? CTTL TTapd TOV OV (TTl 

Xoyo? TpoTTOv yap Tiva TWV -rrpos TL \eyojjievwv Kal TOVTO 
eo~Ti,v, eTreiSrj %p / 7T( iVTa)$ rc5 \6yo) Kal TOV TraTepa TOV 10 
\6yov o~vvvTraKov6o~6ai ov ydp av eirj Xoyo?, JAY) TIVOS wv 
\6yos el ovv StaKpiveL TM a^eTLKW TT)? armaaias ij TWV 
aKOvovTwv OLavota avTov re TOV \6yov Kal TOV oOev e 
OVKT av rjblv KLV&VVVOL TO avo-TtjpLov rat? 

rot? Ta TWV \ov$aid)V 7rpeo~^evovcrL 15 
T Lcnys KaTepcov Tt^v aTOTciav K- 
TOV Oeov \oyov Kal evepyov Kal 


3 iravTO. 1 vulg ij oirep eh j| 5 w/xoXc^ijTcu hn euth to/moXoyeirai e 
OyttoXcryemu o KOCF^OS f \\ 6 TO \oyov epyov dehnp j! 8 o de X.] apa o X. 
euth jj 9 TOUTO] ouros euth || 12 oi.a.Kpi.vr) vulg |j 14 KLvovvevei. defln vulg 
li 15 rois re vulg || om rwv hi vulg 

4. KpeiTTovos crTj/xacrtas] and 
everything else that indicates ex- 
cellence. 1 

9. T&V irpbs rt] a relative term. 
We cannot understand the term 
Word without reference to some 
other Being. 

11. <rvvvTra.Kovecr0a.L] understood 
or 4 implied along with the Word. 

12. TOJ <r-)(.T<-K< TTJS o"^M- ] owing 
to the relative character of the teri. 
SX^CTIS denotes relation. 

15. TO, rcDy I. Trpefrfievovffi] those 
who pay honour to the beliefs of the 
Jews. 1 ilpeo-fieveiit here = cre/Seu/ or 
Ti/j.di>. Cp. Plato Syt/>. 186 B &p- 
^Ojiccu 5e O.TTO TTJS la.Tpi.Krjs \eyuv, Iva 
Kal irpc< TJ]V rtyyTlv. Cp. 
Aesch. Cho. 488. 

1 6. (TvvVX@?i va <-] agree with? 

The Christian doctrine of God is 
unique, but it presents points of 
contact with Hellenism and Judaism. 
Cp. the summary of Gr. in c. 3. 

ib. e/c0.] i.e. the personal sub- 
ject implied in rcus E. /max- vir. 

17. TOV re fwj ra] The article 
belongs also to tvepybv and Troir)- 
TLKOV. Confessing the living and 
active and creative Word of God, 
a tiling ivJiich the Jeiu does not 
admit. He is referring to Heb. iv 
12, which was understood by many 
of the Fathers to refer to the Per- 
sonal Word. The Logos doctrine 
of Philo is the nearest approach to 
the belief of which Gr. is speaking. 
But in Philo the Logos is rather an 
abstraction than a personal power, 
and could not be said to be (av. 


ov ofjLO\oya)v, orrep 6 louSato? ov oe%Tai, xal TO 
fjir] Siacfrepeiv Kara TI]V (frvcriv avTov re TOV \6yov KOI TOV 
06 ev ecrTLV. ooo-jrep yap eft i]fj,cov etc TOV vov (frafjuev elvai 


5 rravTaTraaiv eTepov TW pev yap e etcetvov elvai a\\o TL 
KOI OVK eicetvo e crrt TW oe avTov TOV vovv et? TO e^^ave^ 
ayeiv ovtceT av GTepov TL Trap etcelvov VTTOVOOLTO, a\\d 


teal 6 TOV 6eov \6yos TO) fjuev v$eo-T(ivai Kaff eavTov 

10 $iijpr)Tai Trpos e/ceivov, Trap 1 ov TIJV vTTocrTao iv e^et rto 

Se TavTa Seifcvveiv ev eavTw, a Trepl TOV Oeov /caOopaTai, 


evpiaKOfjievw etre yap dyaOoTrjs, etre Si/m/u?, 
6tre cro(j)ia, elVe TO diSicos elvai, elVe TO /ca/c/a? KOI OavaTov 

i om o eh || /cat TO ^r[\ incipit g |j i diafideipeiv vulg || 3 e/c r. v. efi THJ.UV 
1 vulg j| 4 OVTOL} eivai. dl vulg |j 5-6 ro /JLGV...TO 5e efn euth 45 |j 7 om rt 
1 vulg 1! e/ceti/o 1 vulg || 8 uv] ov 1 vulg [I 13 ayadorrjTa dwa/JLLv (rofiiav 
euth || 14 /ca/aas K. 0. av. /cat davarov g 

i. /cat TO yto? 5ia0.] Though is one subject, and the mind 

distinct from the Father, the Word another. Cp. for this sense of TO 

possesses the same nature. This is VTTOK. prol. p. 5 et yap TO reXeiov 

illustrated by the relation of the ...doii] irepl TO viroKfi/mfvov 6^0X0- 

human word to the mind of him who yetaOai. For a similar use of the 

utters it.^ word cp. Basil Ep. ix 2, and see 

6. TU> oe] l but Giving to the Bethune- Baker Texts and Studies, 

fact that it manifests the mind itself S vol. vii, no. i, p. 82. 

8. TGJ uTro/cetfiei/y] With Gr. 13. eupttr/co/uej/^] <"ioho is known 

TO vwoKfinevov practically always is by" 1 or who is discerned by the 

used in a sense approaching to ovcria. possession of the same distinctive 

See c. Eunofti. i, p. 520 (Migne) characteristics. 

cvi TOJ vTTOKi/j.^v^> Tpds efiapfj.ofrvTes il>. dyadorrjs] The construction 

-irpoffriyopias. ^Cp. c. 3 of this treatise is broken. The text of Euthymius 

5ta/ce/cptTai TTJ inroaTacfei, /cat ov 5ta5- (which reads dyad6T->jTa...duvafjiiv... 

piffTaL TW vTTOK.eLfj.evii) (note). On aotpiav against the unanimous verdict 

account of Gr. s strict use of terms, of the MSS of the Or. Cat.} repre- 

Rupp (Gregor von Nyssa, p. 168) sents an attempt to correct the 

thinks that the present passage con- grammar of the passage. Prob. 

tains a gloss, but there is no variation Gr. intended to make the words 

in the MSS, and the assumption is the subject to a verb, but in corn- 

quite unnecessary, as TOJ uTro/cet- pleting the sentence he has given it 

a differe 

may have its common Aris- a different turn. For a similar 
totelic sense of subject. The word break of construction cp. e.g. 


Kal (f>00pa$ dv67Ti$e/CTOV, LT TO 6V TTaVTL T6\LOV, LT6 TL 

TOLOVTOV 6 Xci)? ar/jjieLov rt? TTOLOLTO rr}? TOV TraTpos fcaTa- 
.d TWV avTwv evpi^aei crrj/jLLWV icai TOV e e/ceivov 

2. f/ llcT7re/9 &e TOV \6yov etc TWV fcaO^ ?7yu,a? dvaywyLtcws 5 
7rl TT}? vTrepKifJiev7]s k yvwfJLev (frvcrea)?, KCLTO, TOV avTov 

TpOTTOV KOi T7J TTGol TOV TTVeVfJLaTO^ eVVOLCt 7rpO(Ta%07]O 6/jL0a, 

crKids TLVCLS Koi /jLL/Aij/AaTa TTJS d<ppd(TTOV Svvd/jieais ev Trj /caO 
rjfjia^ 0ea)povvTs (frvcrei. aXX e^ TJIJLWV fiev TO TrvevjJLa r/ 
TOV aepos eoTiv O\KJ], aXXoTpLov Trpay/jLaTOS rrpos TTJV TOV 10 
(TvcTTao-Lv dvay/caLWs elo-ekKO/jLevov re KOI Trpo- 
ev rc3 Kaipw T?)? eKtycovrjcrews TOV \6yov 

2 om rts 1 vulg \\ 3 evp-rjcreis vulg j| 5 avaXoyiKus fl vulg 1| 6 

1. cere TL rotourov] whatsoever 
of this kind is made an indication 
of the way of apprehending the 
Fat Jier: 

3. 5td TUV O.VTWV} The unity of 
nature gives to the Word the 
same characteristic qualities as the 
Father possesses. 

//>. e fKeivov u^ecrrwra] thai 
subsists from Him. 

2. Human nature supplies also 
an analogy to the existence of the 
Spirit in the Godhead. In man 
breath (Tr^eC/m) accompanies the ut 
terance of the human word (\6yos). 
So in God the Spirit cannot be 
separated from the Word. But while 
the human breath is something foreign 
to man ^ s nature, t/ie Spirit of God is 
one willi God in being, and at the 
same time, like the Word, is self- 
subsistent, possessing will, activity, 
and power. 

5. dvayuyiKus] The alterna 
tive reading dvaXcryi/ca;? is a cor 
rection of the text. Awvyory^ or 
avayuyr) ^vffTLK-q is a phrase which 
constantly occurs in Origen. See 
Philocalia (ed. Rob.), i 22, xxvi 4, 8. 
It is used by him to denote the 
process by which the reader of 

Scripture ascends from the literal 
and moral meaning of Scripture 
to its spiritual significance. Here 
the phrase is used of ascending* 
from the experience of human 
nature (rd /co.0 TJ^CIS) to the nature 
of God. Just as, by an ascent from 
the facts of our own nature, we 
recognized in the transcendent nature 
the existence of the Word. 

(). d\X e0 r/ / ucDj ] This passage 
is adapted in the form of a paraphrase 
by Ps.-Cyr. Al. de Irin. c. 6 and 
lo. Damasc. F. O. i 7. In the case 
of our bodies the breath which we 
inhale and breathe out is some 
thing foreign to our nature. The 
Divine Hz/eC/ua, however, is one 
with God. 

10. b\Krf\ drawing. 

ib. d\\oTpiov TrpdyfjiaTOs] i.e. 
TOV d^pos, which is foreign to the 
nature of the body, llpos is governed 
by d\\oTpiov. Cp. c. 5 dXXorptw- 
deiffa. TW dvo/Jioit*) Trpos rb dpXfTVTrov 

12. oTrep] i.e. TO Trvev/jia, which 
becomes (fx^v-f], a voice or utter 
ance, revealing the force or 
meaning of the word. 


r) >yivTai, TTJV TOV \o r yov bvvafjLiv ev eavrfj cfravepovaa. 
eVt Se TT}? Oeias ^ucreo)? TO aev elvai Trvevua Oeov evcre/3e^ 
evouLO-0r} y tcaOoDS eooOrj /cal \6<yov elvai Oeov oia TO ur) &elv 
e\\i7reo~Tepov TOV rj/jLerepov \6yov TOP TOV 0eov elvai \o r yov, 
5 eiTrep TOVTOV ueTa TrvevaaTos Oewpov^ievov e/ceivos oi%a 
elvai TTLcrTevoiTO. ov urjv a\\oTpiov TL ica& 
TOV jj^eTepov TrvevfJiaTos e^wOev eirippelv TOO 
6eu> fcal ev avTM vivevQai TO Trvev^a OeorrpeTres daTiv 
OLcr0ai aXX 609 Oeov \o i yoi> atcovcravTes ov/c avvTCOo"raT6v 
10 TL TrpdjfJLa TOV \oyov u>?]0r)/jLV, ovSe etc ^aOr^aew^ eyyi- 
, ovre $ia (frcovijs Trpoffraivo/jievov, OVTC fiera TO 
$ta\v6/uievov, ovSe a/VXo TI 7rdo"%ovTa TOL- 
OVTOV, ola rrepl TOV iifJieTepov \6yov OewpelTat Trddr), d\\ 
oucriwSw? vfaaTWTa, TTpoaipeTi/cov Te /cal evepybv /cat 
15 TravTOovvafjiov OUTCO? Kal rrvev^a fjiefjuaOiiKOTe^ Oeov, TO 
av/jLTrapo/jiapTovv TW \oja) Kai (fravepovv avTov TTJV evep- 
<yeiav, ov TTVO^V aV^yLtaTO? evvoov/juev rj yap av KaOaipolro 
TO /Aeya\eiov T>}? 6eia<$ $vvd/jL(i)S, el 

3 \oyos vulg H JJ.TI 5eti>] /^-rjdtv f \-, 5 TOV irv. 1 vulg 6 om etvai. e 

li om rt vulg |; 7 eTreiapeiv fl vulg !; 8 om TO euth I 11 oi;5e...ou5 fl 
vulg || 1 1 TTpcxfiepo/mevov fg 1 ! euth 245 || 15 TO irv. f Ps-Cyr Al 

5. etVep TOVTOV] TOVTOV refers after it has been uttered. It exists 
to the human word, the expression after the manner of real being (ov- 
of which is always seen to be ae- crtwSws u^eo-rwra). Cp. c. 4 oiVtw5u;s 
companied with breath (juera Trvev- i 0e<rrc6(ras 5vvd/ In both places 
/J.O.TOS Vfupovfjievov). The Divine the phrase oiV. v(f>. denotes that the 
Word (e/cetj/os), which certainly does existence is real and not merely 
not fall short of its human counter- relative or contingent. 

part, must similarly be accompanied 15. ^ce^a^rj/vores] having learnt 

by Trveuyua. that there is a Breath or Spirit of 

6. d/XXorptoi TL] We are not to God. To avfj.Trapofj.apTovv is an 
suppose that in the case of the Divine explanatory clause, which accoin- 
Trvev/Ao. something foreign has an panics &c. 

influx from without (^udev eirip- 17. irvoriv acrd.] ive do not conceive 

petv) into God, and that this be- of it as an emission of breath. The 

comes in Him the Spirit. sentence is resumed by d\\d below, 

14. oi crtwScos u0e<7Torra] The the clause ^ yap...virovoolTO being 

Divine Word has no mere transi- parenthetical. 

tory existence. It does not come 18. raTretrorT/ra] Cf. antea c. i 

to exist in the Godhead as the result irpbs TO TTJS (/screws Trjs r//neTpas 

of instruction. It is not a mere ^Tpov avvTaTrtLvovvTai. 

utterance of the voice, passing away ib. /j-eyaXelov] Cp. c. r, p. 8. 



KCL& o/jLOioTrjTa TOV rjfjLerepov KCLI TO V avTO) 
vTTovooiro d\\d &vva/j,iv ovcrico&r) avTrjv e<f) eavrrj^ ev 
ioia^ovcTT] uTrocrracret Oewpov/JLevrfv, ovre ^copia^rjvai TOV 
06ov, eV co eo~TLV, rj TOV \oyov TOV Oeov, a) TrapofjiapTel, 
Svva/jLevrjv OVT rrpos TO avvTrapKTOV dva^eo^evriv, d\\d 5 


TrpoaipeTiKtiv, CLVTOKLVIJTOV, dvepyov, TrdvTOTe TO dyaOov 
aipovfjLevrjv Kal Trpo? Traaav TcpoOeaLV avvSpOfjiov e^ovcrav 
rfj /3ofX7;cr6t TTJV ovva/jiiv. 

3. "Ho-re TOV dtcpi/3a)^ TCL /3dOr) TOV fAvaTrjpiov oiacr/co- 10 
Trovfievov eV /Jiev Ttj tyv%f) KCLTO, TO dTropprjTov 
Tiva KaTavorjo-iv TT)? /cara TTJV Oeoyvwcriav 

TavTrfv TOV /jLvaTTjpiov /3a9vTrjTa- TTCO? TO 
O,L>TO Kal dpiOfjirjTOv GCTTL Kal oiafavyei TTJV egapiOfiTja-iv, 15 

i om TO d 


\af3ei.v fl vulg || 5ta<ra0?jcrat fg l vulg 

2. oucrta 5?;] as a power 
really in being, to be regarded as 
existing in its own right in a sub- 
sislence of ifs own. For vTroffracns 
in this sense cp. c. i init. 5ia.Kpicriv 

S- dvaxeo[j,evr]i ] dissolving info 
non-existence? C p. Greg. Naz. Or. 
xxviii r^ \oyov ... x f o/j.evov ; OKVUJ 
yap etVetV \v6fj.evov. Avuir. Cp. 
c. i, p. 8 /j.eTaxupui> (is avvirapxTov. 

6. Ka6 inroaTaa-iv] after the 
manner of an individual subsist- 
ence, almost = as a person. 

3. This doctrine of God is full of 
mystery. Yet it is the mean between 
the opposing doctrines of Judaism 
and Hellenism. \Vith Judaism it 
preserves the unity of tJie Divine 
nature. \Vith Hellenism it teaches 
the distinction of Persons. At the 
same time it is a safeguard against 
the errors of both. 

n. ev /j,v T. i//.] The corre- 
sponding clause is /mrj /j.4vroi.. It is 
possible to have an inner, secret 

(/cara TO awopp^Tov) apprehension ot 
the nature of Deity in the mind 
( /" X ?)? without being able to ex- 
press it in words. 

ib. \fsvxy] used here as comm. in 
Plato for the organ of the vovs. 
Cp. Plat. Tim. 30 B vovv 5 a.8 X W P S 
^I X^s aduvaroi irapayevt(T0a.i TW. 

ib. /Afrpiav rivd] a moderate 
degree of apprehension. Gr. is 
conscious that the doctrine of the 
Trinity is a mystery. He does not 
claim that his argument is in any 
sense a proof of it. His analysis 
of man s nature is only an illustration. 

15. dpid/m. fjTov] admits of being 
numbered. Cp. Just. Mart. Dial. 
128, where the Son is spoken of as 
dpid/j.u erepov TI, and ibid. 52, where 
he says that the God Who appeared 
to Moses ^Vepos ecrri TOV ra irdvTa. 
iroir)cra.vTos $eoO, dpt.dtj.aj Xeyw d\\ ov 
yvufj.ri. Such expressions are in- 
tended to mark the individual exist- 
ence of the Persons in the God- 



teal 8i?7p77yiteVa>9 oparai /cal ev fjuovabi Kara\a/jL/3dveraL, 
/cal Sia/ce/cpiTai rf/ vTroo-rdaei /cal ov Sicopio-raL TM 
VTro/cei/jievw. a\\o yap TL rfj vTrocrrdcrei, TO TrvevfAa, Kal 
Tpov o \6yos, fcal d\\o TrdXiv e/ceivo, ov /cal 6 Xo^yo? 
5 earl /cal TO TrvevfJLa aXX eTrei&dv TO ^LatceKpifjievov Iv 
TOVTOLS KaTavor/arj^, TTCI\IV ^ TTJS (f)vo~ea)<> evoTrjs TOV 
Sia/j,epi(T/JLOv ov Trpoo- ieTai, GO? fJir^Te TO r^ 
a^i^eo-Oat KpaTOS 669 OeoTrjTas Stafybpovs KaT 
IJLIJT TW lovBai/ca) Soyf^aTi avfjiftaiveiv TOV \6yov, d 
10 8id /jueo-ov TMV Svo v7ro\7J^jr60)i> ^wpelv Trji> d\r]6eiav, 

2 5to>p.] yue/iept(rrat fg 1 ! vulg || rw VTTOKei/mevu] rr; <pvaei euth 16 r?j 
euth 24 Jl 3-4 aXXo yap...Tepov o Xo7os] desunt in 1* vulg || 7 ws] 
1 vulg || 10 [Jt.e(roj> vulg 

the same result. 

ib. TO TTJS /uo?>.] the might of the 
Divine sovereignty is not split up by 
being divided into different kinds of 
Godhead. Gr. has to be on his 
guard against the charge of tri- 
theism, which was actually brought 
against his teaching. His two 
works, Quod non sint tres Dii and 
the de Communibus Notionilnts, are 
intended to guard against miscon 
ceptions of the Tripersonality of the 
Godhead. On the fj-ovapxt-a see 
Ath. c. Ar. iv i wcrre dvo p.v elvai. 
Ilarepa KO.L Yiov, ^ovdda de 
ddiaipeTov /cat ao X -O Toi . 
5 civ /cat ourw yitta dpx^l deor^ros, /cat 
ov 5vo dpxo-i odev Kvpiws /cat JJ.QV- 
apxia Cffriv. Cp. Greg. Naz. Or. 
xxix 2, where the ^oi/apxta is denned 
as oi>x T]V v 7repiypd(peL Tr 
dXX rjv </>i crews 6fj.oTi/m.La c 
Kal yvu>fj.7)s av/uLTTVOia, /cat 
/ctfTjcrews, /cat irpos TO ev TWV e^ avTov 

9. ffv/mfiaivew] agree u nth . For 
this use of the word see c. 17 TT\V 
\vo~iv rots Trpo\al3ovai av/j.(3aivoi>(rav. 
Cp. c. 27. 

10. 5ta fj.eaov] Ace. to Gr. the 
Christian doctrine of God mediates 
between opposite errors. Its strength 

1. dtrjprj/j.ei ws] is perceived in 
a way that involves division. 

2. Sta/ceK/HTcu] it is distinct as 
regards person, and not divided as 
regards subject-matter. 1 Cp. Greg. 
Xaz. Or. xxxi 14 (Mason, p. 163) 
d/mpi(TTOS ev /.te/xeptoTxei ots, et Set 
crwro/wws eiTreiv, i] debris . 

ib. T( VTTOKeLfJLV^!\ T6 VTTOK. is 

used in Aristotle to denote subject 
or subject-matter. For instances 
of such use in the Or. Cat. cp. prol., 
c. i sub Jin., and c. 5. The Stoic 
writers used the word to denote the 
substratum of things, the real 
existence lying behind that which 
was perceived by the senses. Cp. 
Sextus A. M. 7, 346 sq. aicrdr)<reai. 
/j.ev ovv /j,6vais Aa/SetV raXrjdes ov 
5ui/aTcu...<TiWcrews re 5ei /cat ytu/T^urjs 
?rp6s dvTi\rj\l/i.v TLOV uTro/cet/xeVwv, 
olov &v6pd)irov, (pvrov, rQiv eoiKo- 
TWV. Thus it comes to be a sy 
nonym for ovffia. The glosses rrj 
ovaiq. and rrj (pvcrei found in some 
MSS of Euthy mius, where this passage 
is emoted, are attempts to interpret 


7. ov irpoaleTai] does not admit 
of division," in the sense of the 
polytheists, who are here in view, 
although the Arian opinion led to 


eicaTepav re TMV aipeo-ewv fcaOatpov&av /cal ( ef 
7rapa&xo/jivr]v TO xprjo-i/jiov. TOV /zez> yap lovSalov 
KaOaupelrai TO Boyfia Trj re TOV \6yov TrapaSo^fj Kal 
Trj TTidTei TOV irvevfJLdTOS TWV 8e e\\i]vt^ovTwv rj 
7ro\u$eo9 et;a(f)ai>iTaL 7r\dvrj, Trjs Kara fyvcriv evoTrjTO? 5 
TTJV 7r\.Ti0vvTiK>}v fyavTacriav. TraXiv Se 
&M/cr)<? t>7ro\7?-v/rea>9 rj 7-779 0ucreo)9 evoTrjs 

7Tapa/JLVT(t) K 6 TOV EXX.T/^ tO yU-OL r) KClTd T(i$ V7TO- 

/^ovr], OepanrevOeiari^ etcaTepwOev tcaTa\- 
r/}9 do-6{3ovs VTTOVOias eaii yap cocrTrep Oepaireia 10 
TCOV fJiev Trepi TO ev TT\avw^kvwv o npiO/juo^ r/J9 TpidSo?, 
TWV &6 et9 7r\r)0os ecTKeSao /jievcov 6 Trjs e^or^ 

4. Et Be dvTi\eyoi TOVTOIS 6 IofSatO9, ou/cer a 

av ex fjiev rr?9 

6 (Trnj.a<Tia.i> d || ro w<T7rep] + Tts 1 vulg \\ 12 Xo7os] desinit euth 4. 13 curt 
\e-yei vulg 

lies in presenting truth in its proper 
proportion, and in setting forth both 
sides of the antithesis exhibited by 
the Tripersonality and Unity of 
God. Cp. Bern. Tract, de Errore 
Abaci. 3. 7 Novit pietas fidei... 
medium iler tenens, regia incedere 

i . cupfVewj>] Atp. is here used 
in its earlier and non-ecclesiastical 
sense = a school of thought, a 
sect of philosophy. 

3. /catfcupe?Tcuj is overthrown." 1 
This passage is reproduced by lo. 
Damasc. de Fid. OrtJi. i 7. 

6. Trapa-ypa(f>ofj.i>ris] IIapa7pd- 
0eti/= to draw a line across, 
cancel, annul. 

ib. 7r\f]d. (pavT.~\ fancy of a plu 
rality. <ba.vTa.ffla., a term found both 
in Plato and Aristotle, is the process 
by which objects are presented to 
the mind, so that it may receive 
impressions from them. Then it is 
used of impressions received in this 
way. It is a favourite word with 
Stoic writers, who distinguish (pav- 
Taaia, which may be fallible and 
have no real object behind it, from 


(pavracria, which is in 
fallible and the equivalent of Kard- 
\rj\{/is. In the present passage the 
word suggests an unreal imagina 

f). KaraXXrjXws] an appropriate 
remedy being found for the wrong 
opinion entertained on either side. 
For Ka.Ta\\7)\u)s cp. c. i /oaTaXX^/W 

...TTJ 0l (Tl TOV \6yOV. 

i 2. ecr/ce5.] thedoctrine of the unity 
is a remedy for those whose allegiance 
lias been divided amongst a plural 
ity, lit. who have been scattered 
amongst a plurality. The word 
tffKfS. as compared with the pre 
ceding TrXafw^cfi/cjj/ may suggest the 
thought that polytheists had not 
merely wandered from the truth, 
but had become scattered by the 
very nature of their creed. There 
is possibly also the thought of a 
distraction of mind. Cp./>;W. p. 5 
TO effKedaff/mevoi rrjs diavoias eis TT\TJ- 
6os tieuv. 

4. The yew may be further con 
vinced by an appeal to Scripture. To 
take one passage out of many, the 
words By the Word of the Lord 



etc TOV IGOV Bva/coXos 6 Trpos eicelvov yevrjcrerai A.6<yo?. 
/c yap T&V crvvTp6(f)(jov avTa> Sibay/jidTcov rj T 
ear at, fyavepwcris. TO yap elvai \6yov 6eov /cal 
Oeov, ovcriwSws u^ecrrwcra? Bvvd/jii$, TroirfTiKd^ re TWV 
5 yeyevrjfAevwv teal TrepieKTi/cds TWV OVTCOV, etc TWV Oeo- 
TrvevcrTcov ypa(f)wv evapyecrTepov oei/cvvTai. dpKel Se pias 
[jiapTvpias eirL/jLvrjaOevTa^ rot? (^tXoTifMOTepoi^ Kara\L7relv 


OL ovpavol ecrrepecoOrjcrav Kal TU> 7ri>ev/^ari TOV 
10 avTOv Trdaa r] StW/u? CLVTCOV. TTOLW \6yw Kal TTOLW 
Trvev/juaTi ; OVT yap pfj^a 6 \6yos, OVTG daOfjua TO Trvevfjia. 
TI yap av Ka9* o^LOiOTTjTa r^}? r)/jiTepa$ (frvcrecos /cal TO 
Oelov efavOpWTri^ono, el TOLOVTM Ke^pijaOaL \oyw /cal 


i KTOII] idiov vulg || 7 (piKoTTOvwrepoi.? fg* vulg || 8 evpecriv] 
13 et] /cat vulg 

were the heavens established, and all 
the power of them by the breath of 
His moiitJi point to the existence of 
the Word and the Spirit as personal, 
self-subsistent powers. 

i . 7ei ?7<TeTcu] for this use of av 
with Fut. Indie, see Goodwin Greek 
Moods and Tenses, 37. 

4. oi crtwSws i)0.] Cp. antea c. 2 
[\67o^] oi)<rtw5a}s v<f>effTWTa with note. 

5. irepieKTiKas ruv OVTUV] con 
taining all things which exist. The 
single quotation which Gr. gives only 
illustrates the existence of X67os and 
TTvev^a. as 7rot?7Tt/ccu dwd^ei s. But 
he is thinking of other passages of 
the O.T. which speak of the Divine 
Spirit as upholding and containing 
all things. Cp. Ps. civ (ciii) 29, 30, 
cxxxix (cxxxviii) 7, Job xxxiii 4, 
and esp. Wisd. i 7. 

7. 0tAort/xoT^oois] i.e. more ambi 
tious for complete investigation. 
The Paris edd. read 0i\07roi/wr^pois 
which is a correction of the text. 

8. Ty X67^] from Ps. xxxiii (xxxii) 
6. In the original passage there 

is no reason to suppose that a refer 
ence to a personal Word is intended, 
though the passage may have influ 
enced the Logos doctrine. The 
word for breath is identical with 
that for spirit in Gen. i 2, but the 
parallelism suggests that the breath 
of His mouth is synonymous with 
word. Gr. interprets the passage 
ace. to the methods of his time. 

10. 8vva/uu.s] in the original pas 
sage means host and refers to sun, 
moon, and stars. 

11. p7?/Lta] The Word is not mere 
utterance, neither is the Spirit 
mere breath. These ideas he has 
refuted in cc. 2 and 3. 

13. e^avOpuiri SQLTo] further de 
fined by /ca# b/Ji. r. TJ. (fivcrecos. Cp. 
infra TO 6elov Kardyovres. Translate 
wojild be lowered to the level of 

14. doy/jLaTifaev] used freq. by 
Gr. with reference to the doctrines 
held by heretics. Cp. c. 9 (sub 

_fin.), c. 15. 


Tt? Be Kal ^vvafjas ttTro prf /u, drcov teal aaO^aro^ T7j\(,KavTr}, 
0)9 e^apKelv 7T/909 ovpavwv (Tvaracriv Kal TWV ev TOVTOIS 
Svvd/jbewv ; el yap O/JLOIOS TCO rf/jierepa) prj^a-ri Kal o TOV 
Oeov \6yos Aral TO Trvev^a TO) Trvev^ari, ofjioia TrdvTO)? CK 
TWV 6/jioiwv T) ^vva/jiis Kal oarjv o r)/j,eTepo$, Tocravrrjv Kal 5 
6 rov Oeov \6yos TTJV la^vv e^ei. d\\a /JLTJV dvevepyrjrd 
re Kal avvTroarara ra Trap ^fjilv pr)/j,ara Kai TO Tot? 
^o^evov irvevfjia. airpaKra Trdvrws Kal 
KaKelva KaracrKevdo-ovcriv 01 TTpos rrjv O/JLOI- 
TOV Trap rjjjiiv \6yov TO Oelov Kardyovres. el Se, 10 
cos \eyei Aa/3t S, ecrrepewOrjcrav TU> \6yw TOV Kvplov 
OL ovpavol Kal al Bvi dfjiew avTtov ev Tc5 TrvevfJLaTi TOV 
6eov T?]v crvGTacnv eo"%ov, dpa o vi ecrT rjKe TO Tr}? d\7]0Las 
, \oyov ev ovcria Kai Tcvev/jba ev vrrocrTao ei \eyew 

5. AAXa TO fjiev elvai \6yov Oeov Kal Trvev/jia &td Te 

e /cat] 5cu /cat dp 5 ot^frat vulg |j 2 ovpavov deghlnp || 7 om Trap 

/cat TO \* vulg |j 8 <rvvdi.e!;ep-%ofj.eva irvev/maTa vulg | 
TTOLVTOL f il 9 KaraaKeva^ovcriv eg 1 ! vulg || I [ o A. e || om TOV ep || 12 Tr^euytta 
g* ij 13 fx ovcrLV e N r 4 T^eu/xa] Trz/ei ^art e 5. 16 \oyov] om p 

i. rts 5^] Mere utterances and active and unsiibstantial. 1 For /ca- 

breath would not suffice for the TacrKeudfciv cp. c. i /caracr/cefdcrei 

framing (vvaTacnv} of heaven and (note) and KaTacrKevcus (prol.}. 
the powers therein. 13. awecrT-rjKe] Disestablished? 

6. ctXAa ^771 ] In our case the [4. uTrocrrdcrei] used here as a 

utterances and the breath which synonym for o^cria. Cp. the ana- 

accompanies them are inoperative thema of the Nicene Creed e erepas 

and unsubstantial. Cp. antea, irTroordcrews rj oi crtas. Teaching us 

c. i, of the power of the Word, dvva- to speak of a Word in actual being 

fj.evr]v 5e P.TI avevepyriTov elvai. and a Spirit in subsistence. 

9. /cd/cetVa] i.e. the Divine \67os 15. v^Tjyov/j.ei oi ] T0. = to guide, 

and TTi euyU.a: prove that the JJivine instruct. Cp. Plat. Rep. 403 E 

Word and Spirit are absolutely in- 5e oaov roi)s TI^TTO 


5. Our next step is to vindicate rest of Creation, owes his existence to 
the Incarnation against the objections the activity of the self-sitbsistent Word 
of Greeks and Jews. Alan, like the of God. The motive of mans crea- 

2 2 



KOiv&v evvoiwv 6 1X\7jv Kal Sia TWV rypa(f)i/cwv 6 
Ioi;8ato? fcra)? OVK avn\e^et TTJV 8e Kara avOpwirov 
oiK,ovo^iav TOV Oeov \6yov Kara TO iaov e/carepo? aviwv 
dTToSoKi/jidcrei GO? aTriOavbv re Kal aTrpeTrrj Trepl Oeov 
5 \eyeaOai. OVKOVV e f erepas a/3%^9 KOI et? TT/V Trepl 
TOVTOV TC KTTLV TOI/? di>Ti\yovTa$ Trpoaa^ofjieda. \6yw 
Ta irdvTa yeyevfjaQai real aotpla Trapd TOV TO TTCLV 

I ypa<f>LKiov] ypa(pi>3v h* \\ 1 rov avdpwirov fl vulg 
5 erepas] e/carepas f \\ 6 Trpoaa^w/uifda degnp 

aTTpewes eg 

tion iv as not any necessity, but the 
superabundance of love, and the desire 
to impart the perfections of the Divine 
Being. Khnis nature accordingly 
was fashioned in a way that fitted 
him to participate in those perfections. 
Thus man was equipped with various 
gifts and amongst them with immor 
tality. 7 he Scriptural expression 
i the image of God and the account 
of Creation indicate t/iese truths, and 
show that marts nature was origin 
ally good and surrounded with good. 
To the objection that man s actual 
state is the reverse of t/iis we reply 
that man s present evil condition is 
due to another cause than the will of 
God. Being in the image of God 
involved the possession of free-will 
and self-determination, so that the 
participation in the Divine blessings 
should be the reward of virtue. Whence 
then did evil spring? Not from the 
Divine will, but from mails free 
choice and his withdrawal from good. 
For evil has no substantive existence, 
but is the absence of good. 

i. KOLVWV evvoiuiv] general ideas. 
The expression Koivai ZVVOLO.L occurs 
free), in Origen in the sense of moral 
or religious notions which are com 
mon to mankind. Cp. Philocal. ix 2 
(p. =,6 ed. Rob.) 6 yap ypairros ev 
TOLLS KO.p5ia.LS VQ/J.OS Kal tv eBvLKOis 


ecrrl TOV Kara TOLS KOLVO.S tvvoias <f>vcrei 
r< rrye/JLoviKitj 

In the present passage referring 
to the illustrations, derived from the 
facts of human nature, given in cc. 
i 3. On the points of contact be 
tween Greek thought and Christian 
theology see Introd. pp. xi, xvii. 

is used commonly in patristic writers 
of the plan or dispensation of God 
in the Incarnation. Hence Theo- 
cloret Dial, ii p. 129 (Migne) says 
ri]v evavdpijoirya-LV TOV Qeov Auyov 
Ka\ov/j.ev OLKOVOLLLOLV. The source of 
the phrase is Eph. i 10. See 
Lightfoot A r otes on Epp. p. 319, for 
a valuable note on the word. The 
fuller expression r\ KO.TO. avdpWTrov 
OLKOVOLL LOL occurs also twice in c. 20 
and in Ep. ad Eustathiam, p. 1020 
(Migne). The expression /card av- 
ffpcoTTov refers to the form which the 
oiKovouia took. It was a dispensa 
tion /car a.v6pwTrov after a human 
manner i.e. in the form of an Incar 
nation. Other expressions to denote 
the Incarnation found in patristic 
writers are T? /caret crap/ax OLKOVOLLLO. 
(Greg. Nyss.), r\ ZvaapKos otKovoula 
(Chrys. , Ath., Thdrt.l, r) avOpwiriv^ 
oiKOvofjila. (Chrys.). The gen. in TOV 
OeoO A 6701; is subjective, and tlie 
whole expression is equivalent to the 
Incarnation of God the Word. 

5. a-pxTJ s] i-e. a starting point 
or basis of proof. Cp. prol. 


6. Xoyw] here = reason. 


iriaTCVovcriv, r Ka Trps Tavrrjv 
rrjv V7ro\r)\^iv. d\\ el /jay Boiev 
Kal ao<piav TT}? TWV ovrayv 
d\oyiav re Kal are^viav Trj ap%rj TOV 
crov<jiv. el Be TOVTO CLTOTTQV re real acreySev, o/jLoXoyelrai, 
OTL \o<yov T Kal ao(f)iav rjyefMOveveiv TWV OVTWV 

d\\d /Jir^v lv rot? fyOdcr 

avrb TOVTO pij/jia a>v 6 TOV 6eov ^0709, rf eft? 
9 rj ao(f)ias, d\\d KaT ovaiav rt? vtyeo-Twcr 
TrpoaipeTiKij re iravTO^ dyaOov Kal tv Icr^vi r rrav TO /cara 10 
Trpoaipecriv e^ovaa dyaOov Be 6Vro? TOV KOO-/JLOV TTJV TWV 
dyaOcov TrpoeKTiK^v re Kal vroirjTiKrjv Svvaaiv alrlav elvai. 
el 8e TOV Koauov rravrb^ rj VTCOCTTCKTI^ TT)? TOV \6<yov 
&vpdaea)$ e^r/TTTai, Ka0a)s rj aKoXovdia TrapeSeL^ev^ dvd<yKrj 

Kal TWV TOV KOO~/JLOV fjuepwv /jurj d\\rjv ejrtvoelv aiTiav ic 
TT}? crfcrracreft)?, aXX rj TOV \oyov avTCV, i ov Ta 
irdvTa TTJV el^ TO jeveaOaL Trdpooov ecr^e. TOVTOV &e et re 
\6yov, eiT aofaav, etre Svva/nv, etre 6eov, elVe aX-Xo TL 
TWV v^rj\a)p re Kal TifJiiwv ovofjid^eiv TLS eOeXoi, ov 

o TL yap ai> evpeBfj SGLKTIKOV TOV VTTO- 20 

4 TOV TT. r. apx~n f li 8 e^ CTTIO T TJ/XTJ s efl vulg || 12 

OpeKTlKf)l> fl OpeKTTJV Vlllg || 15 TLVa O.LTLO.V g || I"] TOVTO Vlllg 

4. eTria-TTjcroucnj J they will set up and TrpoeKTiKrjv. The former is ob- 

unreason and unskilfulness to rule viously a correction. Hesychius (i 

over the beginning of the Universe." 1 376) and Suidas (ed. Gaisford, 

7. 00cl<ra0-ii ] i.e. in c. i. AUTO p. 3091) regard the form TrpoeKrtKos 
r. p. i.e. just this an utterance, as a corruption of TrpoeTt/cos. But 
and nothing more. here it may quite well be derived 

8. ets] possession. Cp. c. 6, from irpo^^ or Trpotx ff @ ai m tae 
where blindness is called 7rpoXa/3ou- sense of hold forth, offer. Its 
(77?se ews <TTpri<nv. The exact phrase sense would thus be similar to -rrpo- 
?|is TnffTr]fjt,r)s in the sense of having en/c^i/. So it appears to have been 
possession of knowledge occurs in understood by P. Morel, who in his 
Plat. Theaet. 197 A (cp. Arist. Eth. Latin version has vim illam, quae 
vii 3. 7) where is is contrasted boria largitur et efficit. 

with KTrjffis. 14. e?77rrcu] depends on. Cp., 

1 1. d^adov 5e] and it has been c. 25 TOV ydp oVros e^Trrat rd oira. 

shown that, since the world is good, 19. ov 5toKro/xe0a] in pass, sense, 

its cause is the power which offers we shall not differ or quarrel. 

and creates all good things." 1 The 20. o TL ydp KT\.] i.e. whatever 

MSS are divided between opeKTt/cTyi/ word or name we use to express. 



K6i/jLevov pfj/jia 77 ovo/jia, ev Ian TO 6\a TWV (f>wvwv 
aj]fJiaLvoiJivov, rj dibios TOV Oeov Svvafjiis, r; TTOL^TLKT) 
TWV OVTWV, r) evperiKT) rwv //.?) OVTWV, rj o-vve/CTi/crj TWV 
yeyoi OTtov, r) Trpoopari/crj TWV fjL\\6vTcov. OVTOS TOIVVV 
5 o $609 \07O9, TI (ro(f)la, TI Svva/jiLs, aTreSei^Orj Kara TO 
aicoKovdov TT}? dvOpWTTLvrjs fyvcrews TroiTjTrjs, OVK dvdy/cr) 
l TTpo? Trjv TOV avOpwTTov KaTaaKevrfv evaxOefa, aX)C 

Trepiovaia TOV TOLOVTOV ^a>ov $r)/jLiovp r y?jo~as 
. eSet yap /u.??T6 TO <^>W9 dOeaTov, //-^re TTJV 8 
10 dfidprvpov, firjTe dvaTro\avcrTov elvai Trjv 

/jLr}T TCL d\\a TrdvTa, oaa rrepl TTJV Qelav /caOopaTat, 
dp<ya KL(70ai, fjur) 6Vro? TOV /^ere^o^ro? re KOI 
<ei TOIVVV 67TL TouTot? 6 av0pa)7ros 6/9 
w T //-ero^Q9 TWV Oeiwv dya6a) 
15 TOIOVTOS /caTacrfcevd^eTai, a>9 67riTr]oLc0s 77/209 TTJV TWV 
dyaOwv /JieTOvcriav e^eiv. KaOdirep yap 6 o(/>$aX//,o9 &ia 

5 o \oyos 1 vulg !! 7 evexdfis g 1 ii f) adearov] acrvcrTarov d 
JO a.v a?roX.] + airroi; f 1 vulg 

the idea of God. For TO UTT.= 
subject cp. prol. ei yap TO reXetov 
ei> iroLVTi 5o/r/ Trepl TO viroKei/j.evov 
6/j.o\oye i(r0ai. 

3. ffvveKTiicq] fr. (rwx eiv > to 
hold together, maintain. Cp. 
Greg. Naz. Or. xxviii 6, with 
Dr Mason s note. 

5. 6 deos \6yos] This is the cor- 
rect reading. The variant 6 Xo7os 
arose from a desire to bring the 
passage into closer harmony with 
the preceding words TOVTOV Se ei re 
\6yov, 6LT ao(f)iav KT\. The ex- 
pression 6 6eos \6yos is common in 
Athanasius, e.g. de Inc. cc. 18, 19. 
Cp. also olKovofj.iav TOV 6eov \6yov in 
this chapter. So then this Being, 
who is God the Word, Wisdom, 

6. OVK avdyK-r)] The world and 
man are not parts of some necessary 
evolution from the Divine Being, as 
in the Gnostic theories of emana- 

8. d^aTrr/s Trepioi crt^t] The love 
of (iod is with Gr. not only the 
cause of man s creation, but it also 
renders possible the self-humiliation 
of the Word in the Incarnation, in 
which there wos exhibited avyKCKpa- 
ntv-r) Trj <f>i\avdpwjriq. r/ dvva/ (c. 24). 
Cp. also cc. 19, 20. The same 
standpoint is taken by Athanasius 
de Inc. cc. 4, 6. 

13. ewi TOI TOIS] for these ends, 
for this purpose. Cp. infra CTTL 

15. fTriTr]8ci<j>s...(!x fiV ] I n v\ hat 
follows Gr. shews that man is fitted 
to enjoy Divine blessings by his 
possession of reason, wisdom, and, 
above all, immortality. He illus- 
trates this from the way in which 
the natural organs and the life of 
animals are adapted to their sur- 

16. Kaddirep yap] For just as 
the eye by means of the bright beam 
which is planted by nature in it 


eyteeifjbevijs avTu> (vcn/cws 0.1779 ev KOivwva TOV 
&ia TT)? /j,(f)VTOV Swd/Jiews TO avyyeves 
OUTCO? dvay/caiov rjv ej/cpadfjvai ri rfj 
rei, crvyyeves 7rpo9 TO Oelov, 009 ai> Sid TOV 
Kara\\7]\ou Trpos TO ol/celov Trjv e<$>ea~tv e%ot. KOI yap 5 
KOI ev Tr) TWV d\6ya)v (frvo-ei, ocra TOV evvSpov KOI evaepiov 

009 OLKCIOV etcaTepov /cal ofAocfruXov Sia r^9 
7rota9 rov aw/jiaTos 8ia7r\daea)s TO) fjucv TOV depa, rc5 8e 
TO v$d)p eivai. ovTcos ovv /cal TOV avOpwTrov GTTI Trj TWV 10 
0ta)v dyaOayv d7ro\avcri yevop^evov e Set TL crvyyeves ev TTJ 

(f)V(Tl 7T/309 TO /jiT%6fAeVOV %IV. &td TOVTO KOL %O)f) fCal 

\o r yw KOL cro(f)ia teal Tracn, TOt9 OeojrpeTrecriv dyaOols /caT- 
tcoa/ji?j9 r], &)9 av St etcdcrTOv TOVTCOV 7rpo$ TO oitcelov Trjv 

v e^oi. evrel ovv ev TWV irepl Trjv OeLav fyvo-iv 15 
/cal 1} dioiOTrjs ecrTiv, eoei TrdvTws /J,r)oe TOVTOV 
KaTacrfcevrjv elrai T/;9 (frvo-ews TI/JLCOV d7roK\ijpov, aXX 
ev eavTrj TO dOdvaTOv, &)9 dv 3ta T^9 ey^eifjievr)^ 

6 /cat ev.] 77 TOV aepiov fg 1 \\ 7 KarecrKevacrdri fl vulg || 8 eKarepov f || 
10 TO i 5wp] om TO n || OI TW 701 ^ f 

comes to partake of the light, attract- 6. aXoyuv] In irrational animals 

iug by its innate capacity tJiat which we find the same adaptation to their 

is akin to it." 1 (Jr. conceives of the intended environment. Each is con- 

eye as possessing a light within itself, stituted in a way that corresponds 

by which it is enabled to attract with (KaTaXA^Xws) its manner of life. 
light from without. The idea is 8. (is oliceiov] .w that in conse- 

found in Plato Tim. 45 H I), and quence of the particular formation 

is commented on by Aristotle de of the body, each finds its own proper 

Sensu c. ii. Dr II. Jackson, to and kindred element, the one in the 

whom I am indebted for the above air, the other in the water. For 

references, has also called my atten- this use of the indefinite adj. TTOIOS 

tion to a passage in a fragment of cp. de Horn. Op. c. 27 at ?rotat TTJS 

Theophrastus de Sensibns 5 (see /cpacretjs irapa\\ayai. 
Uiels Doxographi Graeci, p. 500) ib. 6/A60iAof] kindred i.e. cor- 

vvhere Plato s view is set forth. responding with its manner of life. 
4. 5ta T. /caT.] /// order that by 10. eirlrrj] Cp. supra eiri TOUTOIS. 

means of this corresponding gift it 13. Qeoirpe-n-.] appropriate to 

might have a desire for that which is God. 

akin to it. For KaraXX. cp. c. I 18. TO <i#aj>aTOJ>] is that part of 

Ka.Ta\\Tj\ov...Trj <j>vffi 6 \6yos. The man which is immortal, while dtSto- 

possession of the higher faculties TTJS denotes the actual possession of 

leads man to seek after communion immortality which belongs to God. 
with God and the divine life. ib. ci>s av] Man s innate capacity 

2 4 


yvcopl^oi re TO vTreprcei/jievov KOI ev 67ri,0v/j-ia 
TT;? 06ias ai^ior^rof; CITJ. ravrd rot TrepiXrjTTTLKfj fywvf) 
81 ei o? ptj/jbaros 6 rfjs Koa/jioyovias eWSetfaro \6yo<$, KCLT 
eiKOva Oeov rov avOpanrov yeyevfjcrOat, \eywv eV yap rfj 
5 o/jLOLwcrei rfj Kara rt}v eiKova TTCLVTWV earl rwv TO Belov 
TJ aTrapid/jt iyo is, teal ocra Trepl TOVTWV 

o Mft><Ti79 Ste^ep^erai, ev Sirjytjcrews 
r^fuv rrapanOe/Jievo^, T7/9 avTr/s e^erai 
Ka\La$. 6 yap TrapciSeicros CKCIVOS Kal TI rwv 
10 iSiOTr)?, wv rj fipwcris ov yacrrpos rr\rjO-^ovr]V, ak\a 

Kal aiSiorrjra 0)779 rot9 yevcrafAevois BiSuxri,, rrdvra ravra 
crvva&ei rot9 TrporeOecopTj/jLevois rrepl rov avOpwrrov, co? 

i yvupifriTo f vulg I] 2 TOI] rrj g 1 ! 1 vulg ii 3 Koafjioyfveias degl*np J 
4 7^7. T. avdp. f || 5 Traj/TWS vulg || om rcov 1* || 7-8 taropiK 
[j.evos desunt in 1* vulg || 8 avrrjs ] roiavrr/s l* vitl vulg || 10 aidiorrjs ef h |j 
Tr\T](r/j.ovr)v] -rjdovrjv f \\ 1 1 ravra Travra d 

(jr. s by Harnack (Hist, of Dogma, 
Fng. Tr. iii 277, note 2), is of very 
doubtful authorship, and Barden- 
he\\ er (Patrol, p. 260 f.) thinks that 
it cannot be assigned either to Basil 
or to Gregory. In c. 21 infra, Gr. 
certainly uses 6/j.oiwais with reference 
to the natural endowments of man, 
and especially free-will, without any 
necessary reference to moral like 

6. dirapid/j,.] almost = the sum 

8. doy/mara] ^setting before us 
doctrines in the form of narrative? 
This is an instance of the application 
of dvaywyrj to the narrative of the 
O.T. See note on dvaywyLK&s c. 2 
init. For a similar treatment of the 
narratives in Genesis see Origen de 
Princ. iv 16 (Pliilocal., ed. Rob. 
p. 24). 

ib. <?x Tai ] belongs to the same 

g. 6 yap -rrapdd.] The story of 
Paradise is a representation of the 
truth that man s nature as created 
was good and surrounded by good 
(fi> dyadois). 

(e^KtLfjLtv-qs 8wd/ for immortality 
was intended to enable him to re 
cognize that which transcended his 
nature (TO virepKeifJievov), and lead 
him to desire the immortal life of 
God. For TO vTrepKeiimevov cp. prol. 
5vva.iJ.LV ...rov TTCIVTOS VTrepKei/uicvrjv. 

i . TrepiX-rjTrTiKrj] comprehensive. 
The phrase K<XT eUova. deov (Gen. i 
27) sums up all that Gr. has been 

5. bjJLOL<joffei....eiKbvoL\ l in the like 
ness according to the image there is the 
enumeration of all that characterizes 
the Divine Being. 1 Gr. does not 
appear to observe the clear distinc 
tion between eiK&v, the natural image 
of God in man, and o/zoiams, the 
supernatural likeness resulting from 
grace, which is found in Origen. 
This distinction is, indeed, attributed 
to Gr. by Hilt (Des hi. Greg. v. 
Nyssa Lehre von Menschen, pp. 77 
sq.), but the only passage which can 
be quoted in support of it is /;/ vcrba 
Facia m us, p. 273 (Migne), where 
the writer says K.O.T eiKOva yap x w 
TO \oyiKos elvai, Kad b/j.oiwa iv 5e iv TU> os yeveaOai. 
But this work, though quoted as 



re Kal ev dyaOois OVCTTJS /car dp-%ds rfaiv rrjs 
rcXX dvriXeyei, rv^ov TO? elprjuevois 6 TT/JO? 
rd Trapovra {3\eTra)v Kal olerai ie\ey%eiv rov \6yov OVK 
d\.rj6evovra TCO ar} ev eKeLvois vvv, aXX ev Trdai a^eBov 
vrrevavriois, opdaOaL rov dvdpcoTrov. TTOV yap rfjs ^ 

T @Oi&e<> ; TTOV Be rj drrdOeia rov crooyLtaro? ; TTOV 
T/7? f&)^9 TO diSiov ; ut/cv/jiopov, e/jiTraOes, eTrifcrjpov, 
Trdcrav Tradij/jidrayv ISeav Kara re aco/jia Kal ^v^}} 

ravra Kal rd roiavra \eywv Kal Kararpe^ 

, dvarpejreiv rov drro$o6evra Trepl rov dv- 10 
Opu>7rov \oyov ol7jcreraL. aXX? co? dv aTjoauov r^}? 
d/co\ov6ia<i 6 Xo^o? rraparparrei T]^ Kal Trepl rovrcov ev 
oXiyois S(d\r)^lr6/jieOa. ro vvv ev droTrois eivai rrjv 
(tvOpcoTTivrjv ^a)f]v ov% iKavos ecrriv e Xey^o? rov /jUjSeTrore 
rov dvOpwrrov ev dyaOois yeyevijaOai- eTreibt} yap 6eov 15 
epyov o dv0pw7ro<>, rov $L dyaOoryra ro ^aJov rovro 
Trapayayovro? et9 yeveaiv, OVK dv rt? et Xo yw?, ov rj 
atria r?}? avo-rdcrecos dyaOorrjs earl, rovrov ev KaKols 
yeyevtjaOat Trapd rov TreTTOLTjKoros KaOvrrorrrevaeiev XX 
erepov e&riv alnov rov ravrd re vvv Trepl ijuds elvai Kal 20 

2 avriXeyoi dh j| 8 i/ i X 7 ? Kat - o"w/*a 1 vulg || 10 \oyov TT. r. avdpuirov 
deghnp || u TroiTjffercu f |; rov a,Ko\ov8ov vulg || 13 ro vvv] exstant seqq 
in euth 12456 || aroTrots] KCLKOLS euth 16 || 18-19 TOVTOV... TrfTron] KOTOS desunt 
in 1* vulg || 20 atr. ecmv er. 1 

2. a\\ d^nX^ei] It may be are neuter, and the subject has to be 

objected that man s present condi- supplied from the preceding rbv dic 

tion is the reverse of good. In what dpwwov. For wKv/j.opoi> cp. c. i 

follows Gr. argues that man s actual w/cu/xo/oos 77 far). 

state is due to another cause than 9. Kararp^x^^] inveighing a- 

the creative agency of God. The gaitist." 1 Cp. c. 15 /cararpe xeii rrjs 

evil in man springs from within (e/m- TriVrews. 

(pvTa.L fr dodev), and is the result of 13. TO vvv KT\.~\ The remainder 

his possession of free-will. of this chap, is quoted by Euthym. 

6. aTrcltfeta] i.e. freedom from Zig. Pan. Dogni. pt i, tit. 6. 
passions rather than from suffer- 17. OVK &v TIS] one could not 
ing. with any good reason suspect tJiat he, 

7. uKv/j-opov] Man is a fleeting whose constitution Jias its source in 
being, subject to passions, a prey to goodness, was created by his Maker 
death, exposed to every form of suffer- in a state of evil? 

ing in body and soul. The adjs. 19. d\\ ^rcpov] The fact that 



WV TrpOTifjLOTepcov pr)/j,co0i)vai. dp^rj ^ Trdkiv teal 
TOVTOV rjfMV TOP \oyov OVK e^co TT}? TWV dvTi\eyovTwv earl 
-ews. 6 yap eVl fjuerovcrla T&V IBicov d<ya9u>v 
TOV avOpwTrov KOL TrdvTwv avTO) TWV fcaXwv T? 
5 d<f)op/jids eyKarao-Kevdcras rfj (f>vo-ei, &>? av Si e/cdcrrov 
/taraXXr/Xo)? 717)09 TO ofjuoiov rj op%i<i (frepoiTO, OVK av TOV 
Ka\\i(7Tov re real TifUtoTdrov TOOV dyaOutv d 
\eyo) &r) T^? Kara TO dSecnroTov teal avT^ovaiov 


eica)v tcaT etceivo TO 

, d\\oTpiw6el<ra 
TCO dvo/jLoiq) 7T/30? TO dp^eTVTrov TT}? yap /3ao-i\vovo"r)s 
ews r) dvdy/cais Ticrlv VTre^ewyjJLevr) re KOI ov\evovcra 
av elrcwv ovojJbd^oiTO ; OVKOVV TO 8id irdvTwv Trpos TO 

i wpoTepujt I 1 euth || 2 e^udev fl vulg || 4 om ras euth || 6 om 
fl vulg || Q T-TI avdpu}7ni>7]...far] 1 vulg 

important group of MSS. But its 
presence here is in accordance with 
the language of Gr. in this same 
chapter. Cp. antea did TOV /caraX- 
\r]\ov -rrpbs TO oixtlov rr)v gfieaiv ^X OL - 
That passage determines the meaning 
here. It is not vicissim as Krab. 
renders, but rather through a cor 
responding-movement. T6 ofj.oiov, 
i.e. that attribute of God which 
corresponds to the human endow 

Q. ei ydp] The possession of free 
will is a necessary part of the eiKwv 
in which man was made, and which 
would have been falsified (oieij/evadri), 
had it not resembled its archetype in 
this respect. Cf. de Morttiis, p. 524 
(Migne) i<r66eoi> ydp ecrrt TO ai Te- 

ii. di>o/J.oi({3 irpos] Cp. c. 2, p. 13 
d\\oTpiov...Trp6s (note). 

13. OVKOVV] The effect of the 
gift of free-will is to make man s 
participation in good the reward of 
virtue. How then, it is asked, did 
man come to exchange good for evil ? 
This leads Gr. to a discussion of the 
origin of evil, which he maintains 

man is in his present condition 
(raura vvv irepi ri/ elvai), and that 
he has lost his more desirable estate 
(r&v TrpOTi/uiOTtpui ep-q/j.wdiji at) is 
due to a different cause than the 
creative action of God. 

3. <ru7/cara#^(7ews] assent. The 
argument starts from a principle with 
which Gr. s opponents will find 
themselves in agreement. 

5. d0o/3yU,ds] Krab. translates oc- 
casiones. A</>op/x?? is freq. used by 
St Paul in the sense of occasion, 
opportunity. Cp. Rom. vii 8, 
2 Cor. xii 12, Gal. v 13, i Tim. v 
1 4. In the military sense it = a base 
of operations. In the present pas 
sage Gr. is referring to man s pos 
session of the higher faculties, which 
become the starting-point or 
means of acquiring all forms of 
excellence. For its use in this pas 
sage cp. c. 6 sub Jin. TTJS dpxfy 
(Keivrjs TOV TOLOVTOV re Aoi s rds d<pop- 

ib. 5t eicdffTov] i.e. through each 
endowment of his nature which is an 
<i0op/u.i7 T&V KaXuv. The following 
word /caraXXTjXws is omitted by one 


Oelov MfjiOLMfjievov ebei Trdvrcos e^eiv eV rfj (frvcrei TO avro- 
Kpares /cal dSecrTroTov, wcrre (iO\ov dpeTrjs eivai rrjv rtov 
dyaOwv fJLerovo- iav. 7r60ev ovv, e peZ?, 6 Sid irdvTwv rot? 

\daro ; aa<j)>)s teal 6 7Tpl rovrov \6yos. ovSe/mia Ka/cov 5 
etc rov Oeiov j3ov\ijiAa,TOs rrjv dp%r)v eo"%ev rj yap 
yLte/x^eco? rjv rj tca/cia, 6eov eavrrjs 7Tiypa(f)o/j.vr) 
teal Trarepa r/ XA, efJ,<f>VTal 7TW9 TO KCLKOV evboOev, 
rf) Trpoatpecrei, rore o-vviardfjievov, orav TIS OTTO rov Ka\ov 

r>/9 "^^X^ 9 dva%(t)pr}(ri,<?. /cadaTrep yap rj opacris 10 
(TTIV evepyeia, rj Se Trrjpcoa-t? o-re/D^crt? eVrt TI}? 
evepyeias, ovra) /cat rj aperrj irpos rrjv fca/ciav 

] + 5 

6 om rov fl vulg || 8 e/c0i/erat vulg 

has no substantive existence but is 
dwo rov Ka\ou TTJS ^L>X^ S a,^axwp?;crts. 
5. oi)5e/x.ta] In the margin of 
MSS b and c, opposite the passage 
which follows, are written the words 
Kara Mai i^cu wi . All through the Or. 
Caf. Gr. has the Manichaeans in view. 
For his treatment of the problem 
of evil see further a fine passage in 
de Virg.c,. 12. Cp. also dc Aninia 
et Res. p. 93 (Migne), dc Infant. 
p. 176 (Migne). The idea is em 
phasized still further in c. 6 of the 
Or. Cat. Cp. also Plato Rep. ii 
3790, x 617 K. 

7. Tn.ypa(f)oiJ.evri} if it could 
claim God as its Creator and father. 
K7ri7/3. is used here as in the phrase 

TTpOffTOLTriV TTLypa(f)(Tda.L to cllOOSC 

a patron by enrolling under his name 
on the register. The idea is that evil 
might shelter itself under the name 
of God, if it could be ascribed to 
Him. With the application of the 
words TroitjT^v KCLI irarepa to God cp. 
Plato Tim. 280. 

8. e/A0i <eTcu] For the idea cp. 
James i 13 15. 

9. (Tvvi(TTaiu,ei oi>] arising in the 
will whenever. 

ib. rov /caXoO] the good. 1 To 

Ka\6v is the Greek term for moral 
beauty or virtue, translated by Cicero 

ro. dvaxupTio is] For the idea of 
evil as the negation of good (a.perr)$ 
aTTovalav infra] cf. Basil Hoin. ii in 
Hex. 4 TO KO.K.OV oi xi ov<ria faaa 
Kai fji.\{/vxos d\\d diddecris iv i/ i XT? 
fj/ai/rtws Zx ovffa npos dperrjv. Simi 
larly Aug. Ench. xi cum omnino 
mali nomen non sit nisi privationis 
boni. Cp. de Civ. Dei xii 6 seq. 
Cp. also Ath. contra Gentes 5 7, de 
Inc. 4. The conception is a piece 
of Platonism and has its roots in the 
teaching of the Timaeus which pro 
foundly influenced the later Platon- 
ists. Cp. Plotinus Enn. iii 2. 5 6 Xws 5e 
ro KO.KOV \\i\j/tv rov dyaBou dertov. 
Its adoption by later fathers is due 
to the influence of Origen. Cp. de 
Princ. ii 9. 2 Recedere a bono non 
aliud est quam effici in malo. Cer- 
tum namque est, malum esse bono 
carere. Cp. also in loann. ii 7, 
c. Ce/su/n iv 65 66. 

1 1 . TTTjpoxm] here =: blindness. 
Urjpod} is used of anything which 
incapacitates man s faculties. See 
J. A. Robinson Journal of Thcol. 
Studies iii 9 p. 90 ff. In cc. 6 and 



dvTiKa6e(TTr)icev. ov yap eanv aAAo>9 *a/a a? yeveaiv 
evvorj&ai, T) apTT)<? anrovaiav. w&Trep yup TOV (a)T09 
ixfraipeOevTos 6 o</>09 e7rrjKO\ov07]O , irapovTO^ Be ov/c 
eaTiv, oura)9, eo)9 av Traptj TO dyaOov eV rfj (frvcrei,. 
5 dvvTrapKTOv TL eVrt /ca6 eavTtjv // f Ka/cia rj Be TOV 
KpeiTTOvos ava%a)pr](7is TOV evavTiov yiveTdi <yeveais. 
7rel ovv TOVTO 7779 avTe%ovo-iQTr]Tos eVrt TO l$ia)fj,a, TO 
tear* et^ovcriav aipelcr6ai TO KCLTadvjjiiov, ov% 6 ^eo? <TOL 
TWV 7rap6i>TO)v eaT\,v atrto? KCLKWV, dSecrTTOTov re KOI 

10 avtTOV aoi KaTaatcevfio-a^ rr)V (frva tv, aAA, rj d/3ov\ia TO 
Xelpov dvT\ TOV KpeiTTOvos 7rpoe~\.ofjievri. 

6. Z^ret9 Se KOI Trjv aiTiav TV^OV TTJ^ tcaTa Tr/v /3ov\rjv 
^ia/JLapTias et9 TOVTO ydp r) dxoXovOia TOV \6yov 
OVKOVV Trd\iv dp^rj rt9 rjpfiv KaTa TO ev\oyov evpeOi 

15 f) icai TOVTO (7a(f)i]vio-L TO ^Trjfj,a. TOiovTov Tiva \6yov 
Trapd TWV TTdTepwv 8i$e%a/J,e6a eaTi Se 6 Xo<yo9 ov 

I vulg |j a\\7jv fl vulg |l 2 airovcna n euth |. 4 
r) fl vulg i) 5 avvir. rt] om rt I euth 456 vulg |> Kad eavro gl vulg || 6 7^. 
r. e. 7e^e(ris fl vulg i! 8 avatpeLffdai vulg SI om aoi e euth 45 || 1 1 OTTO 
rou KpeiTT. euth 16 || TrpoeXo/u.ei T;] \o/J.evr) f : desinit euth 6. 12 om 
de dehn |j povXyv] (3ov\-r]<ni> g 1 ! 1 |j 13 rwv \oywv 1 vulg 

7 Gr. uses the illustration of a man 
shutting his eyes to the sunlight, to 
show that evil is the refusal of good. 

5. avvirapnTov] Cp. c. i, p. 8, 
and c. 2, p. 15. 

8. Ka.Tadvfj.ioi>] a common word 
in Gr. =ro r)5tf here. Cp. c. 8. 
10. averov] l free J l uncontrolled.^ 
id. rj dfiovXia] It is not God, but 
man s folly in preferring evil to good, 
which is the cause of man s present 

6. We must now consider the 
causes which led mail s judgment 
astray. The natural creation com- 
prises two worlds, the world of in- 
telligence and the world of sense. 
But though these are opposite to each 
other, yet, just as Nature exhibits 
a general harmony embracing indi- 

vidual differences, so t/ie Divine 
wisdom has ordained a means of 
blending the intelligent and sensible 
elements by creating man. Man s 
nature excited the envy of one of the 
created spirits, for in a nature that 
was created and subject to change, 
like Sataifs, suc/i a passion was 
possible, involving the turning away 
from his Creator and the inclination 
to evil. Tims the rebellions spirit 
sank lower and lower in evil, and 
finally beguiled man to turn away 
from God, mingling evil witli his 

12. Kara r. /Soi X.] referring to r\ 
d(3ov\ia at the close of c. 5. 

14. d-pX^] used as in prol. p. ^, 
and c. 5, p. 20 (see note). 

16. Trarepuir] Among earlier writ- 


, XX e f auT?]? TT}? fyvcrews rjfjLWv TO 

7TKTTOV 7ray6/jL6VOS. Sl7T\fj T/9 <TTLV V TOfc? OVGIV ij 

, et? TO VOTJTOV re /cat ala 6 rjTOV TT}? Oewpias 
Kol ov&ev dv Trapd ravra Kaj a\rj(f)6 et?; eV 
OVTWV (frvo-ei T?}? &iatpe<Tews Tavrrjs efa> fyepofjievov. 5 

Be ravra Trpos d\\rj\a 7roXXa> TCO /xecrco, &)? f^ijre 
TTJV ai<jQi)Triv ev rot? ^or/rot? elvau <yv(iypio fj,ao i, fjir/re .v 
rot? ala6r)Tol<; eiceivrjv, aXX TTO rw^ evavriwv eKarepav 
^apaKT7]pi^60-0aL. i] ^ev ^dp vorfrrj fyvais aaco/jiaTOp 
TL xpfjfjba ecrrt /cai dva(f)e$ fcal dveiSeov TI Be aloOrjrr) TO 

KCLT aVTO TO OVOfJLCL eVrO? 6CTTL T% Sta Tft)J/ alcrOl^TT] pLWV 

Karavo^aew^. XX wa Trep ev avTO) TW alcrOrjTQ) 
TroXX?}? 7T/30? a\\r/\a TWV 

i TJ KaTav.] om 77 vulg || 4 \Tj(f>deir) dgnp || 5 (f)epofj.evov] (f>epop.evrj<s e 
(t>au.vo[j.evov fg 1 || 6 Statpetrat f jj 10 ai etSeoi ] atStov g 

ers, teaching to the same effect is 
found in Justin Dial. c. 119, p. 205, 
Iren. v 22. 2. Cp. also Ath. contra 
Gentes 3, ^ /;/r. 4, 25. In spite of 
the influence of Origen s thought on 
Gr., the latter does not adopt 
Origen s idea of a pre-temporal fall 
of souls. Cp. Origen de Princ. 
iii 5. 

i. /jLvdudr)<> dirjyrja-is] a mythical 
account, i.e. an account given in 
some such form as the /j,vt)oi of Plato, 
which present truth in the form of 
poetic fiction. Gr. claims that his 
account of the origin of sin is one 
which invites credence (TO Trtcrro^ 
irayo/uLi>os), owing to the very con 
stitution of our nature (e O.VTTJS rr^i 
<pv<rews rj/muiv). It is possible that in 
/mvdudtis dir]jTfjffLs Gr. is thinking of 
the account in Genesis, which, like 
Origen, he interpreted (cp. cc. 5, 8) 
by dvayuyri. In accordance with the 
plan of the Or. Cat. he illustrates 
the origin of sin from human ex 
perience, i.e. the existence in man 
of TO VOTJTOV and TO aiad-rjTdv, whose 
harmony has been disturbed. In 
the same way he has illustrated the 

doctrine of the Trinity from human 

2. dt.Tr\TJ] a twofold classifica 
tion may be discerned. 1 For diTrXfj 
KaravoTjais cp. Plat. Tim. 82 C 5ev- 

3. vorfrbv ...aladr^Tov^ l the world 
of intelligence 1 (i.e. apprehended by 
intelligence), the world of sense 
(i.e. that falls under the observation 
of the senses). For the idea of 
vovs see note on 5iavoir)Ti.Ki)v duva/uui 
infra. In what follows Gr. adopts 
a twofold division of human nature, 
and so departs from Origen, who 
retained St Paul s division of aw/ma, 
i/ i XT?, TTvev^a. (i Thess. v 23). 

6. TroXX^ TOJ M^y] by a con 
siderable distance or interval. 1 

7. ev T. v. etVcu] For ei^ou ev cp. 
c. i ev (3}r)...elva.L. 

8. d-rrb rCov v.] A?r6 denotes 
here the source. But each of them 
receives its particular character from 
qualities opposite to those of the other." 1 

12. d\\ w cTTrep] Gr. illustrates 
the unity of man s nature, in spite of 
its combination of the opposites TO 
and TO aicrdyTov, from the 


TTivevor]Tai Tt 

Trapd TT}? rov TTCLVTOS 

7rp09 eavrrjv 

TWV evavroyv 



5 eip/jiov &LaX,vovcrr)S Kara rov avrov Tpojrov Kal rou 
aiaOrfTOV 7rpO9 TO VOTJTOV <yiveTai Ti9 Kara Oeiav aofyiav 
fjii^iS Te Kai dvaKpaais, ct>9 av iravra rov KO\OV Kara TO 
laov /uuere^oi Kal /jbySev T&V ovrwv dfAoipOLT] T?79 rov 
KpeiTTOvos (^)i;creci)9. Sid rovro TO fjiev Kard\\7j\op TIJ 
10 voT^rf) (f)vo-ei ^aipiov rj \e7rrrj Kal evKivrjros eanv ovaia, 
Kara Tr]v vTrepKoafJiiov \rj^iv 7ro\\r)v e^ovaa rw ISidi 
T?}9 (frvcrews ?r^)O9 TO vorjrov rr/v avyyeveiav 
8e KpeiTTOVi Trpos TT^V alo OijT rjv KTLO~LI> yiveral 

8 om rou fl vulg 
1 vulg 

10 XeTTTTj] \VKTJ 1 + \OJiKr] Vlllg \\ 1 3 KTiCTl.v] (pl CTLV 

harmony in diversity exhibited in 
the visible Universe. 

i. eTTii ei OTjTcu] a certain har 
mony has been devised by the wisdom 
which presides over the Universe, a 
harmony effected by means of oppo- 
sites. 1 

^. eip/mbv] = ser?ew. A chain of 
agreement^ which is not broken by 
the individual differences of the con 
stituent parts. 

7. /xtts re /cat aya/cpacm] tiiix- 
ture and blending. 1 For this idea of 
the interpenetration of spirit and mat 
ter, which is a characteristic feature 
in Or. cp. de Orat. Doni. iv p. 1165 

ib. ws aiv Travra] Ace. to Gr. it 
is in and through man, whose nature 
is the meeting point of the worlds of 
spirit and of sense, that Creation 
reaches its final goal. 

8. Trjs r. K. 0^0-ewsl Krab. takes 
this as equiv. to ejus quod natura 
praestantius est. Cp. Mayor s note 
on James iii 7. The whole phrase is 
synonymous with TOV /coAoD above. 

o,. TO fji-ev /caroXX.] though the 
proper sphere for the intelligent na 

ture is the realm of subtle and mobile 
essence, having, by virtue of its dwell 
ing above the Universe, considerable 
affinity with the intelligible element, 
in consequence of the peculiarity of 
its nature, yet <2r-Y. The clause 
introduced by fjiev is best taken as 
concessive. H XCTTT^... ovvia is the 
subject, and x^p LOV the predicate. 
The idea is that \eirT-rj /cat eu/ctV^ros 
ov<ria is the natural abode for i) J/OTJTT? 
0wm, but that God accomplished 
II is purpose of bringing all things 
into union with Himself by a blend 
ing of the intelligent and sensible 
elements in man. 

1 1 . XT}^] Lot? appointed place 
(Xa7x<xj/a;). Moeller (Greg. Nyss. 
doctr. de hominis natura, p. 19) has 
a long discussion of this expression, 
in which he says a nonnullis vertitur 
sors,, a nonnullis locus sive regio. 
Et rlverautrumqueinest. Significat 
enim certam vitae sortem atque con- 
suetudinem certo loco inhaerentem. 
Other examples of Gr. s use of the 
word are de Or at. Dom. iv p. 1165 
(Migne) i) /mev ovv vorjTTj [sc. 0iVts] 
rr\v &vi>j \T)II> tTrnropfverai, where he 


vorjTov crvvavdicpacris, ft)? av firfSev airoft\7)TOv ely r?)? 

a7TOK\rjpoi>. rovrov %apiv etc VOTJTOV re teal 
alo-Orjrov TO Kara TOV avOpwrrov f^iy/j.a Trapd rijs #eia? 
dva&eitcvvTai (ycre&>9, tca6a)S Bi^atr/cei, TT}? tcoafAoyovias 6 5 
Xoyo?- Aaflaiv yap o #eo?, (frfjaiVj %ou^ avro TT}? 7?}? TOV 
avOpwTrov 7T\a(7 teal Sici T?}? t Sta? efJUTTvevaew^ TO) TrXao-- 
yuart TT)^ fw^ evefyvrevcrev, &)? az^ crvverrapOeiri rw 9eiw 
TO yijivov teal ^ia r^? /cara. TO ojJLOTifJiov Sia Trdo-rjs r?)? 

s /; X C/1 P^ ^^icoi t rr)? KCLTW </>i;cre&>? TT^O? T^Z/ vTrep- 10 

eVet oui^ TTJ? vorjTrjs 
s, /cal eKaaTrj TWV dyye\tKcov ^vvd/Jiewv 

o 6. dl vulg [| 8 

5 Kocr/ elp vulg || 6 
9 am rr;s f || 10 Si^/cet p St^Ariy dgn 

is speaking of the angels. In contra 
Ennoni. \ p. 68 1 (Migne) he speaks 
of TT]v re yr/v Kal TTJV ddXaaaav 
KO.I ri)i> VTT o~x_d bv iov \rj^iv. Cp. de 
Ho/n. Op. c. 17; contr. Eunoi. xii 
p. 1004 (Migne). Moeller concludes 
Patet etiam ex hoc vocabulo, Gr. 
sicut reliquos patres fere omnes nul- 
lum creaturarum licet intelligibilium 
vitae statum loci finibus prorsus ex- 
emptum docuisse. 

I. ffwaisd-Kpaais] commingling. 
In de Horn. Op. c. 12 Gr. discusses 
the relations of mind and matter in 
man and denies that the former can 
be limited to any particular part of 
the body. vovs 5t 6\ov TOV opydvov 
5iT)KO)i>, Kal Kara\\rj\<jJS rcu? vorjrt.Ka iS 
evepyeiais, Kadb 7re0i;/cev, e/ccicrra; T&V 
/j.ep>v TrpoaaTTTo/uievos, firi /mev r(Jov 


evi]pyr}ffev. Cp. de An. et Rcsurr. 
p. 69 (Migne) ^i>xv v $ dai^fj.aTov 
ovffav fj.Tjde/.dav dvdyKTjv Z$ii> e/c 
0u<recos TOTTOIS TLCTLV yKa.T^-x_f<rda.L. 
The nearest approach to these views 
is to be found in Plotinus. See 
Enn. iv 3. 20 sq. 

ib. dTr6f3\T)Tov] i Tim. iv 4 that 
no part of creation might be rejected." 1 

d vulg 

There is a similar passage in the de 
Infant, qni praeni. pp. 172 sq. 

5. dvaSeiKvvTai] in the sense of 
appoint, constitute, make. 

6. x ^] Gen. ii 7. 

8. tve(p\)Tvav] planted. Cp. 
Plat. Tim. 42 A OTrore ST? ffu^aaLv 
e/j.(f)VTevdelfv (sc. at \pvxai). The 
reading ive(^vGr\<sev is due to a desire 
to bring the passage into closer 
accord with Gen. ii 7, where ive- 
<pi<ff7]ffv is found in the LXX. 

ib. d:s av ffvitew.] The object in 
creating such a being as man was 
that the earthly nature might be 
carried up by union with (crvveTrap- 
dei-r)) the Divine, so that the Divine 
grace in one even course as it were 
(AUO, TIJ) might equally extend 
through the whole creation. 

1 1 . eVet GUI ] The protasis begun in 
the clause eTrei...rji> rts is continued 
by the following clause etra Kare- 
ffKevdaOTj, and again resumed, after 
the parenthesis TOVTO e, in the 
clause Kal TfV. The apodosis begins 
with deivbv Troietrcu. 

ib. vo-rjTrjs KTto-eus] refers to TUV 
dyye\iK&i> dwdueuv which follo\vs. 


TJJV TOV Trai TO? (JVGTacnv evepyeias TLVOS Trapa TT}? TWV 
TrdvTwv eVtcTTaTouo-?;? efofcrta? Trpoa-ve/jLijOeio-rjs, r)v Ti? 
$vva/jiis KOI r) TOV rrepl yeiov TOTTOV (jvve^eiv re /cal Trept- 
Kpareiv Teray/jLevrj, et? avrb TOVTO ^vvafjiwOelaa Trapa T% 
5 TO rrav oitcovofjiovcr r]s ovvdfjuew elra Kareo-Kevdo-Orj TO 
<yr)ivov 7T\dcr/jLa, TT}? avw Svvd/jiecos aTreiKoi La/jLa TOVTO 
>e TO ojov o avOpcoTros /cal i}v ev CLVTW TO Oeoeioes 

(j>va(i)S /caX-Xo?, apprjTM Tivi SwdfJie 
beivov TroieiTai /cal OVK dvetcTov o TTJV Trepi<yeiov 
10 oiKovofjiiav \a^a)V, EL K TT}? vTro^eipiov avTw <pvo~ea)s 

/mevr) g || OTTWS] oirep vulg 

clause. / him there was tlie god 
like beauty of the intelligent nature, 
blended with a certain ineffable 
potency? AiVa^ts refers to the latent 
capacity of man as having been made 
/car elKOva Oeov. 

g. dtivov TToieircu] The angel of 
the earth takes it amiss that out of 
the nature subject to him (rrjs VTTO- 


6 67rl fjirj&evl Kaicu) KTio~6e\^ Trapa TOV TO irav ev 
o-vcTTriaafJievov, TO p,ev 

3 cm. /cat efl vulg || 12 ofj.oi.oi 
diet;. 1 vulg 

2. Trpoffi eu rjdeio rjs] The angelic 
powers are represented as having 
each been assigned some activity in 
the constitution of the Universe. 
The idea is found in Methodius de 
Resurr. i 37 (ed. Bonw. p. 130), 
and still earlier in Origen c. Celsum 
v 30 31. Its source is to be found 
in the later Judaism. Cp. Rev. xiv 
18, xvi 5. For (rvaraa^ cp. c. 4 
Trpos ovpavdov (TvcrTaffiv. 

;>. -rrepl-yeiov TOTTOV~\ One such 
angel was appointed to maintain and 
govern the region about the earth. 
For this epic notion cp. Methodius 
/. c. ; also Rufin. in Symb. Ap. art. 
4; Basil Horn, ix 8 sq. ; lo. Damasc. 
de Fid. Orth. ii 4. See further 
Schwane Dogmengesch. ii p. 218; 
Godet Bibl. Studies: Old Testament 
(ed. Lyttleton), p. 16 ff. For aw- 
^X iv see note on ffvveKTiKrj c. 5. 

4. 5vva/j.w6e iaa] empowered. 
Cp. infra 5td TTJS deias ev\oyias dv- 

7. Arai rfv^ The clause app^TU 
Tivi dtiva/mei ffwyKeKpa.iJ.evov is an 
explanatory addition to the main 

there should be produced any being 
resembling in dignity the Supreme 

ir. dvadeixdrjO eTai] Cp. supra 
avadeiKwrai (note). 

ib. oi crta] The ovaia of man is 
that which constitutes him avdpuwos, 
and which he shares with every 
other member of the race. Simi 
larly (Jr. argues in the de Comm. 
Not. that the word debs is 6 vofj.a 
ovffias 0-rjfj.avTiKov and not oYo^a 

13. eirl fj.-rjdevi. /ca/cw] created for 
no evil end. Cp. c. 5, p. 22 eiri 
TCWTOIS, and ibid, p. 23 e?ri rrj...d7ro- 




ov rfjs Trapovarjs Trpayfjiarelas eo~rl, Svvarov S av eiij Kal 
Si o\iyov rot? evTreiOearepois nrapaOecrOai rov \6yov. 
rr?? ^ a P dperrjs Kal TT}? KaKias ^X ^ ^ vo TWWV Kaff 
vrroorao Lv fyaivofjievwv r) dvri$iao-ro\rj Oecopelrat aXX 
axTTrep avribiaipelrai rw ovri TO fir) ov Kal OVK ecrrt Kaff 5 
V7r6o~racrtv eiTreiv TO /U.T) ov avrtScaareXXeadaL TT/OO? TO ov, 

r)v avvnap^iav avTi^iaipelcrOai \e^/ofJLev TT^O? ir)v 
Kara rov avrov rpoirov Kal 77 Kaicla TW TT)S 
dperfjs dvTLKaOeo-TTjKe XOJM, ov Kaff eavrrfv Tt? ovaa, 
a\\a rf) ajrovcTLa voov/JLevrj rov Kpeirrovos Kai wcrTrep 10 
(fra/jitv avn^iaipelcrOai rf) opaaei rrjv Trijpcocnv, ov Kaff 
eavrrjv ovaav rfj $vo-ei TTJV TTijpwo-LV, d\\a TrpoXaftovaris 
e^6o>? aTeprjaiv, ovrw Kal TTJV Ka/ciav ev rfj rov dyaOov 
areptjaet Oewpelcrdai Xeyof^ev, oiov nva GKICLV rfj ava^w- 

TTJ? aKrlvos eTrio-vfJLjSalvova-av. eirei^r) roivvv rj 15 

2 aTret^ecrrepots 1* vulg || 12 ev rt] (ftvaei fg 1 ! vulg || 12-13 om 
f j| 14 Siax^pT/cret l* vid vulg 

deprivation of good. The argument 
is that the distinction which we 
make between the non-existent and 
the existent is a logical distinction 
only. They are not to be conceived 
of as two things on the same plane 
or possessing the same reality, any 
more than sight and blindness, the 
latter being merely the defect of the 
former. For curtStaipeurflai in the 
sense of logical division cp. c. 15. 

14. a Ktdv] Evil is like some shadow 
which follows upon the withdrawal 
of the sun s ray. 

15. eirftdrj] In what follows Gr. 
proceeds to show how it was possible 
for a created spirit to be subject to 
such a passion as envy. It arose out 
of the possibility of change involved 
in possessing a created nature. Only 
an uncreated being is free from 
the movement expressed in such 
words as variation, alteration or 

i. 7rpa7 / uareias] used here of a 
literary treatise = our present work. 

3-4. xad 0cui .] two 
things which appear as actually ex 

4-14. d\\ wcnrep] * but just as the 
non-existent is logically opposed to 
that which exists, and it is not 
possible to say that the non-existent 
is distinguished, so far as actual sub 
sistence is concerned, from that which 
exists, but ^ve say that non-existence 
is logically opposed to existence; in 
the same way also "vice" is distin 
guished from " virtue," not because it 
has some independent existence, but 
becatise it is conceived of as arising 
from the absence of that -which is 
good; and just as we say that blind 
ness is logically opposed to sight, not 
because blindness belongs to nature as 
something having an existence of its 
oivn, but because it is the deprivation 
of a former possession, so also we say 
that vice is found where there is a 





T Kara Tpotrrjv 

/jLTa{3o\7]V /cal a\\oiwaiv ecmv dveTribeKTOs, Tcdv Se 
Sid KTiaews VTroarav o-wyyevws TT^O? rrjv d\\oiu>(riv 
&LOTI /cal avTrj T?}? /cr/crea)? 77 vrroaTao-i^ diro 
5 rjpfaro, TO> //,?; 6Wo9 et? TO 
Oevros KTicrTT) 8e TIV /cal 

aVT6%OVO-ito KlVrj/jLCLTl TO SoKOVV alpOVfjLVIJ 7Ti8r) 7T/3O? 

TO dyaOov re /cal a(j)0ovoi> eTrefivaev o^^a, wajrep o ev 

10 OI/TOJ KCLKevos avTO) Tw 
TO evavTiov TO> dya0a> 

e\r)crai TO dyaOov vofja-ai 

8 Oytt/ta] voyfAa fg 1 ! vulg || 9 eirifia\wv r. o\^. 1 vulg r. o\j/. eirifBaXwv 
efg 1 aTTojSaXwv dhn || 10 auro f || TO fp || Karavorja ai. deghnp ji 12 o[Ao\oyei 
1 vulg |! a/>x?? f 

2. Trai* 5^] Whereas everything 
which came into being through an 
act of creation has a natural tendency 
to such change, because even the very 
subsistence of creation owed its be 
ginning to change-" 1 TT/S /critrews is 
of course the created Universe. 
The idea of creation, Gr. maintains, 
carries with it the idea of muta 

7. ai)reoucrta;] choosing what 
ever it thinks fit by a movement of 

8. &(f>dovov] free from envy, 
urigrudging, as opposed to the 
(pQovos with which the evil spirit 
viewed man s participation in Divine 

ib. eTre/mvffev o/z/xa] The reading 
vor)/j.a is plainly a corruption. 

9. L/7ro/3aAc6f] There is a con 
siderable variation of reading here. 
A7ro/3a\o>i/ is plainly a corruption of 
virofiaKdov. It is not so easy to de 
cide between virofiaX&v and ^TTI- 
/3a\uv, as there appear to be no 
exact parallels to the use of either 
word in such a connexion as the 
present passage affords. The phrase 

TO, /3Xe0apa e7rt/3aXAeu in the sense 
of closing the eyelids occurs in 
Arist. l^Jiysiog. 6. 8 [3 a, and also in 
Adamant. Soph. Physiog. i 23 
where it is found in the phrase ot 
i\\uTTTovTes KO.L TO. /3Xe0apa e7Ti/3dX- 
Xoires, but these instances do not 
justify such an expression as e?ri- 
j3a\wi> ras 8\/seis. On the other hand 
the occurrence of such an expression 
as TO, fiXefiapa fTrt/SciXXeij/ may have 
led to the alteration of virofiaKuv 
into eTrifiaXuv. There is exactly the 
same variation of reading in c. 7 
sub Jin. in the expression uTrof3d\ot. 
rois /3Xe0d/30is rr)v opa.(nv. 

11. KaTcvoTjac] came to appre 
hend, learned to know, stronger 
than vorjffai.. 

1 1 12. 6 (f)dovo<i] For the idea cp. 
infra rrj dTroarpo^rj TTJS dyaOoTrjTOS 
ei> eavTuyevvriffas TOV tyObvov. There 
is similar language on 0#ufos in de 
Vita Moysis p. 409 (Migne). The 
whole passage is doubtless traceable 
to Wisdom ii 23, 24. 

12. 6^0X07.] The first cause of 
anything is responsible for all the 
consequences flowing from it. So 


avTrjv Kara TO dico\ov6ov eTriffVfJi^aivovTwv alrlav 
elvai, olov rfj vyela TO eveKTeiv, TO epyd^ecrOai, TO KaO 
rjSovrjv jSiOTeveiv TTJ Be vncrw TO daOevelv, TO (ivevepyrjTov 
elvai, TO ev drjSia TTJV farjv e^euv. OVTW KCLI TO, d\\a 
rat? oltcelais appals tcaTa TO dicoKovOov eVerat. 5 
ovv r) dirdOeia TJ/? KCLT^ dpeTrjv an;v dpyr) KOI 

Tat, OVTWS rj 8ia TOV (frOovov yevofAewr) 
po-TTrj TWV yCter UVTTJV TrdvTWv (ivaoe^OtVTui 
0809 KaTecrTrj. e7TiBrj yap dira^ vrpo? TO /ca/cov 
p07rr]V ecr^ev o Trj d7rocrTpO(f)fj TTJ? d<yaOoT7]TO<; ev eavTO) TO 
<yei>vi](Tas TOP (f)06vov, wajrep Xt^o? d/cpwpeias diroppajel^ 
VTTO TOV I8iov ftdpovs Trpos TO Trpaves crvv\avveTai, OVTCO 
/cdicelvos, T>}? TTpo? TO uya0ov (rv^via^ dTrocrTraaOels KCLI 
7T/30? KaKiav /3/Hcra9, avTO^drw^ olov TLVL ffdpei TT^O? TOV 

TTOvrjptas opov avvwcrOels dTrrjve^Orj, KOI TJ]V 15 
bvvafjuv, f)v et? avvepyeiav Ttj? TOV KpeiTTOVOs 
ecr^e jrapa TOV KTiaavTos, TavTrjv 6t? evpeaiv 
TMV KaTa KaKiav eTnvoov/Jbevwv avvepjov 7roLTjo-d/jLvo$, 

I jj,er avrrjv Kara] ^ed eavrrji 1 vulg /x,era (om o.vrt]v Kara.) d jj 3-4 TO 
avev ____ fayv exew desunt in h || 7-8 OVTOJS... KO.KLO.V po-rrr] desunt in h j| 71^0- 
fjievri 1 yeyevri/uLevri f ii 8 poTrr/] op/mifj f [| [ted eavrrjv 1 vulg || KO>K<av\ ruv 
KO.KUV f i; 14 /Spttras] j3apTjcras KO.L Karavevaas 1 vulg || 16 et? ] om 
ets fh T7]v> el vulg avvepyiav dnp || TOV /cpetrroj/os] om TOV f 

the inclination to vice resulting from breaking away from the ridge of a 

the envy displayed by the devil was mountain, is carried headlong by its 

responsible for the train of evils own weight. 
which followed. 13. av/m<pvia.s] torn away from 

2. TTJ vyeiq.] We must supply his natural affinity to good. "* 
some such word as eTrercu which 15-16. TT)V Siai/OTjrt/crjj ovva/j-Lv] 

occurs in the following sentence. the faculty of mind. Aidvota, as dis- 

As on health there follows a good tinguished from vovs, is the process 

bodily condition (TO eue/cretV), ac- of rational thought, while vovs is 

tivity, and an enjoyable life, while the intuitive and speculative reason. 

disease is followed by weakness, See \Vestcott on i John v 20. 

inactivity, and lack of enjoyment, The faculty of mind, which he 

so other results follow in natural received from the Creator in order 

sequence their own proper causes. that he might cooperate with Him in 

6. d-rrddeia] l freedom from pas- imparting good (i.e. to the creatures 

sicn. Cp. antea c. 5. under him), he employed to assist 

n. uxrirep Ai#os] just as a rock, him in discovering evil devices? 


GVfiifflaiHOS rrepiep^erai OL drrdrr]^ rov nvOpcoTrov, avrov 
eavrov yeveaOai vre/cra? fyovea re KOI avro^eipa. 
yap Sid TT)? Oeias ev\,oyla^ Svi a/jLwOels 6 avOpwrros 
fjiev r)V TO) d^Ktiaarf ftaGiKeveiv ydp ^d 
5 real rwv err aurr}? rrdvrwv AraXo? Be TO ei&os drreitto- 
vio-fjia yap rov ap-^ervrrov eyeyovei /cd\\ovs 

TT)V <f>V(T(V TOV y(lp (ITTdOovS /Xi/jL^/jLa r)V 

Trappria ias, avrr/s /card irpoatoiTov TT}? Oeias 
Kararpv(f)a)j ravra &e T&) avriKeifjievq) TOV /card rov 
10 <f)6ovov 7rd@ov$ vrretCKavfAara rjv LCT^VL 8e TIVL KCLI ftia 
KarepydaaaOai TO Kara yvMarjv ov)( oios re 
virepio-^ve yap r] TT}? ev\oyias rov 6tov ^vvafjii^ TTJ? 
Bid rovro aTroarrjcrai TT)? emcr^vovari^ avrov 


15 emovr]v /caraararj. /ca warrep err v%vov rov rrvpo<$ 
TT}? 0pva\\i$os rrepiSc&payuevov, ei Ti? aSvvarwv TCO 
^var]^ari o-ftecrai rrjv (f>\6ya vSwp e/Xyutfeie TOJ 

I 5iepx erai 1 VU ^S I! - 7rL(! a s yeveadai 1 vulg || 5 awry f \\ 16 (T 
fj-evov f I! i/ ep.<j>v(niiJ.aTi (\ \\ 17 p. 37. i vdb}p...<t>\oya om h || v/uiieiei> f 
" 1 vu l fW-&t- e/i/tt^as e || eAcuw] + /ccu fin 

i. 7repiepx era O circumvents J cj. KaTarpv(pu>i>~\ l revelling in the 

overreaches. manifestation of Deity even face to 

2-3. eTreiST] yap] The clause in- /ace. 

troduced by fireidrj is broken up by a ? /;. raura 5^] a;/c/ .c? ;/^ ////.$ 

series of parentheses. Tlie apo- served as fuel. The sentence forms 

dosis of the sentence begins with part of the protasis begun by e-rreidr). 

5ia rouro airoaTTJaaL. In what fol- 10-11. f3iq, Sui/ctyuea;?] violent 

lows Gr. shows how the capacities exercise of power ** main force 

and privileges bestowed upon man 14. eudXwros] an easy prey to his 

by God excited the envy of the plotting. 1 

adversary and led him to plot for 15. /cat uxrwcp] What the adver- 

man s ruin. sary could not accomplish by force 

4. d^tw/xari] rank, position. he attempted by craft, mingling 

ib. /SacriXeueti ] Gen. i 28 30. evil with man s will. And as 

6. d-rraOr)s] See note on aTrdflaa in the case of a lamp, when t lie flame 

c. 5. has caught the wick, if any one, being 

8. Trapprjaias] llapp. denotes the unable to blow out the flame, mixes 

giving utterance to every thought water witli the oil, he will by this 

and feeling and wish. Cp. Heb. iv device render the flame dull." 

16 (with Westcott s note), x 19, 35. 16. 7rept5e5/xryM-] grasped, laid 

ib. TTJS ddas ffj.<p.} based on the hold of ? 
narrative of Gen. iii. 



Sid TJ}? eTUvoias TCIVTTJS df^avpaxrei TTJV 

TT; 7rpoaipeo~i TOV dvOp&Trov rrjv /catciav IJJL- 

aecriv Tiv KOI 

ev\o>yas eTroirjcrev, //? eTTtXetTroucr?;? e vy/ctj^ TO OVTI- 
KL/jivov avTeiaep^eTai. dvTLKetTai Se TTJ ft>/} fjLev o 5 
QdvaTos, i] daOeveta Be rfj SvvfijJbci, TTJ evXoyia Se 77 
Kara pa, ry Trapprja-la 8e >; alo-^yvrj KOL TTCLGI TOIS dyaOois 
rd /card TO evavriov voov/j.ei a. Sid TOVTO ev rot? Trapovcri 
KCIKOI^ e crrl vvv TO nvOpaiTnvov, TT}? <*PX*1^ eiceivijs TOV 
TOLOVTOV reXou? ra? (K^op/jia^ 7rapao"^ovcr rj^. 10 

7. Kai /jiTjSel^ epcoTaTO), el 7rpoeL$a)S TTJV di 0pci)Trii>Tjv 
avjJL^opdv o #eo? rrjv ere rf/9 tt/3ouXia? a^r 
?j\0ei> et? TO KTiaai TOV avOpwTrov, co TO 
fjia\\ov tcra>9 ^ TO eV Katcols eivai \vo~iT\.6aTpov 7/v. 
TdVTa yap ol Tot? MavL%cuKoi<$ Boyfjiacn &i dirdT^ 15 
TrapacrupevTes et? crucrTacrt^ TT)? eavT&v ir\dvr)s Trpoftd\- 

5 eTreLcrepxfTaL g 1 [| 9 cm TOL 1 vulg 7. 14 etj^at] yeveaOai f |j 1516 5i 
a?r (Tvo TacrtJ om f 

3. fffieaiv] succeeded in extin 
guishing and obscuring in a way 
(TLVOL] the Divine blessing. 

45. TO avTiKei^evov] sc. rrj ev- 
\oyiq.. The term is explained in the 
following sentence. 

(). rrfs apxys] i-e. the (f)06i>os of the 
Devil which he has been describing. 

10. ras a0op / uas] Cp. c. 5 p. 26 

7. / //^/j <7;/^/ in the following 
chapter Gr. deals at length with the 
objection IV hy did God create ttian, 
if He foresaw the evils which would 
result from his fall? How was such 
an act consistent with goodness? In 
answering this objection Gr. Jirst of 
all draws a distinction between the 
two senses in which the word evil is 
used with reference to man. There 
is physical evil i.e. the pain resulting 
from sujfering and sickness, and 
there is moral evil i.e. wickedness. 
The latter alone deserves the name of 

evil. Aloral evil consists in the loss 
of good, and has no substantive exist 
ence. Neither can God be its author, 
for He is the source of positive good, 
and it is only mans self-will in 
withdrawing from good, which con 
stitutes evil. 

11. et 7rpoet5a>s] The emphasis of 
the sentence rests on the participle. 
Whether God foresaw the calam 
ity. . .when He came to create man." 1 

12. d(3ov\ias} cf. 6 init. rijs Kara 
TTJV (3ov\i]v 5ta^aprtas. Ai)ry antici 
pates rov avdpuirov. 

1 5. ot rots yiavi.-fca.i.KoLs ] they who 
Jiave been deceived and led away by the 
doctrines of the Manichees? The 
evils of man s present condition 
might be urged to prove that the 
Author of man s being was not good. 
Ace. to the Manichaeans the crea 
tion of man was due to the prince 
of darkness. See Harnack Hist, of 
Dogma, Eng. Tr. iii 325. 

\ovdiv, ft>9 


TOVTOV Trovrjpov evai TOP 

e yap yvoe /juev 

O CivO ^ft)7TO9, OVKT CLV 


KTiaTrjv aTroSei/cvvovTes. 

OVTCOV OV&6V O $609, 6V KCLKol? 

o r/}9 dya0oTr}TO<$ TOV Oeov 
KdKols /ji\XovTa TOV avOpwrrov ty ere a flat Trpos TOV fiiov 
rraprjyayev. el yap dyaOfjs fyva-ews rj KaTci TO dyaOov 
evepyeia TTCIVTO)^ eVrtV, o \V7rrj pos ouro9 /cal e7rtVr;/309 /3to9 
LV, et? TTJV TOV dyaOov Brj/miovpyLav dvdyoiTO, 

OVK&T av y 


10 Trovrjpiav r) ^>f<rt9 67ripp67rws %ei. TavTa yap TTCIVTO, 
Ta ToiavTa rot9 p<ev v /3d0i /caOdtrep TLVCL 
/3acf)r)v TTJV alpeTi/crjv Trapa&eSeyfievoLS aTraTTjv la^vv Tiva 




d\.rj9eias craOpa ovTa 

15 Trjv T79 cLiraTTi^ iroeiiv e%ovTa o-a<o)9 KaopaTaL. /cat 


r^9 KCLT avTwv KaTTj^opLa^ TTpoGT^acKjQai. &iaipeL yap 

6V TU> 7T/309 KoplV0LOV<? \6yO) Ttt9 T6 (TapKtoO eiS Kal T9 

TTvev/jiaTi/cas TWV ^rv^oyv KaTaaTdcreis, &6ifcvvs, ol^cu, 8ia 

i TOVTWV fl TOVTO vulg II 3 o 6eos ovdev 1 vulg |[ 6 om TO f vulg || 
7 XivTnjpos] odvvr/pos f II 9 w] ou ehn o p || 10 iravTa yap ravra e || 1 1 SeucroTT.] 
ulg [| 12 avai per iKTfjv h || 13 eTrtTroAou f |j ry \ ar avrov 1 
ai f || diaipetrai f || 18-19 /cat ras 


vulg || TraprjyopLa^ 1* V1(1 vulg || 
TTI/.] /cat ras vi i Xt/cas /caracrracrets e 

4. , Xo7os] the doctrine of the 
goodness of God. 

6. et yap ayadijs] For if ac- 

have had in mind, as it contains a 
similar comparison to that of the 
present passage and concludes tVa 

tivity in good is tJie characteristic of devffojroibs avTaii> 17 56a yiyvoiro. 

a nature that is goodS 

aaBpd] lit. rotten, un- 

8. avdyoiTo] ^traced back^ l re- sound. Hence ^ ineffective? "ivcak? 

f erred? 

, afford a ready proof of 

erepoi/] e.g. such as the Mani- their fallacious character? 

chaean evil principle. 

irpoaTrjaaffdai.] to put for- 

to those who are ward the Apostle in these matters as 

deeply tinged with the deceit of Jicresy, supporting us in our condemnation 

as with some indelible dye? For of them. The gen. Karyyopias is 

cp. c. 8 rrjv ev ^Sa^et... governed by Gvvrjyopov . 
TT^OS TO KUKOV olKfcor-nra. 18. ?rp6j Kop. ] i Cor. ii 14 ^15. 

Aei>cr. is found in Plat. Rep. 429 E 19. /caTaaTaVets] dispositions or 

430 A, a passage which Gr. may conditions? 


TWV \6 t yoi^evwv J on ov Si? alcrOr^aew^ TO fca\ov r) TO KCLKOV 
/cpiveiv 7rpO(T7JK6i, aXX eo> TCOV Kara TO o~a)/ma fyaivofjLevwv 
TOV vovv dTrocTTrjo-avTas, avTrfv e </> eavrijs TOV Ka\ov re 
Kal TOV evavrlov StaKpivLv TTJV (pvo-iv. 6 <yap -rrvevfjia- 
TIKOS, (f>r)(Tiv, dva/cpivet, Ta TrdvTa. TavTiyv oi/jiai Trjv 5 
aiTiav T/}? TWV Soy/jiaTcov TOVTWV /AV@ OTTO Lias TO?? TCL 
TTpofyepovo-iv eyyeyevr/o-Oai,, OTI TT^O? TO f)8v TTJS 
dTro^avcrews TO dyaOov opi^o^evoL Sia TO 
real dppu>arTriiJiao-iv vTroKelaOaL KCLT di dy/cr^v TJ]V 
TOV crcoyLtaTo? fyvcriv vvvOeTOV ovaav teal eh id\vcriv 10 
peovo~av, 7raKO\ov6elv 8e TT&)? Tot? TOIOVTOIS 7ra9rnjiao~iv 
akyeivrjv TIVOL aiarOrjaw, jrovrjpov Oeov TT/V dvOpwjroTroiiav 
epryov eivau vo^i^ova iv. &)? 676 TT^OO? TO v 
e/3\7rev avTols r) Sidvoia, Kal TJ)? irepl T? rj 

TOV vovv diroiKio-avTes avra^w? eVetf KOTTOVV 15 

2 irpoffYjKfi Kpweiv 1 vulg || 3 a7TO(rr7?crarra 1 vulg || a<p eairr. f || 4 TOV 
evavr.] cm TOV f || o yap] o 5e f || 5 diaKpwei. f || 7 7rpoo~<j)epovo~i.v g ] lp II 
yeyevrjcrdai e av yeyevqaQai. vulg || 11 om TTWS d || 12 om ^eou 1* vulg 

i. 5t atV^Tjtrews] It is not by attached to viroKei<rdai and belongs 

sense perception that good and to 5ia TO. 

evil are judged. The intelligence ib. ?rp6s TO i]dv] defining good 

(i/ous) must be withdrawn from bodily witJi reference to the pleasure of bodily 

phenomena (T&V KO.TCL TO au>/j.a (paw.} enjoyment. 1 2w/A. is contrasted with 

and discern in its own distinctive the in the quotation, 

character (O.VTTJV f0 eavTrjs) the na- 9. Trd^ecrt K&L dppwo~Tri!J.a(ri.v] 

ture of good and the opposite. Here both words are used of bodily 

6. ;u>007roaas] Cp. prol. TOLS ailments. In c. 8 Gr. speaks of 
f)ira.Tir]/jLi>as wept TWV doy/AaTuv JJLV- TO. TTJS i/ i X ^s dppwo TTj/iaTa. In this 
^oTroa as. latter sense the word appuo-TTjfj.a 

7. eyyeyevijffOai] This, I suppose, was employed by the Stoics and is 
was the cause of tJie fabrication of defined by Cicero Tusc. iv 10. 
these fabulous doct fines in tJie case of 1 3. cos e lye] Since if their thought 
those ivho put fotivant such views. had turned ifs gaze in a loftier" direc- 
Eyyiyveo-Bai is used in the sense of tion, atid if, separating the intelligence 
inesse or innasci. Cf. Xen. Conim. from the disposition to care about 
I. 2. 21 Tots dfj.\ovcrL \T]driv eyyivo- pleasures, they had contemplated, free 
fji^vrjv. from the influence of the passions, 

ib. OTL -rrpbs T6] Krab. s punctua- the nature of existing things. 1 On 

tion is bad here. "On governs VO/J.L- the words didvoia and vovs see antea 

fovaiv, while firaKoX. is closely c. 6 p. 35. 


T7JV TWV OVTWV (f)VO~lV, OVK dv d\\0 Ti KCLKOV iVdl 

rrjv TTOi rjpiav ajijOijcrav. Trovrjpia Se Trdaa ev rfj rov 
dyaOov crre/^cret ^apaKT^pi^erai, ov KO,& eavrrjv ovaa, 
ovBe K,a& vTroo TdO iv Oewpovf^evrj fca/cov yap ov&ev e^a) 
5 Trpoaipeo-ews e< eavrov Kelrai, aXXa TGO fj,r) eivai TO 
dyaOov ovrco /carovo/jid^eTai. TO Se fir) ov ov% v(f)crTr]K6, 

TOV $ /A?) V(j)6(TTtoTOS Srj/jLLOVpyO^ TO)V V(f)(7T(t)T(i)V $r)/Al,- 

ovpyos OVK ecmv. OVKOVV efa) TT}? TMV KCLK,&V atrlas 6 
^09 o TWV OVTWV, ov^ o Twv fir) ovTWv TroirjTrjs wv 6 rrjv 
loopacrtv, ov rrjv TDipcoaLv $r)/jiiovp<y?jo~a$ 6 rrjv dpenjv, ov 
TTJV arepTjo iv avTrfS dva&ei^as o d9\ov r/}? 
TO TMV dyaOwv yepas Tot? KCLT dpeTrjv 

is, OVK. dvdy/crj nvl fiiaia Trpbs TO eavrw SOKOVV 
rrjv dvOpWTTivriv (frva-iv, KaOdirep n o-rcevos 
15 a^rv^ov dfcovaicos TT/OO? TO ica\ov 6(f)eX/c6/jiVO^. el Be rov 

5 v(f> eavrov g*p T] a0 e. f j| TO /mr) eivai p j| 5-6 TO ayadov] om TO f || 
ii o aOXov] om o fl vulg || 12 yepas] jrepas l* vi(1 vulg |j 13 -rrpoaOeis deghnp || 
15 fj.\f/vxov vulg ji 1 6 eTriAa/iTroj Tos e 

i. OVK ai> a\Xo] The principle says KO.KOV yap ovdev 

that moral evil is alone KO.K.OV is a e0 eavrov Kelrai. 

leading thought of Gr. throughout 3. x a P aKT1 lP -fc Tai -] The charac- 

the present treatise. Cp. c. 9 where teristic feature of all wickedness is to 

he argues that the Incarnation was be found in the deprivation of good. 

no degradation to God, for only 5. T py elvai] but it receives 

moral evil can bring degradation. its name from the non-existence of 

Similarly in cc. 15 and 16 he says the good. 

that it was physical, not moral weak- 6. TO 5 JU.T] 6V] In what follows 

ness which Christ took upon Him. Gr. urges that God is the Creator of 

The Divine goodness was unchanged that which exists positively. That 

by the Incarnation, for the only which is a mere negation of exist- 

thing that could have changed it ence, such as evil has been defined 

would have been the participation in to be, cannot be attributed to Him. 

vice. The conception, which is also ir. 6 aOXov] The effect of this 

found in Origen, has its roots in the view of the relation of evil to man s 

importance assigned by both Origen free-will is to make the enjoyment 

and Gr. to the will, as the seat of of Divine blessings the reward of 

evil. So in the present chapter Gr. virtue. 


TO? /Xe<>apot? rrjv opa(Tiv, ew TJ? TOV /AT 
/3A,e7roz TO<? atria? o r/Xto?. 

8. AXX dyavaKTL TrdvTws 6 TT/SO? TTJV 8id\vcnv /3\- 
TOV crco/^aro?, teal %a\.7rov Troieirai TO) Qavdrw rrjv 
rj/jLcov SiakveaOai, ical TOVTO ^rjai TWV xafcwv ecr^arov 5 
elvai, TO rov ftiov ?}/jLO)i> rfj vefcpoTTjri (T/3evvvcr0ai. OVKOVV 
Oa) Sid TOV aKvOpwrrov TOVTOV rr/v v7Tp/3o\r}V 
evepyeaias Tci%a yap CLV /j,d\\ov 8id TOVTWV 
ir) Qav^daai Trjv %dpiv TT}? Trepl TOV avOpwrrov 

TOV 0OV KTlSe/jLOViaS. TO ^f)V Sid Trjv TO)V KaTa0VfJii(DV IO 

i i 7ro/3a\Xot p eTTi/SaXoi (-/3a\\- 1 vulg) efg 1 a7ro/3a\ot (-,3a\\- hn) d 
8. ^ dia\v<ru>] ava\. l* vi(1 vulg !i 5-6 /cat TovTo...afievvva dau. om 1* vulg 
8 //aXXoi/ av deghnp |j TOVTOV 1* vulg || 9 Trpoffevexdecr] e Trpoa.xdet.-r] g - l 1 
10 om TOW vulg 

i. uTTo/idXoi] cp. aiitea c. 6 p. 34 

1-2. e wT7)s...cuTi as] is free from 
blame on the part of him who fails to 
see. 1 For a; r^s curias cp. c. 8. 

8. Gr. is still discussing the ob 
jection stated in the previous chapter. 
One of the evils of man s present con 
dition, it is urged, is the prevalence 
of physical death. In reply Gr. 
maintains that the dissolution of the 
body was really a merciful provision 
made by God after man s fall in 
order to undo its effects. 7 he coats 
of skin in Genesis indicate mystically 
this truth. As it was into the 
sentient (i.e. bodily] part of man that 
the poison of evil was received, so it 
was fitting that that part should be 
dissolved in order that it might be 
remoulded by the resurrection. Gr. 
illustrates his meaning by the simile 
of an earthen vessel, which some ill- 
disposed person renders useless by 
filling it with molten lead, but which 
the potter, in order to remove t/ie 
lead, breaks up with a view to re 
modelling it. 

The dissolution of the body, how 
ever, does not affect the soul. That 

too has been stained by sin, and it 
too has its appointed remedies, the 
practice of virtue in this life, the sift 
ing judgment and painful discipline 
of purification in the after-life. Thus 
God not only foresaw man s fall, but 
provided for its remedy. It was 
better to restore man by penitence and 
suffering than never to have created 
him at all. The work of restoration 
was a task possible and fitting for 
Him alone who had created man. 
And so He who was man s Creator 
became also his Deliverer. 

5-6. faTjv...(3iov] By the dissolu 
tion of the i~w77 Gr. refers to the 
dissolution in death of the component 
parts of man s nature. 13y the ex 
tinction of the fiios he means the 
cessation of the outward activities of 
the life. 

this dismal- 

looking necessity. 

8. evepyeffias] Death, as Gr. pro 
ceeds to show, was a beneficent 
provision made by God, after man s 
fall, to enable the body to escape 
from the consequences of the Fall. 

10. Ka.Ta.6v/j.iuv] = acceptable, 
pleasing. Cp. c. 5. 


airo\av(Tiv aiperov eari rot? TOV {3iov /jLere^ovaiv. co? el 
ye T^9 ev b^vvcus Sta/^teoT;, Trapd TTO\V TO> TOLOVTM TO yu.r) 
elvai TOV d\yeiva)<t eivai Trpon/Aorepov icpiverai. OVKOVV 
ej;6Tdcra)/jLev el 6 rr/s 0)7)9 ^0/977709 777)09 d\\o TL 
5 Kal ov% O7r&>9 av ev rot9 KciXXia TOis (BiM7]fjLev. 
yap T&3 avre^ovcriw Kivrj/naTi TOV tca/cov T>}V KOivwviav 

OT]\7]Trjpiov fjueXiTi 
KOI Bid. 

/AatcapioTTjTos e/c- 
TOVTOV eveicev 
<yfji> dva- 

a, Std TLVOS 77801/7)9 
TrapapTvOev rfj (frvcrei TO /ca/cov 
TOVTO TT)? fcard TO drraOes 
10 7recro^Te9, 7T/909 TTJV /cafciav 
oloi> TL (TKevo$ bcTTpaKivov 
\veTai, 07ro)9 dv TTJS vvv 

e9 TO e 
dvaTT\ao 9eiri. TO Be TOLOVTOV 

4 /SXeTTTj vulg || 7 f& 

,. dghnp aireiXTj/j,. e || 14 
Trapovcrrj fay Stetrajcraro deghlhip 

Used here in 
the sense of acquire, contract. 5 
^Ftf brought upon ourselves? 

ib. did rti/os] by some indulgence 
in pleasure mingling evil with our 
nature like some deadly potion siveet- 
ened with honey? 

g. /caret, TO aTra^es voo vfjLvr)<i\ the 
blessedness uhich the mind associates 
with freedom from passion? 

\i. OTTOJS av] l in order that the 
foulness which is now included in his 
nature may be separated out, and he 
may be restored by the. resurrection to 
his original form . After these words 
one group of MSS insert the words 
ei 76 TO /car eiKbva ev rrj irapouffr) 
fwT? Sieauxraro, and Krabinger has 
given them a place in the text. 
But the words are not found in 
the MSS /, /, and they have a 
suspicious ring, introducing an idea 
which is not appropriate to the con 
text. They are probably a later 
addition to the text, their object 
being to guard against an Universal- 


icrTopitcwTepov p,ev 

vres d || 12 a.irei- 
TO /car ei/cora ev TT? 

istic interpretation of the passage. 

14. iaTopLK.] ^ after the manner of 
history and in veiled language. For 
aiVry/xa cp. Numb, xii 8 (LXX) 
(TT6/JLa /card crro//a AaXTycrw aury, ev 
et Set Kal ov 5t alviy/j-druv. Cp. also 
r Cor. xiii 1 2. This passage is another 
instance of Gr. s use of the allegori 
cal interpretation of Scripture. Cp. 
antea c. 2 (note on avayuyiKus) 
and c. 5. The ref. is to Gen. 
iii 21. This interpretation of the 
coats of skin is found in Methodius 
de Resurr. i. 37 (ed. Bonw. p. 130) 
and still earlier in Clement of Alex 
andria (Strom, iii 14) and Origen 
(c. Cels. iv 40, in Le?>. Horn, vi 2). 
It appears to have been derived from 
the Gnostics. See Iren. c. Haer. 
i. 5. 5; Tert. de Res. Caniis 7. 
Its ultimate source was Rabbinic. 
Cp. Bigg Christian Platonists^ 
p. 204 note. Gregory of Nazianzus 
(Or. xxxviii p. 670 D) also makes 
use of it. 


teal 8t alvvy/jiarcov 6 MOXTT}? r^fjilv e/criOerai. TrXrjv eic- 

ap, 4)rj(7LV, ev rot? (iTrr/yopevfAevois eyevovro 01 Trpwroi 
KOI rr)S /jiaKapLOTrjTO^ K6ivrj<; (iTreyv/jLVGoOijaav, 

7ri{3(i\\ei ^irwvas rot? TT/ocoroTrA-acrTOt? o 5 
ou IJLOL Sotcei TT^O? ra roiavra Sep/juara rov 
rr}v Siavoiav (frepwv rroiwv yftp (i7rocr(j)ayVT(i)p re 
KOI Sapevrwv tyowv eTnvotlTai aurot? 77 TrepiftoXrj ; aXX , 
r) TTav Sepfjua ^wpicrOev rov ^yov vetcpov ean, TTY/Z/TO)? 

7T/30? TO i Kpovcr9ai &vi>a/jiiv, rj r>)? (i\6jov 10 
efat/sero? ijv, e/c TTpo/u^eta? /xera ravra rot? 
s e7ri(3e(3\r)Kevai rov Trjv KaKiav r^juwv larpev- 
ovra, ov^ &)? et<? ael TrapafJieveiv o yfip %ira>v rwv J~oy@v 
<=7ri/3a\\ofj,ev(i)v earl, Trpo? Kaipov rrjv eavrov ^prjcnv 

rc5 (Ta)/jiaTL, ov (TV/jLTre^vK^ rf) (frvcrei. OVKGVV 15 
IK rrjs rwv d\o < ywv fyvcrews r; vKporr]s olfcovo/ju/cws irepi- 

i r)/j.iv] vfuv vulg I! 7 <pepuv] <f>epeu> gp || om re el || 12 om TO? e 
13 eis aei] aei h || 15 rov crw^aros vulg || 16 oiKovofj.. t] VCK. g 

3. ev rots aTT.] became involved iii p. 524 (Migne). 

in what was forbidden. 13. et s det Trapa/x.^eii ] Ace. to 

4. aTTeyvfj-v.^ The dep/jLaTivos Gr. the first man had received 
XITWV takes the place of the dTrd^eta. the blessing of immortality and 

5. TrpwroTrXdo-rois] a word ap- incorruption. Cp. c. 5. Cp. also 
plied to the first man in Wisd. vii i, de Honi. Op. c. 4, de Vita Moysis 
xi. p. 397 (Migne). Hence he says 

6. o0 juot doKel] not, I think, below of the Xirwi/ that it was ou 
intending to apply the sense of tlie av/n.Tre<f)VK<l}s rf/ <pvaei. Death is a 
word to these literal skins." 1 <btpwv temporary provision, a coat with 
belongs to the subject of Qriffiv, i.e. which man is invested for a time. 
Ma)cr7?s, doKel being parenthetical. 16. OIKOVO/ULIKUIS] here opposed to 

8-9. d\\ , eireidr)] The skins, ace. that which naturally belongs to man. 

to Gr., represent that capacity of Death was assigned to man by way 

dying, which was the peculiar cha- of accommodation to his circum- 

racteristic of the irrational nature. stances. Cp. for this use of OLKO- 

In df. An. et Resiirr. p. 148 (Migne) VO/JUKUS in Christi Resurr. Or. ii 

Gr. explains oVp/xa as TO crx^ytia TTJS p. 649 (Migne) a yap efye tpvaiK&s (is 

d\07ou 0()(7ews, y Trpos TO Trd^os ot- 0e6?, TauTa \^yerai \a/J.f3dvii> ws 

KtiwQevTts Trepiefi\ri()ri/jii>. In de yev6/j.ei>os avdpuiros OIKOVO/J.IKIJJS. See 

Virg.c.. 12 the coats of skin are TO further Suicer Thesaurus. 
(ppovr)/j.a rrfS crap/cos. Cp. de Mortuis 


6T60rj rrj et? (\Qavacriav KTicrOeiar] (frvcrei, TO 
TrepLfcaXvTTTovo-a, ov TO eo-(o0ev, TO alaOrjTov TOV dv6pa)7rov 
Bia\a/A{3dvovcra, avTijs Be TT}? $eia? elicbvos ov 

Xuercti Be TO aiaOrjTov, OVK d 
5 cavia/jLos f^ev yap eaTiv rj et? TO //,// ov 
Xucri? Be r) et? ra TOV Kocr/Jiov dTOi^ela ird\iv, a^) u>v 
avcrTacriv ea^, Sid^vcris. TO Be ev TOVTOIS <yevo[Jievoi> OVK 
a7ro\o)Xe, fcav d/c^ev^y T^V tcaTd\7]^Lv -TTJS ^ere/oa? alcr- 
0yjcreco<>. rj Be aiTia TT}? Xi;<re<w? BTJ\T] Bid TOV pvjOevTO? 
10 r]fMv vTToBeij.uaTOS. ejreiBrj yap rj ai<jQr)<ji<$ Trpos TO 
re fcai yijivov oi/ceiays fyei, Kpe iTrwv Be KCU 
TMV KCLT aicrOricriv Kivri^aTWV ^ voepd fyvais, 

Bid TOVTO TT}? 7Tpl TO KCL\OV tCpicreWS eV T7) BoKlfACHTiq TO)V 

alaOrjcrecov a/j,apTr}0i<rr)S, TT}? Be TOV /ca\ov 
15 T7jv TT)? evavrlas efea)? V7roo~raaiv evepyrjo-do-Tjs, TO 

wdev r)fjLO)v fjipo<; T/; TrapaSo^f} TOV evavTiov \verai. o Be 
TOV inroBeiyfjiaTos \6yos TOIOVTOS ecrTi. BeBoaOco TI cr/cevos 
K 7rrj\ov o~vveo-Tr)Kevai, TOVTO Be TrXrjpes etc 
yeyevrjaOai rer^/coro? fAO\ij3Bov, TOV Be 

2 /cat TO aicrd. 1 vulg || 2-3 />tepos r. avdp. f \\ 7 diaXvcris efg hl || 10 oin 
THJH.V d ij 1 1 Tra^f re] Traxurepov h || 11-12 KpeiTrovos d. K. v^r/Xorepas vulg j| 
12-13 /v ar cticr^r;crti ...5ia TOVTO TTJS om 1* vulg || 19 fj.o\vj3dov...[jt.o\vf3doi dehn 

i. TO ^w^ei ] This garment of 13. 8oKi/n.aaia] as it was by the 

mortality enfolded only the out- arbitrament of the senses that our 

ward and sentient part of man. It judgment about tJiat which is good 

did not affect the higher life which went astray? 

constituted the Divine image in 14. Sta/xapTtas] deviation from 

man. the good. 

4. Xi erat] The physical, sentient 15. eews] state? condition. 1 

part of man only suffers dissolution. ib. dxpeiutitv] disabled? ren- 

It does not cease to exist. dered useless. 1 

7. Stdxiwis] diffusion. The 17. \6-yos] the point of our illus- 

word has been altered by some MSS. tration. The same illustration oc- 

10. i}7ro5et 7/uaTos] i.e. the cr/ceOos curs in Methodius de Resitrr. i 44 

offTpamvov spoken of above, an illus- (ed. Bonw. p. 146). 

tration which he develops in what 18. K Tt^os tTrt^SouX-^s] The 

follows. rilling of the vessel with lead is 

10-11. TO Trax^l the gross and represented as an act of spite. 
earthy element. 1 



Trayrjvai, KOL p,evtv (iTrpo^vrov, dvTiTroielarOai 
rov aicevovs TOV /ce/crrj/jievov, e%ovra Se TOV aepa/jieveiv 
V t7TLO-Tij/jLr]i> 7i epi6 pv^rai rc3 /xoXty88&) TO oarpaKOV el& 
7rd\i,v Kara TO jrporepov o"^rj/j,a irpos TT/V ISuav 
eavTov xpricriv dvaTrXdaai TO o-/cvos, icevov Tr/9 e^fja^- 5 
$66(7779 V\T]<> yevo/juevov. OVTWS ovv KOI o TOU rjp,erepov 
7r\do~T7j<t, TO) alcrO^Tt/cw fjiepei, TCO Kara TO crcoyLta 
T//? KdKias Karafjii-^Oeicnr]^, StaXvo-as n]v nrapa- 
TO rcatcov V\T]V, Trd\iv (ifiiyes TOV evavTiov Sid 

TO e < 7 > /9 /ed\\o<> 10 

TO aKvos. eTreirj avvecrs Tt? K.CLI 
Koivwva TWV Kara duapTLav rraO rjfjidTwv ^iverai Trj Te 
^V-^TJ /cal TCO aco/jiaTL, icai Tt? dva\oyia TOV awfJiaTiKov 
OavaTov Trpos TOV tyv)ifcov O~TL OdvaTOV wcTTrep yap ev 

atcrOrjTns XjcopicrOrjvai fatjs Trpoaayopevo/jLev 15 

O. f || airpoxvTov] a.irpoff xvTov 1* VI<1 vulg || 
to\i /35co clehn || 7 aicr^Tyrw 1 vulg || TO /cara 

a. ehl 1 vulg 

1-2 avTiiroieiadaL 5e] om 5e e || 3 ^to\ 
vulg || 1 2 a/iapr.] T?;// a/Ji. f 

i. aTrpo^LTov] a word not found 
in the Lexicons. The Paris editions 
read d-n-pjcrx vT0 ^^ nit a ^ tne best 
MSS support the text. So that it 
cannot be poured out? 

ib. a.vTLTTo<.eLada.i] lay claim to? 
The owner claims the vessel and, as 
he has some knowledge of the 
potter s art, breaks it up and re- 
models it. The vessel is represented 
as unbaked. It is still Tnj\&$ and 
can be broken up. 

5. /cevoV] \\\Or.i)ifiuierePulch. 
p. 876 (Migne) Gr. says ovde ydp 
&\\o T L eaTLv e?r dvdp&irwv 6 OdvaTos, 
el /ULTJ KaKias KaOdpffiov. 

ii. dj/acrToiXf ^ " 6 ] lit. re-com- 
bine the elements of, re-form, 
fashion afresh. Cp. Or. in fu>iere 
Pulch. p. 877 (Migne) TOVTO ydp 
evTtv TJ dvdo-Taa-is, r) eis TO dpxcuov 
TTJS (fivo-eus i]/ui.uiv dvaaToix <- wa i s- 
The words dj/a / u,6p0wcrts, /xera/x6/3- 
/j.Tad(o-LS, yU6ra/3o\^, 


denote the restoration of human 
nature by Christ. Elsewhere Gr. 
applies the term diroOfuais to this 
restoration. See Or. Cat. c. 37 
avvaTrodewdy TO avOpdoTTLvoi . 

ib. ^TretSrj KT\.] The sentence 
is broken by a parenthesis wcrTrep 
yap and resumed by ewel ovv. The 
apodosis begins with did TOVTO. 

ib. (ruvdeo is] For the idea cp. de 
Horn. Opif. c. 15 TJ 5e TOV vov npbs TO 
crw/iart/coj noivuvia. a<ppa.aTbv re /cat 
dveinvb^Tov TTIV awdtyeiav ?x L --- 
TrXrjv OTL /caret TOV idiov O.VTTJS eip/j-bv 
evodovfJL^vrjs TTJS 0iVea>s, /ecu 6 foOs 
tvepybs yiveTai. ei e TL Tr\ri/j./j.e\r)[ji.a. 
irepl TavT-rjv crvfjurevoi, cr/cdfet /car 
e/ceFvo /cat TTJS diavoias i] Kivrjaiy. See 
also note on dyd/cpacm c. 6. 

13. ^v\rf\ not used here in its N.T. 
sense, but as a general term for the 
higher faculties included in TO VQ-T\TQV 
and opposed to TO aiad-rjTov. 



, oi/TO>9 tca e TT/? v^r^s TOV Trjs d\r)0ovs 

OdvdTOv ovo^d^o^ev eVet ow /iua rt? ecmv 
i] TOV /ca/cov KOiVdovla, /ca0a)s Trpoelp^Tai, ev ^v^y re 
0ecopov/jiei 7j feat crco/zarf St afJi^orepwv yap Trpoeicnv TO 
5 Trovrfpov et9 evepyeiav Sid TOVTO 6 fiev T//9 
T7/9 TW^ ve/cpwv Sep/AaTCDV e7ri/3o\rjs 

v0L7] TO />tr) 
l Se ^pela rov icdtcelwtjs ra? e/x^)uetcra? 

Bid TIVOS larpeias e^aipeOrjvai, TOVTOV evextv Iv 
10 /^ez^ T ( ^ Trapovarj ^cof) TO T/7? dperr/s (^dp^aKov els Oepa- 
Treiav TWV TOIOVTMV TTpoaereBrj rpav/jidrwi/. el >e dflepd- 
vreuTO? fjievoi, ev TCO /jLerd ravra fiiw Tera^levrai, r) depajreia. 
d\)C (uaTrep elai Tives /card TO crco/u-a TWV Tradt^drwv 
Sia<f>opai, wv al fJiev paov, at Be &vo-Ko\MTepov rrjv 0epa- 
15 Treiav TTpoa-ievrai, e^ wv KOI TO pal KOI tcavTijpia KOL 

3 om 77 el vulg || 4-5 ets ei . r. irov-qpov 1 vulg jj 8 e?ret5r; 5e g 1 om 5e 1 
vulg |i r r Trpoeredt] dghnp || 11-12 adepcnrevTOS p.evoi\ /u.evei g*l aOepairevroi.> f I 12 ra/xteyerat 1 vulg (in d deletum) || 13 rwv ?ra^. /c. r. 
e || 15 Kavrripiat degh 

within by the practice of virtue, and 
in the after-life by a purificatory 
discipline. Such teaching must of 
course be modified by his subsequent 
language in this book on the effects 
of the Incarnation and their applica- 
tion through Sacraments. For a 
further treatment of the Kadapcns see 
cc. 26 and 35 (sub fin.}. The in- 
fluence of Origen may be traced 
throughout. See especially Orig. dc 
Princ. ii 10. 4 6, iii i. 1417. 
For Plato s teaching see especially 
Gorg. 477 8, 525, Prof. 324 B, 
Rep. ii 380, ix 591 etc. 

12. TeTafueuTcu] The reading ra- 
^liei/erat is a correction found in 
inferior MSS. Ta/uueveiv here = to 
lay up in store. The perf. indicates 
that God has laid it up already, 
though it is to be applied after 

15. ro/mal KT\.] ^applications of 

5. StaXt/aews] The ,vw. defines 
^aj/aros, death consisting in dis- 

6. e/c TT^S . . . ^TTtjS.] resulting 

7. TO /J.T] criry/c.] The soul is not 
composite like the body, and can- 
not be dissolved by death. Other 
remedies must therefore be provided 
for it. 

10. TO TTJS apery? (j>dpiJ.a.Kov] i.e. 
the influence of a virtuous life in 
remedying the disorder produced in 
man s nature by sin. The language 
of this and the following passages 
shows marked traces of the Platonic 
teaching on KaOapcris. Gr. discusses 
the question of the purification of 
souls without any reference to the 
Christian doctrine of redemption, 
and, in this passage at least, seems 
to teach a purely moral improvement 
effected during the present life from 


l (pap/jbaKOTroaiai irpos Tr]V avaLpeaLV rov evcncri- 
TO) acti/jiaTL iraOovs 7rapa\ajji/B(ii>ovTai, TOLOVTOV 
n real TJ fjuerd ravra Kpiais e/9 Oepaireiav TWV r?;? tyv- 
puto TriiJid rwv /careTrayyeXX^erai, b rot? JJLCV %avvo- 
(i7Ti\,r) fcal aKvOpwTTteV tcrrlv eTravopOwai^, GO? 5 
az; (f)6(3w TV? TWZ; dXyeivwv aimSocrece)? TT^O? T?)Z/ (frvyrjv 
T/;? tca/cias aw^povicrOei rj/jiev rot? Se crvverwrepois larpeia 
K.CLI depaTreia Trapd rov Oeov TO l&iov vrXricryu-a TT^O? T^ 
iravdyovTos %dpiv eivai TTLcrreveraL. &)? 7^/3 ot 
Xof9 Te /cal Tci? dKpo%op$6vas Trapd fyvaiv eTuyevo- 10 
TW crcoyiKZTt Stri TOJJL^ rj Kavaew^ dTro^vovres ov/c 
eTrdyovcri ra> evep^erov^evM TTJV laaiv, 7r\7ji> OVK 
7Ti (S\d(Br) TOV vTro/juei/ovTOs TT)V ro/^rjv ayovcriv, OVTCO? teal 
ocra Tat? tyv^als i^wv $id T^? TOOZ TraOrj/judrcov 

2 iradovs T. aw/xart 1 vulg [j 4 appwcrr.] a/xapr^arw^ f II 5 cr/ci ^p.] rw^ 
cr/v. e || eTra^op^.] fTraj/acrracris fl vulg || 10 om re vulg || ras a-po%.] roi;s 
el vulg || lo-n eTriyevojULevovs el vulg firi.yi.voiJ.ev us dg*hnp || 13 eTrayovaiv fg 1 

the knife and caustics, and bitter brougJit to our senses and induced to 

draughts of medicine. 1 flee from vice? 

3-4. r; /j.era r. /c:/9tcrts.../caTe7r. ] y. ws 7<ip] Such pains, like 

This shews that Gr. is not thinking those inflicted by physicians, are 

of a purgatory between death and remedial and beneficent in their 

the judgment, but of one which aim. For just as those who re- 

follows upon that judgment. move by the knife or caustics moles 

4. d/)/)o;o T?7 / u,ctrc<;j>] See note c. 7 and warts, which have come un- 
p. 39. naturally upon the body, do not apply 

ib. rols ^ev x ctl I/OTe P ots ] The to liim whom they benefit a method of 

thought of the painful discipline of healing that is painless. Similarly 

the future acts as a deterrent to the Origen says (c. Cels. \ 15) "On 5e 

more thoughtless. By those who oi>x ws /jLayeipov (pa/mev TO irvp eVi- 

are more discerning such disci- 0e/jeti> rbv &eoi>, ciXX ws Qeov evepy^- 

pline is believed to be remedial rr)i> rQ/v xPH^vnoi irovov KO.I Trvpbs 

and restorative. Xawos, porous, /uLaprvprjO ei /cai 6 TrpofirjTrjs Htraias. 
spongy, hence empty, 1 frivolous. 14. ocra] wliatever material ex- 

5. ffKvdpuiruiv eV.] The gen. is crcscences become encrusted upon our 
subjective, a correction consisting souls when they have been rendered 
in stern methods. Similarly Origen carnal through participation in the 
(c. Cels. vii 70) speaks of oi drj/m.toL body s sufferings. For this sense of 
ev TCUS 7r6Ae<rt /cat oi Tera.yiJ.evoL eiri djroaapKovi cf. Theophanes Horn. 
TWI> (rnvdpuirOiv /j,v, 5e ev viii p. 269 (Migne) ei rts 6 Xos 5t 
rats TroXtretais Trpayfj.d.T(jjv. 6 Xou airoaapKudeir/ Trj diavoiq.. On 

O.] we might be the words irCjpos, irwpovv see J. A. 

4 8 


irepirrwfJLara eTTiTrcopovrcu, ev rc 

r>;? ffpi(T(D^ TefAveTdi re teal aTro^verat, rfj dppijra) 
e/ceivr) ao(f)ia KOI BvvdfAei TOV, icaOa)^ \eyei TO evayyeXiov, 
rovs KCLKOVS larpevovros. ov %peiav yap e^ovaL, (frriaiv, 
5 01 vyiaivovTes larpov, XA, ol /ca/c&k e^o^re?. SKI Se 
TO 7ro\,\r)v yeyevr/crOai TTJ "^v^fj Trpos TO /carcov 
&a7rep 77 T37? fjivp/jiTjKia^ To/j^rj Spi/jLvo-aei Trjv eTT 
TO yup nrapa (frvaiv fJL<j)VV Trj fyvcrei, Sta TIVOS 
Oeias TO) v7roKt,fjievw Trpoo-io-^erat,, Kai rt? yii>Tai TOV 
10 a\\OTpiov 7T/909 TO r]/jLTpov TTapaXoyo? 
&)? \vTrelcr6ai KOI SaKvecrOcii TOV Trapd 

T7)V aiffOlJO lV OVTW Kal T7/9 tyvxfo d7rO\e7TTVl>0/jLV7J(; T 

Kai KT7]Ko/jievr)s ev rot? vTrep r^? dfJLapTias 

rat d || om re 1 vulg | 
4 KttKovj] KCIKWS e%oj/Tas fl vulg || om 
vulg II 6 yevfo~6ai d || 13 eXe7%ots vulg 

Kadus X. r. 61^77. TOV 1 vulg 
f || 5 vyiaivovres] 

Robinson Journal of Theol. Studies, 
iii 9 p. 81 fif. 

ib. iraBf]^. ] Cp. supra xoivuvia. 
r&v Kara, afj-apriav ira.Qr\^6.rwv. 

1-2. ev rw K. rrjs Kp.] Probably 
Gr. based this teaching, as Origen 
did before him, on i Cor. iii 13. 

3. Xe7et] Luke v 31. The 
words are also found \vith the varia 
tion ifxi/oj Tes (see v.l. here) in Mk 
ii 17, Mt ix 12. 

6. <rvfjL<pviai>] Cp. antea c. 6. 

7. fj.vp/jL7jKias^ There is the fol 
lowing scholium on this word in 
the margin of the Mss b and c. 
IIci$os TL irepl TO Sepua TOV (TWyUaros 
rj/muv yiverai, o /xup/x^/da /caXetraf 
ffapKwdrjs yap rts eVt^i crtj /JUKpa 
eTraviararai ru> Sep/uan, r/ris 8ot<ti> /j.tpos (.Ivai rov dep/LLaros, ws irpoa- 
TretpVKvla aurcjj, 01) }J*T\V Kara aXr/deLay 

OUTWS ^X el > ev K(tL Tr l V apffiV TTpOS 

TTJV depaireiav eTn^r/rei. TOI/TOJ viro- 
8eiyfj.aTt e^p?7(raro irpbs 

a(J)o5pa Kara\\TJ\a}. The word fJ.vp- 
p.rfK.ia occurs also in dc An. et Res. 
p. 56 (Migne), where the same 
scholium is found. The excision 
of d u<art gives a sharp sensation to 
the surface (of the body}. 

ib. ewKfia.i ] surface. Cp. 
c. 23. 

8. TO yap irapa <f)i>ffiv~\ An ex 
planation of the pain experienced at 
the amputation of such bodily ex 
crescences. The means by which 
such an unnatural growth affects the 
subject, to which it is attached, is a 
kind of sympathy. The man feels 
for the alien growth as if it were 
really part of himself. While e/m- 
<pvev denotes the physical attach 
ment, 7rpoffiax Tai denotes the rela 
tion which it bears to the personality. 

12. aTroXcTrr.] a paraphrase of 
Ps. xxxviii [xxxix] 12 LXX, where 
the phrases e ler^as and iv 


TTOV (frrjaiv r) 7rpo<brjT6ia, oid rrjv eV 
TO KaKov oiKCLOTrjTa tear avdytcrjv 67ra/co\ov@ov<Ti,v 
apprjToi Tives real aveK^pacrroi d\ r y / r]$6i>s, wv r) 
K TOV io-ov TO d(f)pao-Tov e^et rfj TW 
(frvcrei. ovT yap ravra, ovre exelva rf) Bwd/juei TWV 5 

TW (TTO^acryLtfG rrjs Siavoias vTrdyerai. OVKOVV 
TO Trepan TLS aTrocrKOTTcov rrjs <7o0/a? rov TO r rrav 
dv6p<t)7rwv SyfAiovpyov VTTO fJUKpo^v^ias /caTOvo/jud^ot,, 
TI dyvoelv avrov TO eao/juevov \e^wv } rj elSoTa real TreTrotr}- 10 

KOTO, fJL,rj e%W T^9 7T/309 TO TTOvrjpOV 6p/Jirj<? eludl. Kal 

>ydp ySei TO eaofjievov Kal Trjv TT/^O? TO yivo/jLevov op^v OVK. 
eicco\vcrv OTI jap KTpa7rtjcTTai TOV dyaOov TO 
irivov, OVK rjyvoTjcrev 6 Travra e/jLTrept/cpaTteV TTJ 

KOI TO ecfre^rjs TO) Trapw^fcoTL KCLTO, TO laov 15 

XX coo-Trep Trju TrapaTpoTrrjv eOedaaTO, OVTCO 
teal TI]V avaK\J)(Tiv avTov 7rd\iv Tr)v Trpos TO d<ya06v KaT- 
vorjae. TI ovv apzivov rjv, /caO 6\ov pr) dyayeiv TTJV 
fyvcriv TI^MV et? yevea-iv, eTreibrj TOV Ka\ov oia/jLapTrjo-eo-Oai 
Trpoecopa TOV yevrjao/juevov, rj dyayovTa Kal vevoayKOTa 20 

iron dfg || 6 TUV crroxctcryuwv hnp TOV aroxo-O /JiOi I 1 vulg || 
7 om TTJS <ro0tas f || 1 1 irpos ro Trovrjpov] irovripa.? e || 13 on yap] exstant 
seqq in euth 12456 || 14 ra iravra TrepiKpaTwv f || TrpoopariK-rj 1 vulg |( 
15-16 /SXeTrwv K. T. icrov 1 vulg || 20 TOV yevr)<r.] TO yevrjcr. 1 vulg || vevoo"rj- 
KVICLV euth 

1-2. Trjvev f3d6ei...oiK.] l our deeply TT]V 

rooted connection with evilS For v n. ^w r?7s...6.] Cp. c. 7 ^w 

/Sa^et cp. c. 7 Tots...eV /Sd^ei Ka.6a.Trep Trjs cuY/as (^zV). 

Ti^a Sei croTrotoi jSa^Tji TTJI* aipeTLKrjv 13. 6 rt 7fi/)] The following pas- 

ira.pade5ey/uLvoi<; a.ira.TT]v. sage as far as x^P av ^ K ^X ft > P- 5O> 

4-5. T|7...0i}(m] is governed by e/c is quoted in Euthymius Zigabenus 

ToD LVOV. It is as impossible to Pan. Dogm. pt i tit. vi pp. 201 sq. 

describe the pains of the future (Migne). 

purification as it is to describe the 20. ayay. ..vevocr.] ay. refers to 

future blessings which man hopes God, vwoff. to man (rov yevqa bfj-evov}. 

for. The text of Euth., in order to make 

9. [JUKpo^vxt-as] Such accusations the sense clearer, reads vevocrrjKviav 

against the Creator show a little (sc. TT}V QIHTIV ij/jiui>). Kal vevoo-., 

mind. Cp. c. 9 TUV /j.iKpo\j/vxoTfp<jjv even when he was diseased.^ 

S. 4 


Trd\iv 7T/909 Tr)V ef p^% X a P LV ^ l ^ fjueravoias avarcaXe- 
aao~6ai ; TO Se $t,a ra? crco/jLariKas d\,yr)&ovas, at TCO 

T?}9 (/>ucrea>9 tear avd 

TOV 0ov ovofjid^eiv, T} /jLTjoe 0X0)9 
5 KTi(TTr)V avTov oiecrOai, &>9 av fjirj /cal TWV 
rjfjids al rto? VTTOVOOITO, rovro TT)? ecr-^drr)^ 


o i OVK icrao-Lv on d/celvo rf) fyvcrei JJLOVOV eorrlv d<ya66v, ov 
r) alaOrjai^ OVK e^aTrrerai, /cal JAOVOV eicelvo KCLKOV 77 TOV 
10 aKyOivov d<ya0ov dXXorpicocris. TTOVOIS Be /cal rjBovais TO 
Ka\ov /cal TO /^LTJ Ka\ov rcpiveiv T^? d\6yov (pvaeo)^ L$i6v 
eariv, e<fi wv TOV rlX,r/^co? /ca\ov rj KaTavorjcn^ Sid TO /zr) 
/xeTe^et^ avTa vov /cal Siavoias %wpav OVK e^ei. <\X)C 
OTI fjiev Oeov epyov 6 dvOpcoTros, KO\OV Te Kal eVl Ka\- 

15 \i(TTOl$ yeVOfMeVOV, OV fjLOVOV K TWV elpr)/jL6VCt)V 07J\6v (TTIV, 

d\\d teal e/c /jLVpicov eTepwv, wv TO vrX^^o? Bid TTJV dfjue- 
Tpiav 7rapa$pa/AOv/ji6a. Oeov 8e dvOpcorrov rroirjTrjv ovo- 
fjido-avTes OVK eTTtXeX^oyietfa TWV Iv TO) rrpoot/jLLCD TT/OO? TOU? 
r/ EXX-r;^a9 rffjuv $ievKpivri9evTwv, ev ot? dTre^eLKWTo 6 TOV 
20 Oeov \6yos oucricoS?;? TLS Kal evvrroo-TaTOS wv avTos elvai 
Kal ^eo? Kal ^6709, rrdcrav ovva/jiiv TTOLTITLK^V e 
\rj<f)(t)S, fjid\\ov 8e avTo8vva/j,is u>v Kal rrpos TTCLV 
*rr)V 6p/nr)i> zywv Kal TTCLV o TL rrep dv OeXijo-rj 

}J,VOS Tft) (TVV$pO/jLOV e%t^ TT) /3oV\1]O~ei Tl]v ^VVafJiLV, OV Kal 

25 0e\r}/jia Kal epyov eaTlv i] TWV OVTWV fatj, Trap ov Kal o 

I om 5ia yaera^oias fl* vulg || 9 77 cuo-0.] om 77 deghnp euth 1246 || 10 aXrjd. 
a7a^ou] om a\r)di.vov g 1 l*n 1 a\7)d. KO,\OV deg*hp euth || 1 1 ^77 KaAoi ] KO.KOV 
vulg || diatcpiveiv euth 245 || 12 aJK-rjdivov /caXou d aX-rjffovs KO.\OV ef || 13 avro e || 
e^fi] desinit euth || 21 e/c7reptetAr70ws hnp |j 22 ayadov] epyov ayaOov 1 vulg || 
23 om Tf]v 1 vulg || 24 TO avvdp. fp H /3oiA??crei] ^eA^cret dn 

2-3. ry peucrry] Bodily pain is ro aya6bi> o 
the result of the unstable character 14. e?rt /caAA.] Cp. c. 5 e?rt 

of man s nature. TOVTOIS (note). 

7. TT; aiV^Tytrft] Cp. antea c. 7 16. d/ier/ji aj ] "countless number. 

Trp&sTorjdv TTJs aufj.aTi.KTJs airoXaiHrews 18. Trpoot/x.] i.e. in c. i. 


et? TO %f)v Trapij^Orj, Tracri rot? KaXTu crTOt? Oeo- 
evos. eVet8/) Se fjiovov dva\\oiu>Tov earl 
/card TJ]V $V<JLV TO /a?) St KTicrews e^oy Tjjy yevecriv, rd 
ocra Trapd TT}? d/CTiaTOV (frvo ea)? eV TOU /XT; 6V TO? vTrecrrrj, 
aTro rpOTTTjS TOV eivai dpdfj,eva, TravTore $i d\- 5 

Trpoeio-iv, el ptv Kara (frvcrLv TTpdrroi, TT/^O? TO 
Kpelrrov auTot? T/;? d\\ot,wo-ea)s elf} del jLyvo/jiei>^^, el Se 
TraparpaTreLrj TT}<? evOeias, T^? TT/^O? TO evavriov avra $i,a- 
Se^ofjievr}^ Kivrjcrew eirel ovv ev TOVTOIS teal 6 avOpwTros 
f)V, CD TO rpeTTTOv TT}? (^fcrew? irpus TO evavTiov rrapw- 10 
\L<T0ev, a7ra^ &e Tt)? rc5z/ dyaOwv dva^wp^aew^ L dxo- 
\ovOov rraaav I oeav Ka/cwv dvTeiaayovaTj^, co? T^ ^ei^ 
T?}? ^ft)?}? dvTi(ra^6rjvai TGV OdvaTOv, TTJ 8e 
TOV ^>&)TO? eTTiyeveaOai, TO CTKOTOS, TTJ Se T^? 
s irovcria Trjv Katclav avTeLaa^jdr^vai Kai Trdarj TTJ 15 
dyaOwv ISea TOV TWV IvavTiwv avTapiO/JL^Orfvai Ka-rd- 
\oyov, TOP eV TOVTOIS Kal Tot? TOIOVTOLS e d/3ov\la<? 
e/jiTreTTToy/coTa ov$e yap fjv SvvaTov ev <ppovijcret eivai TOV 
d7rcrTpa/j,/j,vov Trjv (frpbvrjcriv Kal crotyov TL [BovKevo-aaOai 
TOV T/? <7O()ta9 dvawrcravTa $td TLVOS eoet rrdXiv 20 



4 om TOV vulg || 6 TrpociffLv] + /cat I vulg || 7 yevofj-evrj^ ef 74^- vulg || 
ii roi a7a^ou d || 12 iraffav KO.K. id. e || 16 om idea I* vulg || Ka.Tapt.6/uir)- 
drjifai g 1 ! vulg || 20 5ta TIJ OS] exstant seqq in euth 12456 j| TraXii ] TOV avdpb}- 
TTOV euth 12 I! 21 TLVL 3e dtefapev f TLVL de eirpeirtv 1 vulg 

diro rpoirfis] Cp. c, 6 aTro 17-18. Tbv...ep.Treirr.~\ Here begins 

crews ^aro. the apodosis. The ^a". is the sub- 

6. ei /u.^ KOLTO. (fivcnv] The natural ject of the inf. ava.K\ri6rii>a.L below. 

development of man would have 18. (t>povr)<rei] practical wisdom, 

been 3t aXXoiuxrews in the direction prudence. On (ppbvr)ffi.s and ao0a 

of improvement. By his departure see Lightfoot on Col. i 10. 

from good it became a progressive 20. 5td rtVos] The following pas- 

deterioration. sage, as far as the words TO re cruifj-a 

8. TTJS evdelas] sc. odov. Trjs ^^ X^ diaxpiveTai in c. 16, is 

1 6. di/Tapi^M^^^ai] over against reproduced in Euth. Zig. Pan. 

every kind of good tJiere was set down Dogni. pt i tit. vii pp. 213 sq. 

the list of opposite evils. 1 (Migne). 

4 2 


/eX?7<7t9, rj TOV TreTr X.avijfjLevov ^eipaywyia ; TLVL a\\w TJ ra> 
Kvpla) TrdvTcos TV? (/)u<rea)9; TW yap ef a/0%79 rrj 

jLoi O) Svvarov r^v Kal Trpejrov dfjba /cal 
dvaKakecracrOai. o Trapd rov fAvo-rrjpiov T//9 

5 #6/0,9 (iKOVOfJLeV, 6<LOV 7T7TOi7]K6VaL KCIT /9%a? TOI/ 

Kal aeo~a>Kevai ^iaireTrrwKora pavOdvovTes. 

9. *A\X /xe^pt yLtez^ ro^Tft)^ (TvvOtjcreTai TV%OV TW Xo r /9 ) 

O 7T/909 TO (IKO\OV90V /3\7TO)V Sid TO fJLT] &OKLV ^(O TL 

T?79 OeoTTpenrovs Gvvoias rwv elpvjiJLevwv elvai nrpos Se rd 

10 ec^e^r/9 ov% ofJLOiM^ e^et, $>i div fjudXtcrra TO fJivo Ti ipLov Trj<? 

aXrjBeias KpaTwerai >yevo-is dvOpoDirivt) Kal 77 eV vrjTTiov 

7T/5O9 T6\eito)(TlV aV^rjCTlS, j3p(t)O~iS T Kal 7TO(7t9, Kal /CO7TO9, 

UTTt O9, ral XUTT-^, ra/ SaKpvov, crvtcofyavria re Kal oixa- 

3 aTroXXi /xei T/i/ 1 vvilg || 5 e apx"n^ 1 vu g II 6 fj.a.vdavoiJ.ei e 9. 8 om 
o 1 vulg || 9-10 TO e0e. ghnp euth || 11 aXrjdeias] eucre/Setas f ot/coi/o/xtas euth 
1456 ]| yevvyaiv avdpuTTLvrjv \eyii) euth || 11-12 Trjv...av^-rjaiv, /3pwcrti/... 
iro(nv...KOTrov euth || 13 VTTVOV... Xvwrji ... a vKO(pavr iav euth 


9. In this and the tzvo following sentence which follows is difficult. 

chapters Gr. discusses some of the The text of Euth. is the result of 

objections urged against the method an attempt to simplify the construc- 

employed by God in the Incarnation. tion. The antecedent to 5t wi/ is 

One such objection arises out of the TO, e^d^s, which refers to yeveais 

alleged degradation to tlie Divine avdpuirivt) KT\., these latter words 

Natiire involved in it. The sub- being in loose apposition to TO, 

mission to the processes of birth and e0e??s. For a similar instance of 

growth, the acceptance of the con- a broken construction see c. i stib 

ditions of Inunan life, and, finally, fin. with note. 

the dishonour attaching to the trial, 10. oi>x o^oiws ee i] The subject is 

death and burial of Christ, these, it either the same as that of avvQr\atTa.(., 

is 2irged, were unworthy of God. In he will not think the same or im- 

reply Gr. maintains that vice is the personal the case will not be the 

only degradation. The Incarnation, same. 

in that it was marked by absolute 10-11. TO fj.v<rTr)pioi> r. cL] i.e. the 

freedom from contact with vice, was doctrine of the Incarnation, which 

an exhibition of moral perfection rests upon and is established by 

(Ka\6>>). yevecns KT\., although these latter 

g. deoTrpeTrovs evvoias] a con- are likely at first to be a stumbling- 

ception which is worthy of God. block to the catechumen. 

Tiii> flpfj/J-. depends on n. 13. cru/co0aima] = false accttsa- 

9-10. ?rp6s 8 TO. e 0e^s] The tion? Atvaar. place of judgment? 


(TTijpiov, teal crravpos, /cal Odvaros, K.CLI Y) eV 
ravra jap av/jL7rapa\a^ai>6/jL6va T&> 
7T&>9 TWV /jLiKpo-^rv^orepfDv rrjv Trianv, ft)? fj.r)oe TO e (e/;? 
T(*)v Xe yo/xei ft)^ Sid rd Trpoeiprj/jieva o~v/jL7rapa8e%e(70ai,. 
TO yap OeoTrpeires Try? e/c i etcpdov dvacrrdcrew^ $ia TO Trepl 5 
TOV QdvcLTov ttTrpeTre? ov Trpoo-ievrai. eyca 8e irporepov 
Sew fjiiicpbv rrjs o-aprciKrjs Tra^vrrjro^ TOV \oyiafjiov 
CLVTO TO KCL\OV e^> eavTOV /cal TO fjbrj 
TOLOVTOV /caTavor/aat, TTOLOLS <yvwpi<jfJiaoLV e/caTepov TOVTWV 

. ovSeva yap dvTepelv ol^ai TWV \e\o- 10 
, OTL ev KaTa (pvcriv IJLOVOV TWV irdvTwv 
aicr^pov TO /caTa Katciav 7T(i0os, TO Se icaic ias e/cT09 

eorrlv d\\OTpiOV u> Se /uuy 

TOVTO TCCLVTWS <lv rfj TOV /ca\ov fjioipa KaTd\afjLJ3d- 
TO oe d\7]0ws KO\OV d/jiiyes GCTTL TOV IvavTiov. 15 
8e Oeay TTCLV o TL Trep ev Trj TOV tca\ov 
i} TOLVVV &t,dTO)o~av KCLKLCLV eivai Trjv 
Trjv avaTpofyrjv, TTJV av^rfo~LV J TTJV 7rpb$ TO T\eiov 

t KO.L crravpos] aravpov (om /cat) euth || Qo.vo.rov euth || TTJV... 
deffw euth || 3 ra 0e^s en euth || 6 Trpocrierat g 1 ! vulg || 7 8eii>] + ai rot S 
g 1 ! 1 |1 10 Trapa\a/u.(3aveTai. d || 12-13 TO Kara KO.KLO.V ...aiffxpov om 1* || 
13-15 effTt-v aXAorp. ...a/mi-yes ear. r. eva.vri.ov om euth I et (exceptis ear, 
aXXorp.) i i| 13 aiffxpov] evavriov vulg || /xe/it/crat vulg || 14 7rapa\a/Xj8. 
ehn || 16 rw ^ew l* v|d vulg Ij o TL Trep] + av deghnp || dewpriran en euth 25 || 
1 7 "yeveffiv fg 1 

2. <rv(\a/ji.(B.] l when taken pondered the matter. 

along with the revelation,^ 12. TO 5^ Kanias e/cTos] that 

Z/A dM/3\i;vet] blunt," 1 weaken. which is free from moral evil. 
Mt/tpo^i/x- cp. c. 8 t TTo /ut/cpo^i/x cis- 14- /^o P?] for this periphrastic 

3. TO e0t^s] i.e. the Resurrec- use of fj-otpa ( m numero.,.esse] cp. 
tion. Plat. Phileb. 54 C eV TT7 ToO a7a0oO 

7-8. TOI Xo7. dTrocrT.] Cp. c. 7 fj.oip<f. eKelvo eon. KaTaX. is a mere 

TOI/ vovv d-rroarTja-avras. variation of phrase for the usual 

8. avrb TO /caXoj/] See note dewpelfftiai which follows, while 

c. 5 p. 27. fjioipq. is followed by the equivalent 

10. ruv XeXo7-] The perf. is X^P<f- This is assuredly found 

intensive, no one who has carefully to be good? 


TTpooSov, rrjv TOV Oavdrov irelpav, rrjv etc TOV 
davdrov eTrdvo&ov rj el efco Ka/cias eivai rd 
(TVVTiOevTcu, ovo~ev alo-^pov elvai TO tca/clas d\\6rpioi 
dvdyKrj? o/jioXoy^aovo-t,. KO\OV Se Trdvrax; dvaS 
5 TOV Tracrr;? atV^porT/ro? Kal /cd/cias drrriXkayfJievov, TTW? 
OVK e\6ivol T% d\oyias ol TO Ka\ov pr) rrpeTreiv eVl Oeov 

10. AXXa fii/cpov, (frrja-l, Kal evTrepiypcnrTOv f) dvOpw- 

(f>v(Ti<>, aireipov Se r) $607779, Kal 7TW9 av 
10 TO) drofjiw TO ciTreipov ; Kal TL<S rovro (frrjcriv, on TTJ 

ypa<f)fj T?}9 crapKos KaOdjrep dyyeiw Tivl r} direipLa T?}9 
dforijTos 7Tpie\r)<p0rj ; ovSe yap eVl ri^ ^fierepa^ 0)779 
eWo9 KaraK\ierai rwv rrj^ crapKos opwv rj voepd 

i om TOU vulg || 2 77 et] om et n euth 25 || rwv Lprjfj.evwv e om ra 
eip. p !l 3 crvvrideraL 1 euth i || oi Sej ] KO.L ovdev euth 25 || 4 airodeiK. euth 
25 || 5 TOu...a7r?7\Xay. om 1* vulg 1O. 8 cnrcpiypaTTT. 1* V1(1 euth 16 ?repi- 
ypawT. vulg ;i to <j>-rjaciev q 0?;(rt e^ r || u ayyetw] ei/ ayy. g 1 e^ 07710) 
fqr || TO aireipov e Thdrt || 12 ^eor^ros] aapKos Thdrt 1 

. nun 

6. eXceu/ot T^S d\.] to be pitied mon text has Trtpi.ypairT6v, cir- 

f or their folly. "* cumscribed. RvirepiypairToi means 

1O. ^ second objection is l How easily circumscribed, narrow, 

raw the finite contain the infinite? small. Gr. uses the word /;/ Hex., 

How can the Divine Nature be proem p. 64 (Migne) ei> 6X17015 re 

contained within the limits of human /cat ev-rrepLypdwroLS rols prj/uLacrii . 

nature?^ Gr. replies that a fallacy 10. dro/xy] how the infinite 

underlies such questions. The Divine could have been contained ni the 

Nature is not confined within human atom. 

nature as though the latter were a ib. ris TOVTO 0.] This passage is 

vessel. Even the soul of man, whe. i quoted by Theodoret Dial, ii (In- 

engaged in the movements of thought, confusus) p. 194 (Migne), to prove 

ranges at will far beyond the limits the two natures in Christ, although 

of the body. The relations of the Gr. s purpose is quite different, and 

hiiman and Divine natures may be the words are intended to correct a 

illustrated by those of the fiame and false conception of the union of the 

the wick. two natures. 

8. AXXd KT\.] The passage 13. eVros] For the separation of 

which follows is quoted by Leontius the prep, from the noun cp. c. 1 1 

of Byzantium c. Nest, et Eutych. eiros yevfodai TT}S crrjs KaraXTji/ ews. 

bk iii. See Galland Bibl. Vet. For the relations of soul and body 

Patr. xii p. 699. see an interesting passage in Flo- 

ib. einrepiypcnrTois] The com- tinus Enn. 4. 3. 20 sq., which Gr. 



o nev OJKOS rov o-wyLtaro? rot? oiceois 
<ypfi<f)Tai, r) $e tyv^rj rot? TT)? Stavoias Kivrj/Jbacn Trdarj 
/car e^ovcrlav e^a7r\ovrai ry KTi<Tei, KOI pe^pis ovpav&v 
dviovcra, /ecu rwv dftvo-awv eTTi^arevovaa, real ra> TrXaret 
rr)9 ol/cov/j,evrj<; eTrep^o/jievrj, teal TT/^O? ra Kara^Oovta 8m 5 
TT}? TroXwrrpa yiJLOcrvv rjs i<T$vvovcra, TroXXtf/a? Se 
ovpaviwv OavfJLciTWv ev Trepivoiq yiverai, ovSev 
TO) (f)o\KLM rou crwyaaro?. el Se dvOpwirov ^v^rj Kara 
TTJV TT}? (frvcrecos dvdy/crjv avj/cefcpafjievij rco awfjuan irav- 

v KO.T e^ovcrlav yiverat, r/9 dvayicr) rf} cfrvcrei r^? 10 
TJV 0OTT]Ta \eyeiv e^irepieip yecrOai real /JLTJ Sia 

TWV %Wp7]TWV r)/jLll> VTToBeiyfJidTWV (TTOyjCKJ p,OV TLVCi 7Tp- 

4 ai iowa] (f)6avovcra. qr || ra TrXarrj euth 45 || 5 eTrep^o^e^?;] Trepuro- 
\evovaa qr || 7 vrrepovp. dgnp euth eirovp. eh jj ro T? avayKy vulg || 
12 x w P n TLKWV c l x aJ / 3tTl/CWJ/ r II <TTOxa<r/*o ] + 7;/uj> 1 vulg 

may have had in his mind, as the 
illustration of the a77etof, which 
Gr. has employed, occurs in it. 

i. 6 fj.ev cry/cos] The bulk of 
the body is limited by its own 
particular parts and confined to 

3. e 0a7rAouTcu] but the soul 
by tJic movements of its thought 
deploys over I he ivhole creation at 
unll? Gr. has probably in mind a 
passage of the Phaedms of Plato 
(246 H) : i) i^i Xi? Trdcra iravros tTri^ie- 
Xetrat TOV di/ i xoi , iravra, re ovpavbv 
TreptTroXe?, dXXore ev fiXXois ei Secri 
yiyvofjiffT). T\ea /j.i> ovv oiVa /cat 
fTTTfpwfjLtvri /AereupoTTopfi re Kal 
ciiravra. rov KOCT/J.OI dioLKcl. 

4. Tri{3arevovaa.] lit. setting 
foot on, ^ entering. Cf. c. Eiinorn. 
i p. 292 (Migne) VTrepopia/jios ov 

rov Trdffrjs TT^S 7^5 ^uerd r^s 

ib. r(f TrXdret] traversing the 
"vide expanse of the world? The 
nearest approach to this use of 
fTrepxeffdaL with the dat. is in a 
passage of the in Fsalnios (ii 14 init.) 
where Gr. says TCWTOIS eirc\duv ro?s 

vor//j<a.<Tii>. The text of Euth. has the 
correction ir\drTj. 

6. n-o\virpay[j.o<rvi> r)s] l in its un 
wearying pursuit of truth. 1 For 
Tro\virpa.yiJ.ovelv in this sense cp. 
Cyril Al. de Adorat. i p. 145 
(Migne) TroXvjrpayfj.oi w/j.ev ev /m,d\a 
TT?S dXrjQeias ro vdXXos. 

7. irepu>oi<t~\ /> engaged in com- 
prehending the wonders of the 
heavens. Ilepivoia occurs in Plat. 
Ax. 370 C, where it is similarly 
used of the comprehension of the 
wonders of the heavens and the 
processes of nature. For the phrase 
tv TT. yiv. cp. Greg. Naz. Or. 
xxviii 6 with Dr Mason s note. 

8. TCJJ e0oX/a oj] burdened by 
the appendage of the body? E0oX/c. 
lit. a ship that is taken in tow. 
Plotinus (de Pulchr. 54 E) similarly 
uses oX/vT? of that which drags down 
the soul. 

12. xw/n/rcDj ] illustrations which 
we. can comprehend. 

ib. (TTo%a(r / u,6^] conjecture? Cp. 
c. 8 ry o-roxacr/u^ TT?S diavoias. For 
OIKOVO/J.. see antea c. 5 z w/V. note. 


? Oeias 

\a/3eiv ; ft>? yap TO irvp 

TTOVTa Trep 

eVl r/7> Xa/u-TTttSo? oparai TT?? 

, /cat \6yos yLtey SiaKpivei TO Te eVl Tr/9 I/XT?? 
TO irvp d^aTTTOvaav vXrjv, epjw Se ovtc ecmv air* 
5 a\\r)\wv ravra StaTeyncWa?, e<// eavrrjs SeZfat Tr/i> <f)\oya 
Sie^evyjjLewrjv Trjs vXiys, XX ev ra crvvajAcfroTepa <yiverai y 

OVTCO KOI 7rl TOVTOV KCll fAOl /XT/Set? TO (f)0apTtfCOV 

<rv/jL7rapa\,a/jL{3aveTa) raj vTroBeiy/JLan, ci\X ocrov 
ecrrt, fjiovov ev ry elfcovi &ei;(i/A6vos, TO aTre^alvo 
10 ei(r0a) rov avTov ovv TpoTrov, GO? opwfjiev KOI 

i \a/j.Trr)dovos e || 5 e<p eaurT/s] e<p eavr^v vulg || 7 OI;TU>] om e euth 
/cat eTTt TOVTOV] om deghlnp vulg || /cat ytioi] om /xot fl vulg [| 9 TO 
jcat a7refjt.(f). 1 vulg || 10 om ouv g 1 euth 12 


I. ws yap] The illustration of 
the flame and the wick which follows 
has been criticized as a touch of un 
conscious Eutychianism. But the 
purpose of Gr. in using the illustra 
tion is simply to show that the flame 
is inseparably connected with the 
wick and yet is not enclosed in it. 
Any further parallelism is foreign to 
his intention. 

tJu material 

supplied to // i.e. for the flame to 
feed upon. 

ib. irepidedp.] Cp. c. 6 p. 36. 

3. Xo7os 6ta/cp.] The distinction 
between the flame and the wick, 
which reason (Xo7os) makes, does 
not exist practically (^7^), as it is 
not possible to exhibit the flame 
separate from the wick. 

7. ovTtj} Ko.1 eirl TOVTOV] The text 
is in some confusion here. The 
reading adopted most easily explains 
the origin of the variations. Gr. 
begins to apply the comparison in 
the words oi/rw /cat eiri TOVTOV, and 
then introduces a parenthesis KCU 
yttoi ...... aTrorroieiffdu to safeguard his 

illustration from being misconceived, 
afterwards resuming the main sen 
tence with TOV avrbv ovv Tpbirov. 

ib. rb (fidapTiKov] Gr. guards 
.against any material conceptions 

which may be associated with his 
illustration, such as may arise from 
the perishable character of the flame. 
His readers are to reject what is 
incongruous in the illustration. P"or 
aTre/uLfpcuvov see c. i p. 10 (note). 
ATroTTotelcr^at = reject is found in 
Job viii 20 (LXX) and in other 
passages of the same book. 

10. e^rjfj./j^vriv] we see the flame 
dinging to that which is supplied to 
it and not included in tJie material? 
Efy/uLfj,. is variously rendered in the 
different versions. Zinus, the Latin 
translator of Euthymius, renders 
flammam attingere subjectam ma- 
teriam. Similarly Hervetus quae 
subjectum attingit et apprehenditC 
Fronto Ducaeus suggests two ren 
derings : (i) conjungi et dependere, 
which is adopted by Krab. ; (2) ac- 
cendi, which yields the sense quae 
ex subjecta materia accensa est. 
The justification for this second 
rendering is the preceding phrase 
TTJV TO irvp f^dnTOvcrav v\7]v. But 
the absence of a preposition with 
TOV viroKLfj.^vov is against it. The 
rendering given above suits the 
context and the general sense of 
e^awTfo-daL. To viroKeifj,. is the wick, 
which Gr. has referred to supra as 
T? VTroKeifj-frir) v\r). 


>\oya fcal OVK va7rotc\io/jL6vr]v rfj v\y, ri 
Oeias (uo~ea>? evcoffiv TLVO, tcai Trpoaeyyio fjLov /cara- 
vor}o~avTas nrpos TO avOputirivov, TTJV OeoTrpejrij 
KCLI v TU> Trpocreyyio /jLtiy oLacrcoaacrOai, Trdarj 
e/cro? eivat TO Oelov TTicrTeuovTas, KCLV ev di dpcoTTO) r) ; 5 

11. Et Se ??Tefc9 7T<W9 KaTcucipvaTai Oeorrjs Trpos TO av- 

(TOl TTpO TOVTOV tyTlV Tl 7T/3O? T7)V (Tap/CCL T^9 

vi(l. el ^e r//9 afjs d<yvoelTai ^f%^9 o rpovro?, 
ov evovrai TO) aco/jiaTL, /XT^Se eiceivo Trdvrw oiov $eiv 

T/;? o-/}? KaraXifatws d\\ uxnrep evravOa 10 
/cat erepov elvai TL irapd TO aw/Aa TTJV ifrv%r}V TreTnaTev- 
KCLfjiev K TOV fJiovwOelaav r//? ^1^179 Trjv adpKa veicpdv re 
teal dvevepyrfTOv yiveo-Oai, fcal TOV T//? evwo-ews OVK eTCi- 
yivwo-Kofjiev TpoTcov, ovTO) red/eel Bia(j)pLv nev lirl TO 
/jLeya\o7rp7recrTpov T*]V Oeiav fyvaiv Trpo? rrjv OvrjTrjv Kal 15 
eTCLKripov 6[AO\oyov[jLV, TOV $6 Ttjs dvcLfcpdcrews TpoTrov TOV 
Oeiov TT^O? TOP dvOpwTTov crvvtbelv ov %copov/jiv. d\\d 
TO /j,ev yeyevrjaOai, 6eov ev dvdpwirov (^vaei Sid TWV tcrro- 
OavfJLaTwv OVK dfji^i^aXkofJiev, TO 8 OTTCO?, ct>9 

TT?S Oeias euth 12 || Karat otjaavTas] yvupiaavTas Thdrt sirm jj 4 ev 
wffet. f || Stacrw^ecr^at 1 vulg Thdrt rom j| 5 ^etoj*] o<nov f [| ev av- 
1 lulrt /cat ev rco \afieiv dov\ov pop fir) v f || r;] rjv vulg 11. 6 frjreii 
TTpo TOVTOV 1 vulg |] 8 ffwd^eia. g 1 || 13 yeveadai 1 vulg || 16-17 rou #. rp. f || 
17 TOV a.vdp.] TO avOpdJinvov fg 1 1 vulg || 19 TO 5 OTTWS] TO 5e TTWS el vulg 

2. 0eias 0(y<rews] The absence 14-15- e>7r T0 Mf7dXo7r.] lit. in 
of the article emphasizes the force the direction of greater majesty, 
of the adj. nature which is l as possessing greater majesty? 
Divine. 16. dvaKpdffeus] Cp. supra KO.TO.- 

3. deoirpeirr) didvoiav] i the >~igJit Ki.pv3.Ta.i and c. 16 dj>K<ppdcrTov 
and proper thongJit of God. ffvvavaKpdffews. On the use of such 

11. To the objection / what terms with reference to the I ncarna- 

manner is the (Jodhead united to tion see Petavius de hie. iii 2, and 

Mt 1 manhood? Gr. replies that man cp. Mason Five Or. of Greg. Naz. 

does not know how in his own pp. 103, 112. 

nature the soul is united to the 17. ov x^pov/mev] we are not 

flesh. The fact of the union of the capable of perceiving 
Godhead and the manhood in Christ 18. did TU!V io~Top. ] Or. rests 

is attested by miracles, but the manner his argument for the union of the 

is inscrutable. Godhead and manhood in Christ on 

10. e^Tos] For the separation facts. It is attested by the miracles 

from the noun cp. c. 10 p. 54, note. recorded. 


[Aei^ov r) /cara \oyHTfjLwv e<f>oSov, Siepevvav 
ov&e yap Tracrav TTJV aco^LartKTJv re /cal vor^rr^v KTLCTIV 
Trapa rrjs aaw^aTov re teal OLKTICTTOV fy 
TTHTTevovres, TO iroOev rj TO TTW? rfj Trepl TOVTWV 
5 <TVve%Td,ofJiev. a\\a TO yeyevrjcrOai 

dTTO\.VTTpayiJLOvriTOV rbv Tpoirov Tr;? TOU Travros avo-ra- 
cre&)9 Kara\ei7rofJLev, 609 apprjTOv Travrdiracnv ovra /cal 

12. ToO Se ^eo^ eV aapKi TreffravepwcrOai r^lv o T? 
10 aTToSet^et? eTn^rfTwv Trpbs Ta? evepyelas /3\7reT(D. teal yap 
rov 6 Xft)? elvai deov ovrc av Ti? erepav aTroSei^iv e^oi, 7T\rjv 
TT;? oY avTMv TWV Vpjiwv fJiapTvpia^. wajrep TOIVVV 
6t? TO TTO.^ d<j)opa)VTes, teal T9 /caTa TO;^ KOCT^OV olfcovo/jLLa? 
7TicrK07rovvT6<> Kal Ta9 evepyeaias T9 OeoOev Kara rrjv 
15 f<w^ rj/jiwv evepyovfJievas, vTrepKelaOai riva ^vva^iv TTOLTJ- 
TiKr)v TMV yiyvo/jbevwv teal o-vvTTjpijTiKrjv rwv OVTWV 

OI/T&)? Kal Girl TOV $i 
6eov iKavrjv aTroSei^iv TTJS e 

2 KTiffiv} ycvvr)<nv vulg || 4 TTWS] OTTWS vulg || 6 om TOP vulg 12. 9 0at/e- 
^T/i/at euth 12 1| ii 7r\7?j/] om vulg || 12 5ta r?;s TWP ei/. fl vulg || 14 a?ro- 

(T/C07T. d 

i. ^oSo^] = method. Cp. 
Greg. Naz. 6>r. xxviii 7 etVep 6 Xais 
rats XoytKais Trtoret /ets e065ois. 

5. <7i>j>e e7"d^".] along wif/i our 
faith in these truths we do not corn- 

bine an enquiry into the source and 
manner. 1 

6. d.Tro\virpay/ji6i>r)Tov] For TroXu- 
Trpay/Jioveiv see antea c. 10 iro\virpa.y- 
//.ocri i^s (note). Here the word has 
a somewhat more unfavourable 
sense. l Accepting the fact that 
it iv as created, we put aside all 
curious enquiry into the manner in 
which the universetvas framed. "* Cp. 
Cyr. Al. in hai. xlv p. 964 (Migne) 

jTa 5e ra Trap avrov 

12. The fact that God has become 
man is attested by the evidence of 
Divine power shown in the earthly 

///^ o/ Christ. His activities reveal 
wonders no less than those which in 
Creation point to the creative and 
upholding power of God. 

9. Oebv tv crap/vt ?re0.] i Tim. 
iii 16. 

I3-H- oiKovoftias ... evepyecrias] 
OiKovo/uiat. are the orderly disposi- 
lions made by God in the Universe. 
Eik/^ecrtcu are the exhibitions of 
beneficence shown in the pro- 
vision for the needs of His creatures. 
The dav/j-ara to which Gr. appeals 
exhibit the moral character and 
goodness of God. They are o"rjfj.fla 
in the sense of St John. 

15. inrepKficrdaL] C]"). antt a,prol. 
dvvafj.iv ...TOV TravTos virepKL^.fi>riv. 

17-18. firl TOU. . . <pai>. ] / // the case 
of God manifested to us by means 
of the flesh. Another possible 


s ra Kara ra? evepyelas dav/jiara 

rot? ia-TOp7]Oeia-iv epyois, 8t wv 77 OeL 

iHTis, KaravorfcravTes. Oeov TO ^woTroielv TOL>? av- 

s, Oeov TO (TvvTrjpelv Sid Trpovoias TO, OVTCL, Oeov TO 

KOI 7TO(TIV Tols &ICL (TClpKOS T^V ^WTJV el\r)^6(TL 5 

Oai, Oeov TO evepyeTeiv TOV Seo/jLevov, Oeov TO Trapa- 

eavrrjv eTravdyetv, Oeov TO 
TT)? KTi(recos, 717?, 0a\d(T(Tr)s, aepo?, teal TWV vTrep TOV depa 
TOTTWV, Oeov TO TTpos TrdvTCL oiapfcrj TTJV ^vvafjiiv e^eiv KOI 10 
TT/OO ye Tcdvrwv TO OCLVUTOV KOI (pOopds eivai KpeiTTova. 
el /juev ovv Tivbs TOVTWV K.CLI TWV TOLOVTWV eXXtTT^)? TJV rj 
Trepl avTov [crTopta, et/corco? TO /JLVCTTr^ptov r;/zw^ oi e^co Trj<> 
7rio~TCi)(f TrapeypafyovTO el Se St wv voeiTai Oeos, TrdvTa 
ev rot? Trepi avTov 8tr/7?/yLtacrt KaOopaTai, TL TO e{jL7ro$iov 15 

13. AXXri, (frrjcri, yevwrjo-is re KOI OdvaTos LOIOV T^9 

4 ra TTafra d |j 5 om 5ta vulg || 6 TO evepy.] om TO vulg || 8 etrava- 
eLv e |! eTri/SctTeuetp fg 1 ! eiriKpaTeueiv vulg || o/i. eir. f |i Q /cat TCOI ] 
om /cat 1 vulg || TOP aepa] om TOV f || I r 0^opas] diatfidopas g 1 || 12 om TOUTWJ/ 
/cat e || om /cat TWJ/ TotouTWJ/ vulg |! 14 Trio-Tews] + TJ/J.UI vulg [I 14-15 Trai/Ta... 
Kadoparai om euth 16 || 15 Kadoparai] KaropdovTai d 13. 17 Ye^ecris g 1 

rendering is to take 5td o-ap/cos in ...TT?J> 0i;o-tj ...e7raj ci7eti/) and especi- 

the sense in which it occurs below ally emphasizes the mastery over 

Tots 5td ffapKos TT)v faty elXr/xbffi- death and corruption. 

The language is intended to recall 14. ira.ptypa.<povTo\ llapaypafir) 

the words of St Paul with which the =praescriptio, a legal exception, 

chapter begins. demurrer. IVould have taken ex- 

i. roll Iffrop7]6.] k marking by ception to? 

means of His recorded works all the 13. If it be objected that His 

characteristic qualities of the Divine birth and death show that He ivas 

Nature. 1 limited by the conditions of human 

3. ^woTTotai ] Cp. c. 15 eSetTo nature, we may reply that, wJiile 

TOV fwoTToioui TOS 6 atpa/JLapT^v TT)S Christ ~i.>as subject to the conditions 

frj7?s. Here it is used with a of human nature, lie also transcended 

more general reference. The illus- them. He was born, but His birth 

trations chosen by Gr. are intended was of a Virgin; He died, but I/is 

to show that in the Incarnation there death was followed by His Resurrec- 

was exhibited a creative, sustaining tion. These facts show that He was 

activity like that to which Creation more than man. 

witnesses. He also hints at its 17. 7^770-15] The purpose of the 

redemptive purpose (TraparpaTreiffav objector is to show that Christ was 



earl (/>ucrea>?. (f>7j/jil /cdyoj. a\\d TO irpo rrjs yev- 
1/770* ea) < KOI TO /uera TOV OdvaTov T^V T>}? (frvcrecos JIJJLWV 6K- 
fyevyei KOivoTTjTa. et? yap e/caTepa Trjs dvOpwTTivrjs a)J/9 
TCL TcepaTa /r^Xe/ro^re?, icr/^ev KOI oOev dp^o^eOa KOL ei? 
5 rt /caToXrfyofAev. e/c irdOovs jap dp^dpevos TOV elvai o 
TrdOei avvcnrapTi,eTai. e/cei Be oi/re 77 yev- 
diro TcdQovs TJp^aTO, ovTe o OdiaTos et? TrdOos 
ovTe yap T/;? yevvrjo-ew*; ^Sovr} /caOrjyijo-aTO, 
OVTC TOV OdvaTov (f)0opd SteSefaTo. aTTto-ret? TOJ dav- 
/zart; %aip(t) aov rrj aTTiarLa 0/110X076^ yap irtivTO)? $i 
(Lv vTrep maTiv 77777 TO \6<yofjiei>ov, v7Tp Tt/v (pvcriv eivai 
TCL Oav/JuaTa. avTo ovv TOVTO TT}? ^eor^ro? eara) aoi TOV 
<f>av6VTOs aTTooeL^is, TO /AI) Bid TWV Kara $>V(Tiv Trpoierai 

dghnp euth ]| 6 7ei/e<ris dghnp || 8 76^60-60;? clglinp j| 9 a?re- 
5e^aro f || 10 om crou I 1 vulg |j om Tra^rws e j| ri om TT/V f || 12 ra ^au/i.] 
ro Trpay[j.a f || 13 TO /x-r/] + 5i o\oy euth || 0i crtj>] quae sequuntur desunt in 
euth ^ 

merely man, because He shared in 
the characteristic limitations of our 
nature, i.e. birth and death. 

3. KoivoTT]Ta\ There were cir 
cumstances accompanying the birth 
and death of Christ, which could 
not be brought within the common 
experiences of mankind, i.e. the 
Virgin-birth and the Resurrection. 

3-4. e/cdrepa...7re paraj looking 
to either extremity of our human 
life? For similar language cp. c. 27 
TT?S .fk?; 5 r]fj.ujv 5 i/o Trtpaaiv eKarepu- 
dtv 5iei\ri/, TO Kara TTJV dpx^]f 
<f)r)/J.i /ecu TO r^Xos. 

5. 7rd0ous] In this passage 7rci/9os 
is used in two distinct senses, and it 
is not until c. 16 that (Jr. clears up 
the ambiguity involved in the word. 
As applied to birth, the Trddos to 
which he refers is properly the irados 
of the parent (see ijdovr) below) and 
denotes passion. As applied to 
death it implies imperfection, frailty, 
weakness, exhibited in the submis 
sion to <j>6opd. 

6. ffvva.Tra.pTi^fra.L\ brings his 

life to a close i.e. by the TTCI^OS of 
death involving <pOopd (see infra}. 

ib. Kt 5f] In Christ each of 
the Trepara (which in human life are 
attended by a Trd^os) presented a 
display of Divine power. For they 
were free from any exhibition of 
irddos. His birth was not preceded 
by rjdovr), nor was His death ac 
companied by (fidopd. 

(). (pttopd] Cf. Ps. xv 10, Acts 
ii 10. The word 5ia<f)dopd which is 
iound in both those passages occurs 

10. xcupw] The incredulity of his 
hearers Gr. regards as a testimony 
to the supernatural character of the 
events. And it is this which he is 
seeking to prove. 

ib. ofj.oXoye is ydp] For you 
acknowledge that these wonderful 
events are above nature, by the very 
reasons which lead you to consider 
that the account surpasses belief? 

12-13. TOU <pat>i>Tos] i.e. XptcrToC. 

13. did TUV] that the Gospel 
message does not proceed in a way 


TO KrjpwyiJba. e yap ero? rjv TWV rs (ucrew? opwv r 
rrepl rov X/Ko-ToO Bi^ytjaara, TTOV TO Oeiov ; el Be virep- 
ftaivei rrjv (j)va~LV o ^0709, ev ot9 dincTTels, ev TOVTOIS earrlv 
YI (i7r6$eij;is rov Oeov elvai rov fcr)pva-o-6uei ov. avOpwrros 
/j,v yap e/c o-vi Svacr/jLov rUrerat KOL aerd Odvarov ev 5 
8ia(pOopa ylveTai. el ravra rrepiel^ TO /cijpvy/jLa, OVK 
av Oeov elvai rrdvrws M^Orj^ rov ev rots" t^tco^tacrt r^? 
<f)vo-eu>s rifjitov fjiaprvpovfJLevov. errel Se yeyevrjaOai fjiev 
avTov d/coveLS, efc/Sefirj/cevai Se r?79 tyvo-ecos ijfiwv rrjv KOLVO- 
rrjra TO> re rrjs yeveaew^ rpojra) KOL ray dveTriSefcra) rr^9 10 
6t9 <f)6opdv aXXotajcre&)9, AraX(W9 av t %ot Kara TO d/co\ov0ov 
eVt TO e repov rfj dmaria ^p^aao-Oai, els TO /ZT) avOpwrrov 
avrov eva rwv ev rfj <f)i>(Ti, Set,KVuaeva)v OieaOai. dvdyfcrj 
yap Trdaa rov arj Triarevovra rov roiovrov dvOpwrrov elvai 
6t9 TYJV rrepl rov Oeov avrov elvai rclvriv eva%0r}vai. 6 ydp 15 
yeyevvrjcrOai avrov icrroprjaas /cal TO e/c rcapOevov yeyev- 
vrjaOai (Ti>v$i7j r yTJcraro. el ovv Triarov eo~ri Bid rciov elprj- 
uevwv TO yeyevvrjaOai avrov, Sid rwv avrwv rovrwv 
ovBe TO ovrcos avrov yeyevvfjcrOai drciQavov. o 

Trai/ra euth || 2 om rov f || 3 <pi><ni>] + fv TroXXou euth || 4 0eoi>] 
KO.I deov euth || 8 evrei 5e] eTretSr; e || 7676^1 . dehn euth 245 || 9 aKoveis 
O.VTOV 1 vulg || 10 yevviia-eus ef 1 euth 24 || 12 TT? awia-T.] rrj aroTrta euth 16 || 
15 ?re/3t TO ^. l* vitl vulg || avaxd-nvai euth 2 |j 16 yeyevrjadai p euth i || 
17 ffw5i-rjyT](reTai e || 5ta rwi ] TO 5. T. e || 18 yeyfvrjffdaL Ip || 19 yeyevqcrOai fp 

that follows the order of nature. To occurs again, without any variations, 

Krjpvy/ma is here used to denote the in cc. 16, 27. 

facts which formed the substance of 12. tiri TO ^repov] // would be 

the preaching. Cp. i Cor. ii 4. well, consistently with these facts 

10. yev^acws] l in the manner of (KO.TO. rb a.K.b\ovdov}, to exhibit in- 

his origin and in the fact that he credulity in the opposite direction 

was incapable of a change to corrup- and refuse to think that He was an 

tion. Gr. appears to use ytveais ordinary man like the other men 

and ytvvrjffis almost as interchange- who are produced in the course of 

able terms. In the present passage nature? Aei/c. is used here like 

7^fe<ris is certainly correct, as the diroStiK. 
grouping of the MSS shows. It 15-16. b...i<TT.] Mt i, Lk ii. 


yap rrjv yevvrjo iv eiTrcov Kal TO etc Trapdevias Trpoae- 
6r)Kev KOI o rov Oavdrov uvrjo-dels teal rrjv dvdcrraaiv rw 
davdrw Trpoo-eaaprvprjo-ev. el ovv d<f) &v aKoveis teal 
re6vdvai KOI yeyevvrjo-Oai, StS&)?, IK rwv avrov Swcret? 
5 Trdvrws ical TO G^co irdOovs elvai real rr)V ^kvvj](jiv avTOV 
Kal rov Odvarov. d\\d atjv ravra aei^a) T//9 (frvcrews. 


VTrep rrjv (frvaiv ryeyevrjaOai, d-jro^eiKvv^vo^. 

14. T/9 oiv alrla, (frycri, rov TTpos rt]v raTreivoTTjra 

10 ravrrfv Kara^rjvaL TO Oelov, cJ? a/x^)/ySoXo^ elvai rr]v Tricrriv, 
el 06os, TO d^copijrov Kal aKaravoijrov Kal 
Trpdry/jia, TO virep rcaoav Soi^av Kal rrdcrav 
TO) \v9pw rrjs dvOpwiriviis ^ucreft)? KarafJiiyvvrai^ OK 
Ta? v-fyri\ds evepyeias avrov rfj irpos TO raireivov 


pdevov 1 vulg || 4 TO ycyevis. /cat TO red. vulg redva 5t5ws (cm TO 
1 yeyevrjffdai n*p || e/c ruv avr. om d || 5 yevecnv dghnp |j 6 TOP 
0aj>.] TT^I/ aj/aa Tao ii e || 7 e^Tosj + Tra^TT; euth || om ev TOIS e || 8 om rrjv 
vulg 1| yeycvv. degh 14. 9 77 ama euth || 13 \vdpui] ei/TeXet eXuTpa; 1 vulg 

i. Trapfleinas] ^ J/a/^ of vir- 13. Au^pa;] The reading 

ginity? Cp. <r. E^tnol. iv p. 628 eXtrrpy, the mean covering, is a 

(Migne) IIws ouf e^avep^dt] iv vapid gloss which first appears in the 

6 deos ; Aid rdKov, Travrus epets. thirteenth century MS /. It arose 

Iloiov ovv TOUTOV /J.vr)<r6eis; r? 5rj\ov from the desire to soften the harsh 

6Vt T?}S TrapOevias, /cat 6Vt TO ev avrrj expression \vBp^, the defilement 

yevvrjdev K Trveu/m-aros ayiov r/v ; of human nature. The word eirreXet 

7. o^5^...ecTos] In this way Gr. was probably suggested by the follow- 

sums up his answer not only to the mg <rvvevTe\leff6a.i. Avdpov or \vdpos 

objection stated at the beginning of is used in Homer of mingled blood 

this chapter, but also to that put and dust. Here the term is probably 

forward at the beginning of c. 10, used by the objector with a disparag- 

i.e. that the Incarnation involved an ing reference to the human birth, and 

inclusion of the Godhead in human recalls the Non horruisti of the Te 

nature. Dcuin. For KarafjUyvvrai and e?rt^tt- 

14. For ivliat purpose, it is asked, ta cp. supra c. 1 1 dvaKpavews (note). 
did God submit to the humiliation il>. <I>s /cat] So that ffis sublime 

involved in becoming man? activities are degraded by His asso- 

10-11. dfj.(pi(3o\ov elvai. ... et] ciation iuith tliat which is base? 
1 Faith "wavers at the thought that? 


15. OVK diropovfJiev KOI Trpos TOVTO 
dTTO/cpicreay^. ^rjTels Tt}v aiTiav TOV yevecrOat, 0eov ev 
dvOpMTTOis ; edv a^eXy? TOV fflov T<? OeoOev yivo/juevas 
Vpyeaias, e/c TTOLCOV eTTiyvcoar] TO Oelov OVK av eliretv 
d(f> aov y<*p ev Tracr^o/^ev, euro TOVTCOV TOV ev- 5 
7rt,yiva)a-/co/jLei> TTpos yap TCI yivo/jueva ftXeirovTes, 
Sid TOVTWV Ttjv TOV VpyovvTos avd\.oyi^6/jL0a fyvaiv. el 
ovv ibiov yv cop i a /A a r?;? OeLas ^xJcrew? /; (f)i,\ai>0pa>7ria, 
ov eTre&jTrjo-as \6yov, e^et? Tt]i> aiTiav Trjs ev 
TOV 6eov Trapova- ias. eoeiTo yd/p TOV laTpevovTos rj (fivcris 10 
do-0ev> icraa-a, eoeiTO TOV dvopOovvTos o tv rc5 TTTCU- 


eSetro TOV Trpos TO dyaOov CTravdyovTOS 6 djroppvels 
r/;? TOV dyaOov /Lterofcria?, e^prj^e Tr/s TOV ^wro? irapov- 

6 KaOeipy/jitvos rw (TKOTW, eVe^Jret TOV \VTpwTrjv o 15 

TOV crvvaywvKTTrjv 6 Sea/zwr^?, TOV e\ev0e- 
6 TW ^vyw r/;? SovXeias KaTe^o/jLevo^. opa /nL/cpd 

15. i om Kai f vulg j| 2 yeyevrjcrdai vulg || 3 yevo/j-evas fl euth 146 CLTTO- 
yevofj.eva. i vulg || 4 6^17^.] 4- Trpay/maTWv f || 4-5 ou/c...exots] om h j| 5 om eu 
1 vulg || 6 om ^ap h || 7 eue/ryerowros n || 10 larpeucrot TOS dehn euth || 
12 a0a/x.] eKireffuv f e0a/i. 1* V1(1 vulg || 14 exp nfe-.. Ta.pov<nas om h || -jrapov- 
crias] /ieroixrtas f j| 15 ei> VKOTU e |j e^re* 1 vulg || 17 

15. 77ie cause of the Incarnation in His goodness is adequate, if man 

was God s love for man. Man s is to know the essential nature of 

wretched condition was a sufficient God. In c. 20 he maintains the 

justification for the Divine con- necessity of the co-existence of 

descension. But? it is objected, justice, wisdom, and power in God 

why not restore man by a mere in order that His goodness may be 

fiatT 77iis last question Or. does perfect. 

not properly deal with till c. \~ t ,but 8. T; <f)i\a.vdpuiria\ Tit. iii 4. 

meanwhile he affirms that there was Cp. adv. A pollinar. xlii AetVerai 5e 

nothing contrary to the character of oirep av T$ CTKOTT^ TT}? <pL\av6puTria<i 

God in the method chosen, nor any- ffvp.fia.ivri, TOVTO cuXoyuTepov Trepi TOV 

thing inconsistent with the Divine Qeoi> oieaOai. Cp. infra c. 36. 

Nature in the nature which He 12. faoiroiovvTos] Cp. antea c. 12. 

assumed. 13. 6 cnroppveis] Airoppveiv fall 

4. evepyeaias] Cp. c. 12 rds away from, desert. 

euepyecrias ras debOev KO.TO. Trjv wrjv 15. KadeipyjAevos] For the use of 

rifjiCiv tvepyovnevas. Ka.6. without a prep. cp. de An. et 

ib. K iroluv] Gr. claims that J\es. p. 21 (Migne) 6 otxicr/cy TLVL 
nothing short of a revelation of God 


ravra KOI dvd^ia TOV deov SvcrMTrfjcrai Trpos eTrl 
TT}? dvOpWTrivrjs (f)vcreco<; KaTafffjvai, ourw? eXee^co? KOI 
a#Xtft>9 T?}<N av0 pWTTorrjTos biaKeipevr)? ; XX ef^, (f>y<rl, 
Kal evepyeTrj0rjvai TOV avOpwrrov Kal ev airaOeiq TOV Oeov 
5 Sia/jieivai. o yap TCO /SouX^yLtart TO TTCLV crvo~Trjcrd/jivo<) teal 
TO yu-r) bv VTco(jTi)(ja^ ev i^ovr) Tr) opf^fj TOV ^eX^yLtaro?, TL 
ov^l Kal TOV avOpwirov t avOevTiKTis TWOS KOI deiKr^s 
TT}? evavrias $vvdfjLc0s aTrocrTrdcras TT/^O? Trjv e 
ayet KdTacrTaatv, el TOVTO (J)i\ov avTO) dXXa /j,a/cpas 
10 TreptepxeTai Trepiooovs, o-coynaro? VTrep^ofJievos (frixriv, Kal 
$ia yevvrfcrecos TrapLwv et? roz^ /3iov, teal Tracrav aKO\ov6ws 
rjXiKiav Sie^twv, etra OavaTov yevo/jievos, Kal OVTCOS Sid rr)? 


e^ov avTO) /JLCVOVTI eVl TOV v^ovs rr}? Belief)? Sof?/?, Sta 
15 TTpoo-TdyfjuaTos crwo-ai, TOV avOpwrrov, ra? Se TOiavTas Trepi- 
^alpeiv eaaai; OVKOVV dvdy/crj Kal rat? 

. TOV deov f II 3 5ia/c. TTJS avdpwjr. f || 5 TO Trav] ra iravra e || 

apata] Cp. c. 36 "ISioi 5e of all deals with the charge that God 

eVe/)7etas 77 TWJ/ 5eop.vwi> was involved in Trd^?? by the Incar- 
nation. This he treats of in the 

ib. dvffuirTJaat] depends on di/d^ta, present chapter and in c. 16. The 

unworthy to importune. &v<rwTrelv question why God did not choose a 

lit. means to put a man out of different method he deals with in 

countenance. c. 17. 

ib. eTrtcr/cei/ fj ] used in the Bible 7. avdevTiKrjs] authoritative. 

sense of a visitation of mercy or Cf. Clem. Alex. Strom, i c. 7 Edf 

redemption. Cf. Lk i 68, vii 16, rty fta<ri\iKifiv re Kal afidevTiKrjv 

Acts xv 14. The use of the ex- etffoSov ^TTJS aKotiffy. Athanasius 

pression irpos eirlffKe\^iv...KaTa^T]va.i similarly deals with the question 

here is probably a reminiscence of why God did not restore man 

the account of the Exodus. See vev/u.a.Ti novy de Inc. 44. Origen also 

Ex. iii 8; iv 3 1 (LXX). discusses the objection in c. Cels. 

3. d\X ^rjv] The objector asks iv 3, 4. 

why did not God restore man by 8. fvavTias] i.e. the Devil. 

a mere fiat, instead of choosing a 10. 7rept65oi s] circuitoiis routes 

method which involved the sub- rather than long periods of time. 

mission to Trady and the long delay For other instances of this use see 

required for passing through the cc. 1 7, 26. 

stages of human birth, growth, death, 12. *yeu6/i6 os] Heb. ii 

and resurrection? In reply Gr. first 9. 


TCOV dvn6eo-ewv dvTiKarao-Trjvat, Trap fjawv rrjv d\r)0eiav, 
&>9 av &td fjiri&evos r; TrtVrt? KW\VOLTO TWV e^eTao-Tt/cws 
^TJTOVVTWV rov avo~rr)piov rov \oyov. rrpwTOv aev ovv, 
ojrep Kal eV rot? <^6d<ja<TiV i^orj /jLerplo)^ efyira(TTai, ri rfj 
dperfj Kara TO evavriov dvrucaOeo-TTjKev, eTTto-Ke^rwaeda. 5 
&>9 (f)wrl (T/COTO9 Kal Odvaros rfj ^wfj, ovrco rr) apery rj 
KdKia ^>Y]\OV on, teal ovSev rrapd ravrrjv erepov. KaOdrrep 
yap TToXXco^ ovrwv rwv ev rfj tcricrei Oewpov/JLevwv ovSev 
aXXo TTpos TO (/>w? 7} rr}v farjv TTJV dvnSiaipecriv e%et, ov 
Xt^o?, ov %v\ov, ov% vScop, OVK avOpcoTTos, OVK a\\o n rwv 10 
ovrwv ou3e^, 7r\rjv t Sto)? rd Kara ro evavriov voovfjueva, olov 
teal Odvaros ovrco KCLI errl TT}? dperijs OVK av rw 
nvd Kara ro evavrlov avry voelaOai \eyoi, rr\r]v ro 
Kara KaKiav vorjua. ov/covv el uev ev KaKia yeyevfjaOai, 
TO Oelov o rjuerepos e7rpeo~/3eve \6yos, Kaipov etyev 6 dvri- 15 
\eywv Kararpe^eiv rjawv rr}? TTicrrew^, co? avdpaocrrd re 
Kal drreufyaLvovra rrepl TT)? Oeias (fivaecos Soyaar 
ov yap Srj OeaLTOv tjv avTOO~o(f)iav Kal dyadoTijTa 
d<p0apcriav, Kal el ri vifrr]\6v eo~Ti voTjad re Kal ovoaa, 

4 OTrep... e^racrrat om euth || 5 KadeffTijKev 1 vulg || 6-7 /cat rrj /ca/aa 
7] apery 1 vulg || 8 KTiffei] <t>v<ri f || g avridiaip.] avrideaiv euth || 13 om 
aim; euth I || 14 vor]fj.a] Kivrj/maeuili 4 || 15 Kaipov av ei^ev 1 vulg || 17 0i/erea>s] 
TTiarews h || do^afavTwv fg 1 ! vulg || 18 aurocro0.] TTJV avr. vulg TTJV avrov cr. f || 
19 et n] o n g 1 || v\{/r)\. ecrni ] om e0"rii> f || K<U OVO/AO] hie rursus incipit euth 5 

2. ^eracrrt/cuJs] l by exact en- Incarnation as involving a degrada- 

quiryS Careful students of the tion to God. In that chapter he 

Christian revelation (^var-qpiov) will maintained that TO /caret, Katiav 

need a rational account (\6yov) of irddos is the only real degradation, 

its method. Mvcrrrfpiov is used as It is this point which he now takes 

elsewhere in its N.T. sense = up. Vice, and nothing but vice, is 

a mystery revealed, and is a the opposite of virtue, 
synonym for the Christian reve- 11. i 5twj] but properly those 

lation. things which are perceived to be 

4. ev rots cf)daaaai.v] Gr. has their exact oppositesS 
already drawn in cc. 5 8 the 15. ewpeafieve} set forth? Cp. 

distinction which he proceeds to Lucian Pise. 23 /XT? TO, (reaurou 

lay down. But he is probably /j.6vov irpefffieveiv ev rrj KaT-rjyopia. 

thinking here of c. 9 where he has For Kararpex^iv cf. antea c. 5. 
laid down the lines of his answer 17. a.7refj.(f)aivovTa] See above c. i 

to the objection raised against the p. 10 (note). 

S- * 



TO evavTiov /jLeTaTreTTTtotcevai, \e<yeiv. el ovv eo? /j,ev 
7] d\ri6r)S dpeTr), </>ucrt? Be rt? ov/c dvTioiaipeiTai rrj apery, 
aX\,d /catcia, $eo? Be OVK ev /ca/cia, aXA, ev dvOpooTrov 
yLverat, (frvaei, fjiovov Be aTrpeTres KOI ala^pov TO Kara 
5 KQKiav 7ra#09, ev c5 ovre jeyovev #609, ovre ryeveaOat, 
ey^ei, TL eTraia"xyvovTai rfj ofjLO\o<yiq TOV Oeov d 
a^raaQai (j)V crews, ouSeyitia? evavTioTrjTo? 0)9 TT/JO? TOV 
dperrjs ~\,6yov ev TTJ /caraorKevfj rov avOpcoTrov 
ovre <ydp TO \oyncov, ovre TO BiavoijTiKov, ovre TO e 
10 Be/cTiKov, ovTe aXXo TI TOLOVTOV, o TT}? fivdpwTrivrjs iBiov 
ecrTi, TU> Xoyw r^9 dpeT^ rjvavTiWTcu. 

16. AXX aVTTJ, (f)7](7LV, T! TpOTTT) TOV r}/jiTpOV (7(t)/JLaTO<; 

5 o deos deghnp euth || TOV yeveaOai 1 vulg || 6 rrjv op.o\oyi.a.v vulg 

2. 0u(Tis] used here as the equiva 
lent to KTiffis, which occurs above. 
Cf. antea c. 6 r?7S rou Kpelrrovos 
0uo-ews (note). Mwa? no existing 
thing of any kind is logically opposed 
to virtue, but only vice? For dvn- 
Siaipe iadai cf. c. 6 p. 33 (note). 

5. (pvffiv ^X ei l TretyvKe. It is 
not His nature (or it is not pos 
sible for Him ) to be born. 

7. aif/affdai] laid hold of or 
* assumed human nature. Cp. c. 16 
TIPOS...7700CU TO dciov; 

ib. oi)5eyu.ias] seeing that in the 
constitution of man there is nothing 
which is contradictory to the concep 
tion of virtue. "* There is nothing in 
the constitution of human nature 
which is inconsistent with the idea 
of virtue, and which is therefore 
aTrpetres and alffxpdv so that God 
could not assume it. 

g. rb \oyiKOJ>] rational thought, 
nor the faculty of understanding, nor 
the capacity for exact knowledge. For 
TO 5iavoT]TiK6i> cp. antca c. 6. 

n. ovo-ias] For this use of the 
word cp. an tea c. 6 p. 32 (note). 

16. But it is objected, the 
change involved in human birth is 
a 7r<i0os. Gr. in reply draws a 
distinction between a right and a 

wrong ^tse of the word irddos. Pro 
perly the word can only be used of 
moral declension, not of natural 
processes. r fhe contact of God ivith 
human nature no more involved sub 
mission to real Trades than does the con 
tact of a physician with the ailments 
of his patients. 77te birth of Christ 
was free from that element of passion 
which attends human birth, just as 
His life was free from that vicious 
impulse which we find in man. 7 he 
dissolution of body and soul was no 
more a Trddos than was their first 
combination. Christ s Resurrection 
was tlie re-combination in an indis 
soluble and eternal union of (he in 
telligible and sensible elements sepa 
rated in death. In virtue of this 
He becomes the originating principle 
for all mankind of tlie same eternal 
union of the elements of human\ 
nature, freed from tlie admixture 
of evil. 

12. Tpoirrj] change experienced 
by our body. TpoTrrj is the muta 
bility attaching to all created things 
as contrasted with the immutability 
of the Creator. The process of birth 
implies change. In a secondary 
sense T/DOTTTJ often has the meaning 
of moral change or frailty. 


GCTTLV. 6 e eV TOVTW yeyovaJv eV iraOei 
Se TO 0eloi>. OVKOVV aXX-orpia jrepl Oeov 77 VTTO- 
etjrep TOV (iTraOrj Kara TI}V fyvcriv irpos KOIVWVLCLV 

\06iV SiOpi^OVTClL. d\\(l Kdi 7T/009 TCLVTCL 7T(l\,LV 

\6<ya) ^prjao/jieOa, ort TO iraOos TO nev /cvpicos, TO 5 
Ta%pr)(TtoS \eyerai. TO /lev ovv 

KOI Trpo? KCLKICLV airo T?}? aperrjs fjieraaT 
d\T)0a)<i iraOos ecrri, TO 3 oo~o^ ev Tfj (pvcret Kara TOV 

0e(t)piTai, TOVTO 


Be K 

16. 4 5to/Dif.] TO KT]pvy/m.a cuo/Hfercu euth || 5 xftiffw^da. dl vulg || TO 
om ro euth || Ki ptws] + \eyeTai h || 9 7ropevo/j.ev7]S f 1 TropevofJ-evov eh 

i. 7rci0os] The word has several 
distinct shades of meaning. It is 
thus defined by Aristotle, Metaphys. 
4. 21 : Ildtfoj \eyeTai. %va. JJL^V Tpbtrov 

olov TO \evKov /ecu TO fj.e\ai>, /cat y\VKv 
Acai TTLKpbv, /cat papuT-rjs /cat Kov<j>oTrjs 
/cat 6 cra aXXa rotaura eVa 5e at 
TOVTdjv evepyeiai /cat aXXotwcrets ^S?;. 
^rt TOVTUV ij.a.\\ov at (3\afiepai dX- 
Xotuwets /cat KLvrjffeis, /cat /xaXtcrra at 
XuTTT/pat /3Xa,3at. ^rt rd 
ffV[jL(j)opCji> /cat XuTTT/pcDf ir 
It is this ambiguity upon which Gr. 
lays hold. He distinguishes between 
a proper (/cupt ws) and a mis 
applied (e/c /caraxp?70"eu;s) use of the 
word. In the proper sense i.e. 
moral declension, the Incarnation, 
he holds, cannot have involved 7rd#oj, 
because Christ had no contact with 
sin, either in the circumstances of 
His birth or in His own life. The 
question arises, how does Gr. face 
the objection arising from the other 
sense of irados, which is plainly 
implied in the argument that TJ Tpoiri] 
TOV i)/j.T^pov cra^aros is a Trddos? It 
would seem that Gr. s illustration 
of the physician is intended to meet 
this objection. The Divine Nature, 
though brought into touch with 
human nature, was no more subject 
to a ira.8-riTi.KT] diddetns than is the 
physician who handles the infirmity 

of his patient. Gr. has the same 
discussion on irddos and the same 
illustration of the physician in 
c. Eunom. vi 721 B, C, 724 H 
(Migne). It is difficult to render 
irddos in English, as there is no one 
term which conveys the different 
senses of the word. The trans 
lation in N. and P. N. F. has 
weakness. Another rendering 
is passion, which is used in 
a moral sense and also of the 
physical sufferings of Christ, though 
it does not suit the description of 
the process of birth. See further 
note c. 13 p. 60, 

4. Sio/st ^oj Tat] is part of the 
language of the objector and refers 
to the upholders of the Christian 

6-7. TO. . .irpoaip. aTTTOfj-evov] that 
which lays hold of the will. Cp. 
a\f/acrdai c. 15. 

9. iropevo/jLevr]] The reading 
TTopeuo/i^i/T/j is plainly a corruption, 
while iropev6[j.ei>oi> is a correction 
due to the failure to understand the 
construction of the passage. The 
word teo5t/cws goes with flewperrat. 
For the cast of the whole sentence 

Tat cp. c. i Ta ev atrry [i.e. T< KOfffJUf] 
irdvTO. ffO(p<Jos T /cat Te^vt/cuis deupov- 
jm.eva. In such passages dewpriadai 
(like /caTaXa/i/3dfe(70ai) is a mere 




epyov civ /itaXXo; 77 TTdOos TrpocrayopevoiTo, oiov rj yevvr)(Ti<s, 
TJ av^tjo-ts, ?; $i>a TOV eTTippvTOV re /cal uTroppvTOv TT)? 
rov VTroxet/jievov ^iafiov^, rj TWV crTOi^eiwv irepl TO 
vvSpojjLrj, 77 TOV avvTtBevTOS 7T(i\iv StaXfcrt? re /cat 
5 7T/909 ra avyyevrj fJUGTa^wprjcji^. TWOS ovv \eyet TO fjuvcr- 
Tijpiov i^jjiOiv )](f)6ai TO Oeiov ; TOV Kvpia)s\6yo/ji6vov TraOovs, 
OTrep /caKia ecrriv, 77 TOV Kara TTJV $vaiv KIVTHJLCLTOS ; el pev 
yap v rot? aTrriyopevjJievoi^ yeyevrjaOai TO Oelov o ^070? 
Sn,o-^vpi^eTo, fyevyeiv ebei rrjv aTOTclav TOV &6yjj,aTo$, w? 
10 ovftev vytes rrepl TTJS Oeias (/>ucre<y? Stejto^ro? el Se 
<pvo~(jos Tj/jtwv CLVTOV e<f)fj(f)Qai \eyei, 7/9 tcai r) TrpwTTj ye 
re Kol vTToaTacris Trap* avTov TYJV (^p xfiv "% e > TTOV T>}9 

1$ dg*hnp || 2 TT/S eirippvTov codcl omn: TOV e conjectura restitui || 
om rrjs ante rpfxpr/s f euth j| 7 om TT?V 1 euth vulg || 8 a7r?77.] a7rayopevofJ.VGiS 
euth || 9 5o7/xaros] Trpay/JLaros f || 10 TT?S ^. 0io-ea;j] rou ^etou doy^aros e || 

(Migne) TO yap eirippvTov TTJS (j>v- 
crews r^/xcDj , /ecu TO dirbppvTov did TTJS 

synonym for elvai. The words /cara 
TGI Idiov etp/x6f Tropevo[j.ei>r] are an ex 
planatory clause attached to ry <j>v<rt. 
For similarly constructed clauses 
see c. 24 19 de...Ka.6odo^ irepLovvia 
TIS eo"rt TTJS 5i /><i/<;s ovdev v rots 
Trapd (pvcriv KW\vofj,VTf]s, and c. 37 


i O.TTO.V TO dva- 
. Gr. has the 

same idea in c. Euiiotn. vi p. 

721 (Migne) ovde Kvplus dv TLS rov 

\eyoi, jSX^TTWf o5 irpOLOvaa.v ev rdei 
rivi K.a.1 &KO\ovdig, rty avvderov fyvviv. 
i/>. 5te^o5t/cws] lit. in succes 
sive detail. Everything that suc 
cessively occurs in nature, as tlie 
latter proceeds in its cmni proper 
sequence, would more strictly be 
called an action than a "passion". 

2-3. TOU TTlpp. ...TTJSTpOfprjs] The 

emendation adopted in the text best 
explains the readings of the MSS. 
The omission of r?7s before rpo07)s 
in / and the text of Euthymius is 
plainly a correction. For the whole 
expression cp. de An. et Res. p. 141 

rore KLi>ovfj.evov tcrrarat, OTO.V KO.L Trjs 
{UTJS diro\T]^ri. The permanence 
oj the subject tli rough the influx and 
ejjflux of nourishment. 1 Gr. again 
refers to the process of nutrition and 
growth in c. 37 (see notes). See 
further the interesting discussion in 
de Hom. Opif. c. 27. 

6. rj<pOai] Cp. C. 15 p. 66 a\f/- 
acrtfai. (note). 

7. KLi>ri/uLaTos] i.e. what he has 
previously defined as Zpyov, includ 
ing the natural processes of birth, 
growth, &c. 

8. rois diryyop. ] Cp. C. 8 tv 
Tols dfrr]yopfv/jLi OL S eyevovTo oi 
TrpuiToi avOpwiroi.. Gr. explains his 
meaning below, when he shows that 
as Christ s birth was free from r6 
KO.O r}dovi)v irddos, so His life was 
free from 17 -rrpbs xaKiav op/nrj. 

10. die^LovTos] relating, re 

1 1 . e<pTJ(f>0ai] a somewhat stronger 
form of ?700cu above. 


s evvoias Sia/jLaprdvei, TO /crjpvy/Jia, /jLrjBe/uiids Tra- 
SiaOeaewi ev rtu? irepl 9eov v r JTo\i]^re(ji rfj Tr/crret 
ovSe yap TOV laTpov ev TrdOet yiveadat, 
\eyofjiev, oTav OepaTrevrj TOV ev irdOei yivofJievov d\\d KCLV 
aL rov dppwcnr]fjLaTO^, e^co 7rd0ovs 6 OepajrevTrjs 5 
el i] yei eais airnj /cad eavTrjv Trdflos OVK earn;, 
S dv T)]v forfv rt? Trdflo? TTpoaayopevo-eiev, d\\d TO 
ff ifiovrjv TrdOos T^? dv0pw7rlvrjs Ka07]yeiTai 

l TI 7T/30? KdKiaV TWV ^(DVTWV OpfJi^, TOVTO T?}? 

eaT\v appfiio Tr)/j,a a\\a fAijv (ifjbfyoreowv UVTOV 10 
KaOapeveiv (f>rjo-l TO /jLVCTTrjpiov el ovv r)8ovrjs jjuev rj 
yevecTLS tf\\oTpl&Tat,, Ka/cias Be i] fw?;, jrolov VTTO\I- 
Trerai TrdOos, ov TOP 6eov KeKOivwvriKevai (frycrl TO r?}? 
^piov ; el 8e TTJV TOV crwyu-aro? teal TT)? 
bid^ev^iv TrdOos TTpoaayopevoL, TTO\V TrpoTepov St- 15 
s v e} rj TTJV o-vv&pofAriv d^fyoTepwv OVTCO KaTOVOfJida-ai. 
el ydp o xwpicr/jLOs TWV (JVvrujLfjLevwv TT^O? eVrt, Kal rj 
crvvdfyeia TWV SieaTooTcov TrdOos dv en; Kivrjat,^ ydp rt? 

3 avvLova"rjs f L<novo"r)s vulg |j yeveadai ef |] 4 orav 6epaTrevr)...yLvofJ..] 
om e |j yevo/mevov fgl vulg || 7 TT/ far) vulg || 8 Kad r/dovTjv] + (prj(ri 
euth || 9 op/Ay T. favr. 1 vulg II 10 om THJLWV 1 vulg || a/mfi. avTwv efghn 
euth 2 || 12 yevv-ricris fg 1 euth 54-a^roi; euth || UTroXeXeiTrrat deghnp 
euth || 14 ei de TT/C] ei 5e /cat rrfv f et 5e rts rrjv en euth || 15 5iaevj-tv] TLS 
5ta^. 1 vulg rr)i> diafr. dnp |j 16 a / u0orepwj ] eKCLTepwv f |j 1 
euth || 1 8 ffi j>a0eta] desunt seqq in euth 2 

Since in our con- TT.- dXXa fj.rjv (unless we assume that 

ceptions of God no disposition to this is a parenthesis) el ovv. The 

"passion " enters along luith our apodosis begins with irolov. 

belief. 1 When we say that God 13-14- TO r^seutr.^.] iTim.iiii6. 

became man, we do not imply that 14. ei de] In what follows Gr. 

the Godhead was subject to the maintains that the arguments which 

vicissitudes of birth, growth, death. make the term irddos inapplicable to 

Gr. illustrates this by the case of the the human birth, also make it in- 

physician. applicable to the dissolution of the 

3. TOV larpov] Cp. the passage body and soul in death. 

referred to on p. 67 from c. Eunoin. 15. irpoaayopevoi] The subject is 

vi p. 724 (Migne). the imaginary objector. The text has 

6. ei i] yevecris] The protasis been corrected by the insertion of 

is resumed in the clauses beginning ru, in some MSS before ryv, in 

ot 5 dv (for ^S av) dXXa TO K. r/. others before did^ev^iv. 


IGTIV ev re rfj (TwyKpiaei TWV ie<TT<i)Twv Kal ev rfj ia- 
Kpiaei TWV crv/jL7re7r\ey/j,evwv 17 rjvwfjievwv. oirep TOLVVV rj 
r\6vraia Kivrjcris ovofjid^erai, TOVTO Trpoarj/cei Ka\ela6ai 
Kal Trjv Trpodyovaav. el Se rj Trpwrr) K ivy or is, fjv yeveaiv 
5 ovo/j-d^o/jiev, TfdOos OVK ecrriv, ov& civ rj Bevrepa Kiwrjcris, rjv 
OdvaTov 6vofj,a^ofjL6v, TrdOos av /card TO d/co\ov0ov \e r yoiTO, 
KaO TJV 77 avvSpo/jirj rov crco/xaro? /cai r^9 ^1%%$ ia- 
/cpiverai. rov Se 6eov (^a/jiev eV e/carepa yeyevrjcrOai T// TT}? 
^ucreco? TJ/JLWV Kivrjcrei, SL r;? rj re ^f%r/ trpos TO o~a)fj.a 
10 o-WTpe^ei, TO re aw/ia rr)? ^ir^? SiaKpiveTdi rcaTa- 
vTa Be TT/JO? exaTepov TOVTWV, Trpo? re TO aio-0r)Tov 
fcal TO voepov TOV dvOpwirivov (rvyfcpi/JLaTos, 8ta TT}? 
apprjTov eKeivrjs KCLI ave/c(ppdo Tov crvvavatcpdaews TOVTO 
olKovofjitjo-aaOai, TO TWI> (iiraf* evwOevTwv, tyvxfjs Xe-ya) real 
15 crcoyLtaro?, KCLI et? del SiafJielvai Ttjv evcoaiv. Tijs yap fyvcrews 
Sid rrj? ISias d/co\ovdia<j teal eV efceivq) TT/)O? Sm- 
TOV crwyLtaro? Kal -n}? ^jrv^rj^ KivrjOeicrT)^, Tcd\iv 

fgl 1 |] 2 77 ?jj w / ae/ Wf] e Krab. conjectura textum restitui 
f\ voov/mevcov dghnp yvoovfj.evuv (om 77) e tjvoov/j.ei ri f 77 voov/>ri 1 vulg || 
2-3 77 reXei/raia] om 77 1 vulg || 5-6 OVK ecrriz/ ...ovop.a^op.fv wados om vulg || 
6 oro/xafoyctef] Trados Trpoaayopevofj-ev g 1 || 7 Sta/cpii crat] clesinit euth || 
10 Ka.Ta/uu.xQci TOS 1 vulg || I I om re f || 12 avyKpa/maTos h 

2. 77 77J/w / ae^wi ] The text, which to in Kara ; cux$o>Ta. The purpose of 

is a conjecture of Krabinger, explains the union of God and man in the 

the origin of the various corruptions Incarnation was to effect the eternal 

found in all the MSS. See app, crit. union of body and soul in mankind. 

10-11. /cara/xt^^eVra] sc. rov 9eov. That union had been disturbed by 

The gommon text (as also Krab.) the occurrence of death. The Divine 

reads /cara,utx^eVros and inserts a Power, acting as a kind of cement 

comma after voepbv. (Kadd-rrep TLVL KO\\ri}, recombined the 

12. TOV a. avyKpijULaros] depends severed elements and restored to 
on TO cuV$77TOi ...Kcu r6 voepov, i the man his original grace of immor- 
sensible and the intelligible element tality. 

belonging to concrete human nature? 16. 5ia TTJS iSias a.Ko\ovdias] It 

13. ffwavaKfido-ews] Cp. antea c. might seem from these words as 
ii p. 57 (note). though Gr. held that death was 

ib. TOUTO] refers to TO... /cat ei s det natural to man. But as he has 

dia/j-eivat TTJV fawcnv, i.e. that the already stated in c. 8 that death was 

union once formed should also (/ecu) a later feature of human existence, 

be eternal. The subj. of OLKOVO- he must be thinking of human 

/j.r)aao-6cu is TOV 6e6v, already referred nature as it now exists. 


rd SiarcpiOevra, tcaOdjrep TLV\ rc6\\r), rfj Oeia 
7rpo9 Tr)v dpprjKTOv kvuxnv TO Siaa^iadev avvap- 
/cal TOVTO e&riv rj dvdarraais, rj rwv 
rrjv Bid\V(Ti>v eTrdvo&os et9 d$id\ 

, ft)? av TJ TrpwTij Trepl TO dvOpwTTivov %/99 5 
al 7rd\iv eVt Tr)v dibio 

Trj (fri vei Katcias Sid r/J? 
olov eVt roO vypov (rvfjiftaivei, 
TOU dyyeiov, crKe^avvvfjievov re KOI 

6Vro9 TOV TrepiaTeyovTos. KaOdjrep Se 77 dp%rj TOV 10 
davaTov eV ei>\ yevo/Aewr] Trdcrrj (Tvvie^r)\6e Trj dvOpwirivr) 

(j)V<7L, KCLTa TOV CLVTOV TpOTTOV KCLI r) flp^rj T^9 a^aCTT (760)9 

8t 6^09 67rt iracrav biaTelvei Trjv dv9po)TroT7)Ta. o ydp 

Trap eavTOv "^v^rjv Trd\iv evoocras rc3 
Bid r?79 Swdfjiews eavTov TTJS e/caTepw TOVTWV Trapd 15 
avaTaaiv jLjL0eio~T^ OVTCO 

1-2 6fia Xzyw f j| 2 apprjTov deghnp |l 6 eirave\6(jjij.v d || 
8 TTpidpv(f)di>Tos 1 vulg TrepirpicpdevTos defghnp || 10 Kadairep 8e] tcad, 
yap eg 1 !! || 15 eauTou] avrov el vulg |] 16 ofrw] OITOJ f vulg 

4-5. d\X. av/j.(pvo/m.ei>w}>] an ad- and the body of Christ at their first 

ditional clause agreeing with r&v framing, i.e. from the moment of 

avvefcvy^vwv and having a pre- conception. It was the action of this 

dicative force. 77/6" return, after same Divine Power which effected 

dissolution, of elements that had been the reunion of His body and soul in 

united together, to an indissoluble the resurrection. 
iinion, so that they are knit together? i6f. yeviKwr^pu nvl Xoyy] Tei>u<6s 

8. TrepiTpvfidevTos] The almost is that which belongs to the -y^os, 

unanimous verdict of the MSS is in generic, as opposed to eidiKos 

favour of Trepirpupdevros. As Gr. specific. The contrast is between 

however in c. 8 lias already used the particular instance of a reunion 

jrepidpv\f/ai in reference to the same of soul and body effected by Christ s 

illustration, Krabinger s conjecture Divine Power, i.e. His own resur- 

TrepiTpixpdeifTos is probably right. rection, and the reunion upon a 

The reading of / and the Paris more universal scale of the intelli- 

editors is a less correct way of gible and sensible elements exhibited 

spelling the word. in the resurrection of all mankind. 

10. Ka.6a.irep 5e] Cp. Rom. v 15, Krabinger translates yev. \6y(*) gene- 

i Cor. xv 21. raliori quadam ratione, following the 

15. e/car^] The Divine Power Latin version of the Paris edition, 
was united alike to the human soul 





V Oeov 

\6<y(j) TTJV voepdi ovaiav rfj aLcrdrjrf} 
apXfis Kara TO dico\ov6ov tTrl TO Trepan 
ev <ydp T&) dpa\rj(f)OevTL Trap 1 avTov 
/jLTa Trjv $id\V(Jiv 7T/9OS" TO aw/Ad TJ7? 
5 Oovarjs, olov (ITTO TLVOS dp^rj^ e/9 Traaav TI]V 

TJ) Svvd/j,i Kara TO laov r) TOV SiafCptOevTos e 
KOL TOVTO eari TO /jLV&Tijpiov r/;? TOV 
Tcepl TOV OavaTOV oiKOVO^ia^ /cal r>;? e/c veKpwv 
TO Sia\v0t~)vai fjiev TCO OCLVCLTW TOV o-coyLtaro? TTJV 
10 KCLTCL TI]V dvaryfcaiav T^? (f)i> crecos dico\ov6iav fjirj 
e/9 a\\7]\a Be 7rd\Lv eTravayayelv Sid T/;? dvaard 
av auro? <yevoiTO peOopiov d^oTepwv, Oavdrov re KCLI 
ev eavTU) /jiev dTrjaa^ SiaipovfAevrjv TW OavaTw Trjv 

Se ryevofjievos dp^rj r^9 TWV &ir)pr)iJievwv e^wcrea)?. 

\oyt>) Tivi d TI.VL rpOTTdJ vulg |1 TTjv voepav] om rrjv vulg || 3 av9pwjru>\ 
KpL/j-ari 1 vulg || 8] avdpuirov vulg Thdrt sirm || 10 KO.L 
r-r\v avayK. 1 vulg || 13 diaipedeLffav deghnp 

i. ovcriav] For this sense of oixria 
cp. antea c. 6. 

1-2. rrjs apxys] as the principle 
successfully makes its way in due 
seqitence to the extremity. 1 H dpx n 
is the new principle of life originated 
by Christ in His resurrection. This 
new principle pervades the whole of 
humanity to its furthest limits. For 
the relation of Gr. s teaching to that 
of Methodius see Introd. pp. xxv 

3. avdpuiru] here used loosely 
for human nature. Strictly speak- 
ing the Son of God assumed not a 

sages and in Introd. pp. xvii xviii. 
5. olov] the union of ii>/iat 
was disunited, as it were by some 
new principle, extends potentially in 
an equal degree to the whole of human 
nature For rrj owa^eL cp. c. 37 
e/cetVo TO (rw^ta dpros rrj rjv. 

man but human nature. The in- 
accuracy of the expression has led 
to the gloss avdpuirivq crvyxpiiuLaTi. 
For 6 avdpwTTos used in this sense 
cp. Greg. Naz. Or. xxx 7 TO yap 5rj 
\tyetv, OTL TOV KO.TO, TOV dvOpuTrov 
voov^vov /j,eiwv, a\r)6es ^v, ov 
Cp. ibid. 12 ei p,ev ovv 
Trapa TOV KaT\r)\v6oTos O.VTOV 
e X^ero, eiTrofj-ev av ws irapa 
ToG avdpuTrov Tvirovcrdat Tbv \byov. 
See Dr Mason s notes on both pas- 

7. /cat TOVTO] These words ns 
far as eiravayaye iv dia TT/S dvacrTa.- 
crews are quoted by Theodoret Dial. 
iii p. 300 (Migne). 

12. /J.e86ptoi>] lit.: border country, 
Lat. confiniutn. Hence used of a 
common ground or meeting-point, as 
here. In Christ life and death meet. 
lie identified Himself with a nature 
liable to death and dissolution, and 
He became the source of life to it. 

13. crTTjcras] ^ staying ournatnre? 
in the sense of arresting the process 
of dissolution (diaipov/u,vriv). Human 
nature is conceived of as something 
which was in danger of melting away. 
With the v.l. dLaipftfeiaav we might 
translate, having set up or re- 
established it when it had been 


17. AXX OVTTW (frijaei TLS \e\vo~6ai rrjv 

aiv, Io"^ypo7roi,elo 9ai 8e fJLa\\ 
TO Trapd TWV anri<JTWv TJ/JLLV TrpofyepofJievov. el yfip roaaurrj 
^vva/jiis (JTIV ev ai>TO), oarjv o \6<yos eTreSet^ev, GO? Oavarov 
re KaOaipeo iv /cal ^ayfjs 6io~oSov CTT avTM elvai, TL ov%i 5 
OeXr ifJLCLTi [JLOV(>L> TO Kara yvco/jLrjv Troiel, aXX etc Treptobov rrjv 
o-wrr)piav i]^wv /caTepya^erai, Tifcrofjievos re /cal 
KOL rfj TOV davarov Treipa aaj^wv TOV avOpwirov, e%ov 
ev TOVTOIS yeveaOcu /cal r;/xa? TrepiawcracrOai ; Trpos Se TOV 
TOLOVTOV \oyov iKavov fJLev i]v TT/OO? rou? evyvwjjiovas TOCTOV- 10 
TOV eiTreiv, OTL /cal rot? larpols ov vofjioOeTovai, TOV Tpojrov 
T?}? 67ri/jL\eias ol /cd/AvovTS, ovSe 7Tpl rov 

7T/00? TOU9 VpJTa^ (l^KJ ^Tf]TOV(Ji y $)l(l TL 

TOV TTOVOVVTOS yitepou? 6 0pa7revci)v /cal roSe TL 
TOV /ca/cov \VO~LV eTrevoTjaev, eTepov $eov, d\\d TT^O? 15 
TO Trepan opwvTes Tr/s evepyecrias ev ev^apLQ-Tia TYJV ev- 
Troilav eoe^avTo. aXX eVetS?;, Ka0M$ $7]criv t] 
TO TrX^o? TT}? %prj(TToTriTO$ TOV Oeov Ketcpvfji/j 
TTJV a)(j)e\6iav real OVTTCO old TOV TrapovTO? ftiov 

17. I uTrei ex^.] eireve^Q- h II 4 CLTreSeL^ev el vulg |j 5 om re f |j e?r aurw] 
v aurw f || 9 TOI>TW 1 vulg II 15 evevorfffev fl vulg || 17 -rj 7rpo0.] o 
1 vulg 

17. 6r. f7^ returns to the ob- Trep^pxerat ?rept65oi s (note), and 

jection staled in c, 15. * Why did not c. 26. Gr. is thinking of the length 

God restore man by a mere fiat? ^ It of the process involved in riicreffdai 

is a sufficient reply, he answers, to re A at rpe^ecrtfcu. 

those who are reasonable, to say that 8. Tretp^J the experience of 

just as a patient does not dictate to death. 

his physician the treatment to be 10. cvyvu/j,.] well-disposed, 1 rea- 

applied, or criticize the method of his so liable. 

cnrs, but, looking to the object i)i view, 17. Trpo^rjret a] For the use of 

thankfully receives his attention, so irpo<t>. in reference to the Psalms 

we must look to the beneficent purpose cp. c. 8. The reference is to Ps. 

of the Incarnation and await fuller xxx [xxxi] 20 (LXX) cjs TroXi) 

light t/ian we can receive in this life. TO irXrjdos TTJS XP 7 ? (T7 "0 T7 7 ro s ffov, 

i. i/7r6i/ex^ e crai ] n the sense of Ki pie, rjs ^^pu^as ro?s <poftov/j.voLS ere. 

submit, suggest. Since, as says the prophecy, the 

5. e?r aJrw] in his power. plentif illness of God s goodness benefits 

6. K TreptoSoi ] l by a round- us in a hidden manner. 
about way. Cp. c. 15 /ua/cpas 



KaOopdrai r; yp civ TrepirjpriTO Trdcra TWV a r JTio"rwv dv- 
Tipprfcris, el TO Trpocr$oKWfJievov ev oc^aX/zoZ? r/v * vvv\ $6 
dvafJLevei TOI>? eTrep^o^evov^ aiwvas, ware ev avrols diro- 
Ka\v(j)6 rjvai, TO. vvv Bid rrjs TriarTews /jLowr)s opwjJLeva dvay- 
5 Kalov dv L7j Xoyto-yitot? rtcrt /card TO e^^wpovv real TWV 

6 r 7rt^r)TOV/jL,ei>COV %VpLV TT]V \VCTLV TOt? TT p O\CL ft 0V <T i (TV fJi- 


18. Kat TOL TrepiTTOv 6cr&>? ecrrl 9eov e7rt8e8r?/^7;/ceVat 
TCO y3tft) TTiGTeiKTavTas &ial3d\\iv TTJV Trapovaiav, co? ou/c ev 
10 ao(j)ia TIV\ KOL \6<ya) yei o/jLevrjv TM tcpeiTTovi. rot? 7/3 A6V 
X/az/ dvTifia^o/^evoL^ Trpos TTJV d\^6eiav ov jjaicpd r^9 Oeias 
eTriBrjfJLias dTrooet^is r/ teal TTpo Trjs /^eXXouo-?/? fco^? eV T<W 
TrapovTi {3i(p (fravepwOeicra, rj Sta rwz^ Trpay/^aTcov CLVTWV 


ai>Tide<ris f || 3 ewepx-] wrrepx- vulg || 6 irpo\a/j,^avov(n 1 
18. 9 Tricrreiwras e || 10 "yt,vo^vr]v f yeyei>rifj.vr)i> vulg || 13 


The subj. is TO 
the whole passage 
77 7ap OLV ...p*ovT}S opuifjieva. being a 

5-6. KCU rcDv 67rtf>7T.] l to find for 
the questions before us a solution that 
is in accord with what has preceded. "* 
The /ecu coordinates TO, e7ri|". with rd 
7rpoAct/3. Instead of discussing any 
further the manner of the Incarnation 
Gr. proposes to show the beneficence 
of the end aimed at. In what follows 
he shows first of all its results as 
testified by facts, and then its har 
mony with current conceptions of 
God s attributes. 

18. // is superfluous to criticize 
the manner of Christ s appearance^ 
when we have the testimony of facts 
as to its effects. The cessation of 
heathen worship, oracles, and sacri 
fices, the disappearance of heathen 
altars, temples, and idols, the rising 
throughout t)ie world of temples and 
altars to the name of Christ, the 
witness of Christian worship, and 

the lives of Christian martyrs are 
evidences of the poiver of Chris fs 
appearing. The Jews, too, have a 
sign in the disappearance of their 
temple and its worship, and tJie 
desolation of Jerusalem. 

9. rr\v Trapovaiav] Cp. c. 19 6eias 
Trapovaias. Other terms used by Gr. 
to denote the Incarnation are tiridr]- 
fj.La (infra], deofidveia (infra], crvy- 
Kara/3a<ris (c. 24) and oiKoi o/j.La 
which occurs repeatedly. 

ib. cl>s oiV] on the ground that it 
was not effected in the way of wliat 
we think to be wisdom and of 
superior reason." 1 There is irony 
both in TLVI and in ru> /cpdrrcm. 

12. rrjs /Ji.\\ovo"r]s] an allusion to 
the words of the preceding chapter : 
d.j ctyU.fVei roi/s CTrep^o/xeVoi s cu wi/a? 
uScrre 4v avrois a.7roKa\v<j)8rjvat. ra vvv 
8ia TTJS 7rt<rrews /JLOvrjs bpufj-eva. Here 
Gr. maintains that even in the 
present life we can see from the 
evidence of facts the results of 
Christ s Incarnation. 


/j,aprvpla. rt? ydp OVK oiBev OTT&)? TreTrXrjpcoro Kara 
TTCLV /zepo? r>;9 Oi/cov/Aevrjs TI TWV Sai/jiovcov fiTrarrj, Std r^9 
el&wXojjLavias T//9 fw5? rwv av6p(j>Tru>v KaraKpar^a-acra 
O7TW9 TOVTO vo/Ai/jLov 7racn rot? Kara Tov KOGfJiov eOveaiv r)i>, 
TO OtpaTreveiv $i,d TWV elBw^cov roi)? Sai/^ovas eV rat? 5 
/cal rot? e 

7rocrTOo$, eTTecxvrj rj ^cipis TOV eov 17 
7rao~iv (iv0pa)7TOLS, Sid r//9 dvdpfOTTLwrjs 
cracra (^ucrews 1 , TTOLVTOL tcarrvov SLKTJV 6t? TO /U,T) oz^ 
pijaev, wcrre TravaaaOai p,ev T(\S TUP XprjGTJiplayv re Arat 10 
fjiavTeiwv fiavias, avaipedrivai 8e ra? er^crtou? Tro/xTra? /tat 
ra 8t aliJbaTwv eV rat^ eraroyLt/3at9 fjio\uo-fjiaTa, ev Se rot? 
7roXXot9 rc3^ l6v(t)V a^>avto~6rjvai fcad^ o\ov ftwfJiovs xal 
7rpo7rv\aia /cal TefJbevri /cal dffri&pv/jiaTa KOI oaa a\\a rot? 
6epaTrevTal<$ TWV &aifjuovwv 7rl drraTrj o~(j)(joi> avTtov KOL 15 
evTvy^avovTWv eTTtrrjS^veTO, 609 eV 7roX\o?9 TOJ^ TOTTWV 
e, et yeyove Tavra Trore, p,vr}/jLovveo-0ai, di>Teyep0r]vcu, 

v T)}I> ol/cov/jievTjv eVl TOO TO{) 
vaovs re /cat 9vo~iaa"rr)pia fcal Trjv o~ejAvr}v re 

d || on] wy e Jl 13 PU/JLOVS] TOVS /3. f + re vulg || 15 airarrjs 

vulg j| 1 6 iri.TTT]dVTo g 1 1 vulg || 18 om ran vulg || 1C) vaoi s /cat d. deghnp 

r. TreTrXTjpwro] had fully pre- ment of the decay of paganism in 

vailed. Athanasius (df Inc. 13, 14) Ath. dc Inc. 46 foil. 

has a similar passage on the influence n. Tro^Trds] For these proces- 

of evil spirits in the pagan world. sions see Lightfoot s note on Ign. 

The prevalent practice of idolatry />/i. 9. 

enabled the evil spirits to get the 13. /Sw^oi /s] contrasted with 6vcri- 

mastery (KaraKpaTrjcraffa) over hu- aarripLa. below. In the LXX /3w / u6s 

man life. For the absence of the is used almost exclusively with 

augment in ireirX-ripuTo see Blass reference to heathen worship. Qvcr. 

Granim. of N. T. Greek (Eng. Tr.) is a place of sacrifice, the altar 

p. 37. and its precincts. See Westcott 

5. depcnre veiy ... ai/j.ovas] Cp. Hebrews p. 453. 

I Cor. x 20. 14. TrpoTTvXaia. K.T.\.] porticoes, 

7. 6 aTTocrroXos] Tit. ii 11. sacred precincts, shrines. 

8. 5ta r?7S dvdp.] For this use 19. aefj.vf)v re] tJie rct ercd and 
of did cp. c. 12 roD 5td trap/cos TJ/MV unbloody priesthood. 1 The Latin 
(pa.vepudcvTQ s 6eov (note). translation in the Paris edition has 

10. Trcu xrcKJ-flcu] The whole of venerandum et incruentum sacri- 

this passage recalls the similar treat- ficium, but there is no variation 


lepwa-vvr^v teal rrjv v^ffk^v (f)i\ocro(f)iav, e 
/jiaX\ov i} Xo^ft) KaTop9ov/jiev7]i>, Kal r^? aw/jLaTLK^ fw/J? 
rrfv vTrepoijriav Kal TOV OavciTov Tt}v /caTafipovrjcriv, rjv ol 
/jLeraiTTrjvaL r//? Trtcrreco? Trapa TWV Tvpdvvwv dvay/ca^o- 
5 fjievoi (paveptos eVeSe/fa^ro, dvT ovSevos 8efd/xe^ot ra? TOV 
alfcuas, /cal rr/v eVt Oavdrw "fyfjfyov, ov/c av VTTO- 
$rj\a$r} TavTa, yu-r) craffrr) re /cal dvafJL$if:$o\ov rrjs 
0eia$ eTT^rj/jiia^ e^o^re? rrjv air -o&ei^iv . TO 8e avro rovro 
Kal TT/oo? TOU? lovSaiovs licavov eVrt crrj^iov elirelv TOV 
10 Trapelvai TOV Trap avTwv aTTicrTov^evov. fjiej^pi fj.ev yap 
r//9 TOV XptcrroO Oeofyavelas \a^7rpd Trap avTois i]v TCL ev 
( t lepoo o\v jjuois j3acri\ia, 6 SKavv/jios e/cet^o? vaos, al vevo- 

om ecrrt vulg || 9-10 TOV Trapetvat] TO TT. f || 12 Trepiovv/nos f 

8vffla.v in the MSS. The expression 
avai/u-aKTos iepuvvvrj arises out of the 
phrase i] dvai/JiaKTos dv<ria, commonly 
applied by the Fathers to the Eu 
charist. The earliest example is 
Athenag. Suppl. pro Chr. 13 Kcurot 
Trpoa<ppLV 8eov avaifj.a.Krov dvfflav 
KCLL TTJV XoyiKrjv Trpoudyeiv Xarpeiav. 
Cp. Cyr. Hier. Cat. xxiii 8 r^v 
irvevfJ-ariKriv dvaiav, rriv dvai/j.aKTOi> 
Xarpeiav. Fronto Ducaeus also 
quotes Greg. Naz. Carm. xi i and 
xii i v Qi dvcrias irepLTrovres dvat/xd/crous 

K.T.\. Similarly Chrysostom, Horn. 
Ixxxiii in Joh. p. 447 (Migne), says 
6 ^dvaros...dXX ou Trapa rots 

] Krabinger 
understands this as= vitam asceti- 
cam , et monasticam and refers to 
Greg. Naz. Or. xxv p. 1204 (Migne). 
The word is certainly found very 
commonly after the time of Eusebius 
in this technical sense (see Hort 
Jttd. Christianity^. 121, and Suicer 
sub z>0ce), but it is also used quite 
generally of the pursuit of a holy 
life and the practice of the Christian 
religion. For Gr. s use of the word 
in this sense cp. de Baptistno p. 420 
(Migne) 7roXXoi)s xpo^ous 
56s Kal ry <pi\offO( 
ai TOV TraXatof 

2. Ka.Topdov/j.ei i ji ] the pursuit of 
which consists in action more than 
in speech? For Karopdouv^co/ere, 
alictii rei studere, cp. Chrys. Honi. x 
in Ep. ad Philipp. c. 4 evKoXwrepov 
/j.d\\ov did rijs trevia^ ij dperrj Karop- 
dovrai. For the sentiment cp. Min. 
Felix Oclav. c. 38, non eloquimur 
magna, sed vivimus. 

3. virepo^iav] Cp. the similar 
language of Athanasius de Inc. 
c. 48, and for the contempt of death 
ibid. c. 27. 

9. ffTjueiov] There is a similar 
passage, in which the fate of the 
Jews is regarded as a sign that they 
have been punished for their rejec 
tion of Christ, in Origen c. Celsum 
iv 22. 

1 1-12. TO. /Sao-tXeta] Gr. introduces 
this mention of the palaces to show 
the outward splendour of the city. 
He is thinking, doubtless, of Herod s 
palace, which surpassed even the 
Temple in magnificence. 

12. Siuwi^os] ^ far-famed? 


i erof? Owiai, Trdvra ocra Trapd TOV VO/AOV & 
rot? (JLVO-TIKWS eiraieiv eVto-ra/AeVot? nf]pr)Tai, 
rare Kara TT]V ef "PX "? vofjuadelfrav CLVTOLS r^9 
evaefteias OprjcrKeiav dfcco\vra TJV. eVet 8e eiSov rov 
, ov &ia TWV Trpof^r^Tcov re teal TOV vofJiov 5 
v, teal TT poTifioTepav eTroirjoravro TT)? et9 ro^ 
TrtVreo)? T^ \OLTTOV ecr^aX/jLevrji eKeivrjv Seto-tSat- 
fjioviav, j]v fcafcws e /cXa/^cWes", ra roO vo^ov p^/jiara 8i- 
<j)V\aa (TOi>, crvvrfOeia p,a\\ov i) Siavoia 8ov\evovTs, ovre 
TTJV 6TTi(f)a,vicra,v eSe^avro %dpiv, /cal ra crefjuva r^? Trap 10 
aurot9 Qprj<Ticeia<; ev BiTjyijfjLao-i -v/rtXot? VTroXeiTrerai, TOV 
i>aov jjiev ov$6 ef l%va)V ert <ywco(7/cofjiei>ov, TJ}^ 8e \a^Trpa<; 
TToXew? ei^ epeiTrioLS VTroXeK^Oeicr r]^, (xelvai Se rot? 
raj!/ KCLTO. TO dp^alov vevofjLicTfjievMv /utrjSev, d\\a 
real avTOV TOV aeftdo-fjuov avrol? ev lepoo-oXvfjiois TOTTOV 15 
affaTov Trpoo-Tay/J-aTi TWV SvvacrTevovTwv yevecrOai. 

2 /j-vffTLKOLS vulg || dvva/u.vois vulg || 3 yuexpt] a /j.expis f || 5 /cai o* 1 vulg || 
7 \onrrjv h om \OLTTOV fl vulg || om eKeivrji> f || 8 eKpaXovres 1* vulg || 
II uTroXeXeiTrrat 1 vulg || 12 ert yti .] e7Ti7 . 1 vulg || 13 5e] re vulg || 15 TOV 
v cep. fg 

1-2. 5i am y/AdTWJ ] l all that the 9-10. cure rr\v e?rt0.] These words 

Ztfzty /^/rf marked out in veiled introduce the apodosis of the sen- 

language for those who were able tence which began with eirei. The 

to understand the inner meaning? Jews failed to accept the new 

For 5t aivi-Y/j.a.TWj cf. c. 8. ETrcueu/, religion of grace, and the practice of 

a somewhat poetical word, used by their former religion became a mere 

Plato. Cp. -Le^g. 701 A. Ai^rcu, matter of history. Krabinger, how- 

defined, expressed. ever, makes the apodosis begin with 

3. Kara rrjv] according to the /cat ra ae/uva K.T.\. 

ritual of their religion which had n. ev dirjy. i/a\.] in mere narra- 

been enjoined upon them from the tives, i.e. in narratives and nothing 

beginning. more. " For dL-rjy. cp. 2 Mace, ii 24 

7-8. ] that "which rots rrjs tcrropt as 5i7]yr)/j.aaiv. 

was henceforth a mistaken super- 13. /ueti/at 5e] The grammar is 

stition. The clinging to Judaism in some confusion. The clauses 

after the coming of Christ turned following U7ro\et7rerat are explana- 

their religion into a superstition. tory> and the infinitive is used as 

8. e/cXa/aoj/res] in the sense of though uicrre had followed L/TroXet- 

interpret. The Jews had failed to Trerat. 

interpret the meaning of their own 16. dwaffTevovTuv] After the 

religion which was intended to Jewish revolt in A.D. 134 Hadrian 

prepare them to welcome Christ. decreed that the Jews were to be 



19. AXX 0/XW9, eTreiBr) fjirjTe rot? e\\r]VL%ov(Ti yu-rjre rot? 
IouSai/cw^ Trpoea-Twcji Soyfidrwv So/eet ravra 

irapovcrias TrotelcrOai TetcfJirjpia, /caXw? az^ x ot 7re P< 
avOvirevexQzvTwv TJ/JLLV loia TOV \6yov ia\a(Belv, orov 
5 rj 6eia (f>v(Tis 77/309 rrjv rji^erepav cn^/zTrXe/ceTeu, oY e 
aco^ovaa TO av6 pair LVOV, ov Sta 

lievr) TO Kara TrpoOecriv. Tt9 ow a^ yevoiro rjfJilv 
Trpos TOP TrpoKeL/jievov cncorrov a/co\oi>0a)s %i pay coy over a 
rov \6yov; rt<? aA-X?; ?; TO Ta? evaeftels Trepl rov Oeov 
10 UTToXi^et? eVt K(f)a\aLwv ie$;e\6elv ; 

20. QVKOVV 6/jLO\oyLrai Trapa nraai /JLTJ [JLOVOV &VVCLTOV 
elvai &elv iriareveiv TO 6elov, a\Xa Kal oifcaiov KCL\ dyaObv 
fcai o~o<f)ov /cal irav o Ti Trpo? TO tcpelTTOv TTJV 

fyepei. dicoXovOov TOIVVV eirl TT}? 

15 TO fJi.V TL /3oV\<T0ai TWV TO) 06CO TrpeTTOVTWV 7TL(f)aLVeO-0ai 

19. 3 Troieia^cu] ei^at f || 4 om rj/m 
9 om TOV df 2O. 13 77 diavoia 1 vulg 

1 vulg |j 8 TrpoKeifj.. ] + TjfJ.iv e || 

excluded from Jerusalem. The 
decree was still in existence in the 
time of Constantine (Eus. H. E. iv 
6), but later on the Jews were 
allowed to visit the city. See 
Hastings Diet, of Bible, art. Jeru- 

19. But as neither Greeks nor 
Jeivs will listen to the preceding 
arguments, ive must pjirsue further 
our enquiry into the causes and 
method of the Incarnation. We will 
begin by showing its relation to cur- 
rent conceptions of God. 

i. <5o/cet] think fit to make 
these things proofs of a Divine 

4. TOV \6yov 5taX.] TOP \byov 
is the subject. AtaAa/3eti> = to state 
clearly, to discuss. 

5. cu fair?;?] i.e. TTJS deias <f>v- 
<rews. The phrase is somewhat 
elliptical. The personal presence 
of God is contrasted with the ex- 
ternal command. 

8. x e P a 7 co 7i cra ] conducting ottr 

argument by a proper chain of reason- 

ing to the conclusion ivhich ive have 
set before us? 

2O. 77ie general conception of 
God includes the ideas of His power, 
justice, goodness, and wisdom. The 
absence of any one of tJiese is destruc- 
tive to the perfection of the others and 
to the perfection of the Divine Being. 
In the Incarnation there is an exhi- 
bition of all these attributes. His 
goodness was shown in His desire to 
save us, His wisdom in the order and 
sequence of events by which His 
purpose was carried out. In what 
follows Gr. proposes to discuss more 
fully the wisdom and justice of the 

14. Trapovarjs olxovoulas] i.e. the 
Incarnation which is present as 
being under present consideration, 
corresponding to 77 /card avdpuirov 
otVoyo^ua below. 

15. TO ^v TL /3ouA.] l it is not 
reasonable that one or another of the 
attributes of God should tend to be 


rot? yeyevijfjuevois, TO Se pi] irapelvai Ka6* o\ov yap ovSev 
e</> eavTov TWV v"fyr]\wv TOVTCOV ovo^drwv bie^evyfjievov 
a\\o)v dpeTT) Kara fjiovas eariv ovTe TO dyaOov 
Tlv dya96v, yu.r) fjueTa TOV Si/caiov re teal ao(f)ov 
KOI TOV BvvaTOV T6TayfjL6vov TO yap aSi/cov rj acrofyov rj 5 
dSvvarov dyaOov OVK eo~Tiv OVTC rj ^vvafja^ TOV Si/caiov re 
Kal ao(f)ov Ke^wpio-fJievT] eV apery OewpelTai- Oripiw &es ydp 

KOi T(l \OITT(I, i 6^0) TOV St/CdlOV TO (TO(f)6v 

, rj TO Sifcaiov, el firj fjueTa TOV &VVCITOV re /cal TOV 10 
dya9ov OewpolTO, fca/ciav av rt? IJLCL\\OV /cvpiw rtl TOiavTa 
KaTovojjLdo eiev TO ydp eXXtTre? TOV tcpe iTTovos TTW? dv rt? 
ev dyaOols dpiOfAtjcreiev ; el Se TrdvTa Trpoo~r]Kei avvBpajjLeiv 
ev rat? Trepl Oeov Sofat?, arKOTrtjcrco/jiev el rtz o? rj KCLTO, 
dvOpwirov oltcovo^ia XetVertu TWV OeoTrpeTrwv V7ro\r]^rewv. i^ 
^TovjJiev TrdvTWS eVi TOV Oeov Trj<; dyaOoTrjTos ra arj^ela. 
/cat rt? dv yevoiTO fyavepwTepa TOV dyadov /-lapTVpia rj TO 
/jLeTa7roir}9rjvai, avTov TOV Trpos TO evavTiov avTOfJLO\^aravTOS, 
o-vv$iaTe6)}vaL TW 6v/jLTa/3\r}T(i) r?}? dvOptoTrivris TTpo- 

TTJV Trayiav ev ro5 dyaOw Kal d/jieTajB^TOv fyvaiv ; 20 
ov ydp dv rj\6ev et? TO o~a)craL rjfjids, tcaOcos <^rio~iv o 

9 SIKCUOU] + Kai dehn |j 10 Swarov] <ro(f>ov f || 10-11 TOV a.ya.6.] om TOV f |j 
ii ra rot. xvpius 1 vulg [] 13 5e] + KCU f || 14 om TWOS vulg || 15 avdpu-n-ov] 
+ TOV 0eov 1 vulg [| XetTrercu] + TI vulg 

manifested in t/ie history, while an- c. 5 init. (note). 

other is absent.^ For this use of 18. {j.eTa.Troir)d7Ji>ai] lay claim to? 

(BovXeadai cp. Arist. Pol. 2. 6. 18 Cp. Thucyd. i 40 7-175 iW<rews ^uera- 

/xaA\oj> 5 eyK\iveii> jSouAercu irpbs rr\v iroielffdai.. 

6\iyapxlav . 19. /unjde o~vvd.] l and that the 

i. K0.0 o\ov ydp] No one of the nature which is fixed in goodness 

lofty titles applied to God consti- and unchanging should not be affected 

tutes by itself a virtue. It needs to by the changeable will of man? The 

be perfected by association with idea is that God did not permit 

other qualities. We cannot conceive man s changed attitude towards Him 

of unjust, unwise, or impotent to alter His fixed purpose of good- 

goodness. Similarly power, when ness. 

divorced from justice and wisdom, is 21.6 Act/3t5] Krabinger refers to 

brutal and tyrannical. such passages as Ps. cv [cvi] 4 5 ; 

14-15. ?/ /card avdp. ok.] Cp. cxviii [cxix] 65, 66, 68 (LXX). The 


fit) dyaOoTTjros T))v TOiavTrjv TrpoOeaiv e/Z7ro to i; 0-779. 
ov&ev av wvr/ae TO dya6ov TTJS TT^o^ecrea)?, yu,^ <ro 
evepycv rr/v <pi\av@ p^TT lav TTOLOVCTJ^. teal yap evrt 
dppMGTws SiaKei-iievtov TroXXol fjuev tcr&>? ol jBov\ofjLevoL p,i} 
5 ev /ca/coLS eivai TOV Kelpevov, JJLOVOI Se Trjv dyaOr/v VTrep 
TWV KafJivovTWV TrpoaipecTLv et9 Trepan ayovaiv, cu? Te^viKi] 
T<? St ^ayLti? evepyel vrpo? n}v rov K( ip,vovTos "ICKJIV. ovtcovv 
Tr)v cro&iav Bel crvve^ev^Oai Tra^rco? rfj djaOoTTjTL. TTW? 
TOLVVV ev TO?? yeyevriiJievois TO o~o(f)ov TW a<ya6u> crvvOew- 
10 pelTai ; OTI ov yv/jivov TO /caTa TrpoOecriv a<ya&ov eaTiv l&elv. 

7TCO? y^P &V (j)aVL7J T) TTpo6e<JL^, /AT) SiCL TWV yiyVQ[LVWV 

(pavepov/jLevrj ; Ta Se TreTrpay^eva eipjjiq) TLVI KOL TU^L St 
a/co\ovOov TcpoiovTa TO ao<p6i> re Kal T^VIKOV rt)? OLKO- 
vo/Jiias TOV 06ov Siaoeifcvvo-iv. eirel Se, Ka6ws ev rot? 
15 fyOdcracnv etprjTai, TTCLVTW^ TU> Sifcaio) TO croffrov crvve^evy- 
fjievov apeTrj ylyveTai, el $e ^wpicrOeir], /Ltr) av e<^> eavTOv 
KaTa fjiovas dyadov elvai, tca\ws av e^oi Kal errl TOV \6you 

7 (Twepyei f 1 vulg || 15 rw cro0w TO diK. e j| 17 Kara fjiovas] Kara/j-evrj vulg 

first passage speaks of God s evSoKia. 12. Tre-rrpay/me^a] i.e. the events of 

The remaining passages dwell upon the Incarnation, which proceeded in 

His xP r )<r T 1 " r )S- due sequence in a certain orderly 

1-2. ci\A oi Sfv] (ir. proceeds to chain. 

show that the Incarnation was an 13. tro06^ re KCLL re~xy.^ In prol. 

exhibition of wisdom as well as Gr. uses the phrase ruv rexvi- 

goodness. This wisdom was dis- ATCOS /cat <ro<pu i s...oiKovoiJ.ov^vwv of 

played in the connexion and orderly creation. Here the words are used 

sequence of the events of the Incar- of the Divine olKOvo^La in the Incar- 

natipn. But as perfect wisdom is nation. Gr. gives an illustration of 

associated with justice, the two must his meaning in c. 23 sub fin. TO 8 

be considered together in treating of x w P~n T ^ v ^ irLvoia^ woiTjaai. riS exdpu 

the Incarnation. Accordingly the TO dx^/ 57 ? 7 " 017 T ^ s a-vwraru} cro<pias T-TJV 

whole of cc. 21 and 22, and the d.7r65et^t^ f^ei, where the meaning of 

greater part of c. 23, deal with the x. w P n r < )V ^ ias been previously denned 

question of justice, and it is only at by the words 5td rrjs TOV cru/maTos 

the close of c. 23 that Gr. resumes Trepi.(3o\rjs -\wp-r)Tr)v r^v deiav 5tjvafj.iv. 
the reference to wisdom. 15. TTCLVTUS] goes with TW 5. 

10. OTt ou yvfjivoi>~\ For it is not avve^evy^vov, only on condition of 

possible to discern that -which is good being joined with justice. 
in furpose apart by itself ? \.t. apart 17. elvai] The inf. is probably 

from its realization in action, as ex- due to the influence of the preceding 

plained in the following words /J.TI fLp^Tai.. 
Std T&V yiyvofj.ei>wv ( 



T/}? Kara avOpwTrov olKOvo^ia^ ra Bvo per a\\i]\(ov Kara- 
vorfcrai, TO cro(f)6v (prjai /cal TO $i/caiov. 

21. Tt? ovi/ 77 ^iKaioavvr) ; uaviju0a rrdvrws rwv 
Kara TO ciKo\ov6ov ev rot? vrpwrot? roO \6yov Siyprj^evcov 
on fjbifi rjfJLa T7/9 0ia? <ucrea>9 Karea KevdcrO rj 6 avOpwrros, 5 
TO69 re Xot7TOt9 Tw^ dyaOwv Kal ra> avre^ovaiw rij^ 
Trpoaiptaews rr/v Trpos TO ^etoz^ Siao-to^cov ojJLOiwcriv, rperr- 
T>;9 Se <i/crea)9 eSi; /CO-T dva^K^v ov yap V$%TO rov 
e aXXotftJcrea)? TT;^ dp^rjv TOV eivai cr^jovra fj,r) rpeTrrov 
elvai TrdvTWS rj yap 6K TOV /J,T] O^TO? et? TO eivai TrdpoSos 10 
aXXotaxrt? T/? eV, TT}? dvvTrap^ias Kara 6eiav 
6/9 ovcriav ^Qicrra^vri^, Kal aXXco? 8e T/}? 

21. 4 om Trpwrots f || SiTjp^M-] ecprjfj,. 1 vulg ffwrerayiJ.. f 
vulg li 10 ?? 7ap] ei yap h || 12 /cat a\\(as...6e<i}povfJi,ev r]S om e 

9 e%oz/ra df 

21. 6"r. proceeds to show tJiat tJie 
Incarnation was an exhibition of 
justice. Man was made in the like 
ness of God, but as he was a creature, 
his nature, iinlike that of God, was 
subject to change. This tendency to 
change involved movement in the 
direction of good or of evil. A fan s 
intelligence, further, was liable to 
illusions as to what was really good. 
It was by sncJi an illusion t/iat 
Satan deceived man and enticed him 
into evil. Thus t/ie two factors in 
the problem of redemption were, on 
the one hand, the voluntary bondage 
of man to Satan, and, on t/ie other, 
the nature and character of God, in 
cluding goodness, wisdom, justice, 
power, immortality &c, God s good 
ness excited His pity for fallen man, 
His wisdom supplied the method of 
recalling him. With wisdom justice 
was necessarily associated. 

In no part of the Or. Cat. is 
the division of chapters adopted in 
the Paris edition so arbitrary and 
unfortunate as in the section which 
includes the present and the two 
following chapters. The long and 
involved sentence in the present 


chapter, which begins ev TOVTU roL- 
vvv r^s e rfpoT^ros, and which is not 
finally resumed until the words 
Travra. JJLOL K.T.\. towards the close 
of the chapter, is broken up by the 
Paris editors, who begin c. 22 with 
the words eirel o$v rrjs Trpos TO oVrwj. 
The same division is found in MSS 
b, e,f. To c. 21 (20 in the enume 
ration of these MSS) they prefix the 
colophon : on fj.i/j.Tjfj.0. rrjs deias <pv- 
(Tews KaraffKevacrBfls 6 a.vdpwrro i 
Tpeirrrjs eVrt /cat dXXotwr^s (pvcrcws. 
Opposite the words eirel o$v TTJS 
Trpos TO OVTUS they mark the be 
ginning of a new chapter (21) with 
the heading : 6Vt rpairevra. TOV dv- 
BpwTrov ov TvpavvinCos ctXXa 5t/catoX6- 
70;$ eXi/Tpa (raTo. The division of 
chapters adopted here is that of 

4. ev TOIS TrpwTots] i.e. c. 5. 

diacrufav ofj-oiuaiv] On (Jr. s 
use of the words CIKUV and o/wnuxrts 
see an tea c. 5 p. 24 (note). 

ib. rpeirTTJs 5e] The 5^ has an 
adversative force. Yet possessing 
a changeable nature. 

12. /cat dXXws] There is another 
reason why change is necessarily 



ev TO> dvOpaiTrw Oecopovfjuevr)?, e 
TT)? deias </>ucr6ft)? 6 avQpwTros rjv TO Se fjiL/jiovf^evov, el 
fjirj ev erepoTTjTi TV%OI TLVI, TCLVTOV av eirj rrdvTws e/ceLva), 
co d<f)Ci)fjioia)Tai. ev TOVTW TQIVVV TT}? erepoTrjros TOV 
5 tear eiKova yevopevov Trpos TO ap^ervTrov oucr?;?, ev TCO 
TO fjiev arpeTTTov eivai rfj fyvcrei, TO $6 //.r) OUT&>? 
d\\a 81 ttXXotcocreco? /j,ev VTroo-rfjvai, Kara TOV dir 
OevTa \6yov, d\\oiovfji6vov Se fJLrj Trdvra) 1 ? ev rw elvai 
fjieveiv 7; 8e aXXotwcrt? Kivrjai? rts eariv et? erepov UTTO rov 
10 eV co eVTiy et? ael rrpoiovGCf Svo 8e TT}? Toiavrrjs eiBrj 
KIVIJ crews TO fjiev rrpos TO dyaObv del yiyvo/Aevov, ev c5 
TI 7r/3oo8o? CTTacTiv OVK e%ei, SLOTL Trepan ov8ev TOV 

^ om T?? 0U(ret d || 8 om ^77 fill* vulg |i 9 
1 vulg i| ets erepov... w ecrrti/ om f || 10 
u df 

3 TUX?? % 
vulg |1 om 
l*vid vulg H 

part of human nature. It serves to 
mark the distinction between God 
the archetype and man the copy. 
The word diXXojs is explained by the 
clause eirL5r]...a.(f)i>}/j.oii>}Tat. 

4. eV TOVTO) Toivvv] Here be 
gins a long and involved sentence 
which occupies the rest of the 
chapter. Gr. begins with a gen. 
absolute TTJS CTe/o6r7?Tos...oO<n;s, but 
the main sentence is broken by a 
long parenthesis on the meaning of 
dXXoi wcris and Kivrjais. The sentence 
is again taken up by the words ^weidy 
roivvv Kara rr^v Tpeirrrjv, and again 
broken by the parenthesis KCL\OV d 
TO / A fresh beginning is made 
with the words eirel o$v TT)S irpbs TO 
OVTUS, but a parenthesis ov yap av 
...TreptTrXacr^et crTjs again intervenes. 
After a fresh start, ev TavTrj TO LVVV 
yeyovoros, the apodosis finally be 
gins with the words TTO.VTO. /JLOL /card 


7. dXXd Si 1 dXX.] Intt as it 
was by a change (di dXXoiaxrecos ^v] 
that it came into existence, so being 
subject to change (d\\otou/j.evov 5^) it 
does not and cannot remain in its 

j/] fju/j.ijfji.a 1* 
e] 5i o 

state of existence. In what follows 
Gr. explains /m,r) iravTws ev ri2 elvai 
/neveiv. By dXXotcucris he means a 
certain movement continually ad 
vancing to a different state from that 
in which a thing is. 

9. TJ de dXXotoxm] Here begins 
the first parenthesis extending to 
the words TY/ dvvTrap^ia TTJV virapj-iv. 

12. aTd<nv] The advance in the 
direction of good cannot be arrested, 
1 because there is no boundary to that 
which is explored, i.e. there is no 
limit to the progress in good. 
Ateo5. is passive, that which is 
traversed. The Latin version of 
the Paris edd. translates ejus quod 
transit, which gives no meaning. 
Krab. translates ejus quod evolvi- 
tur. Glauber renders weil selbst 
dasjenige ohne Ende ist, in dem 
man thatig ist, and sees here the 
influence of the Platonic idea that 
avTO TO Ka\6v, avro TO dyadov is 
eternal. He refers to the Phaedo of 
Plato. KaraX. is perceived. The 
word KaTa\a/j.pdvecr6ai is a mere 
variant, like dewpelcrdai elsewhere in 
this treatise, for elvai. 


/caTa\a{A/3dveTai TO $e Trpos TO evavTiov, ov rj 
ev rut fjirj v^ea-rdvat eariv rj yap TOV dyaOov 
, fca0(f)^ ev rot? e/jLTrpocrO^v eiprjrai, TOIOVTOV 
TIVCL. vovv Kara Trjv dvTt$iao TO\rjv %i, KaOdjrep (paftev 
TO> /JUT) OVTL TO ov avTiBiaLpeldOat, KOI rfj avvTrapgia Trjv 5 

eVetSr) TOLVVV Kara Trjv TpeTTTrjv re KOI d\\oi- 
6p/J,r)v re /cat KLVIJCTLV OVK evSe^erai rrjv fyvcriv e<f) 
eveiv aK,ivr)Tov, aXX ITTL n Trdvrcos r] TTpoaipeo-is 

? 7T/30? TO KCi\OV 67Tl,dv/jLiaS CLVTr]V (frvO-lKWS (f)\- 

et? Kiwrjcriv /ca\ov $e TO fJiev TL d\r]6w^ Kara 10 

TTjV (f)V(7lV 6C7TL, TO Se OV TOIOVTOV, ttXX 67r7]vdlO-fjLVOV 

Tivl /ca\ov (feavTacria KpiTijpiov Se TOVTCDV eo~Tlv 6 
vovs, ev8o6ev rj/Mv eviSpv/uievos, ev a) Kiv$vveveTai rj TO 
7riTv%eiv TOV oVrco? Ka\ov, 77 TO TrapaTpajrevTas avTov 
Sid TIVOS Trfs KaTa TO (f>aiv6/jL6VOV ajraTr)^ eVl TO evavTLOV 15 
aTroppvrjvai, olov TL iraOelv o e%w9ev /jLvOos (frrjo-iv 
ev TW vSciTt Trjv Kvva irpos TTJV crtcidv ov Sid 
etyepe, [jLeOelvtu fjiev TYJV d\ r r)6r) Tpo(f)ijv, 
Be TO T9 To()fs etSwiXov ev 

i ou] w f || om 77 vulg j| 3 om v rots vulg || 4 TLVO\ 
vulg || 7 a<p faun)? vulg || 9 avTTj f eavrrjv deg*hnp || 
vulg I! 1 1 om Ti)v f || 13 ev w] + /cat f || 14 OVTUS] ovros dhln vulg || 16 eudei>] 
ulg || 17 airodidovaav vulg || 19 Tw...ei5coXa> g*p Trpos TO...iSui\ov n 

r. TO fvavrtov] i.e. TO KOLK^V, In the parenthesis, which begins 

which, as Gr. has shown previously, KaXbv 5^, he shews how in the pur- 

is equivalent to TO //.T? 8t>. suit of good man is liable to be mis- 

2. -^...eVai/Ttwo-is] When we con- led by illusions. 

trast the opposite of good with good, 11. irT]^vov \ l arrayed in 

we mean much the same as when we a certain semblance of good. 

say that the existent is logically op- 13. i> o5] The antecedent is 

posed to the non-existent, and sub- prob. j/oOs. As the vovs is liable to 

sistence to non-subsistence. Cp. err, there is the chance of either suc- 

antea cc. 6, 15 with notes. cess or failure in the pursuit of good. 

6. eTreifir)] resumes the sentence 16. a.Troppvr)va.i] Cp. c. 15. 

begun in (v TOJ/TOJ roivvv. Qp/u.-r)v, |. /u,0^os = the heathen fable. 

the impulse and movement towards Krab. quotes from St Basil the 

alteration and change. similar expressions fj.adrjfMaTa ra 

9. 0u<riKa;s] Gr. implies that e^wdev, i] dvpadev cro0ia. 

man s natural state is one in which 18. Trepixaj/ouo-cu/] opening his 

he is impelled to the pursuit of good. mouth to swallow." 1 Cp. Lucian 

6 2 



(22) e vrel ovv T?)? 777)6? TO 6Weo? dyaBov 7ri0v/jilas 
tyevo-Oels 6 vovs Trpo? TO /JLTJ oi> Traprji e^Orj, Si 
TOV TT}? Aca/aa? avfJifBovXov re /cal evperov Ka\ov avatrei- 
o~$el? eivai TO rat /ca\aJ evavriov ov yap &v 
5 77 (iTrdrrj, fjL-i] SeXeaTO? Si/ci^v T<W TT}? /ca/aa? 
TJ/? TOU fca\ov (pavracrias 7repi7r\acr0Lo~7]S eV ravrrj 
TOivvv yeyovoTos e/covaicos rfj avfjifyopa TOV dvOpwirov 
TOV eavTov SL rj8ovr/$ TCO e^Opa) T>)? ^"co/)? vTro^ev^avTOs, 
TrdvTa (AOL Kara TCIVTOV dva$Ti TCL TO.?? OeLat,^ uTroX?;- 
10 fyecn, TrpeTrovTa, TO dyaOov, TO ao(f)6v, TO olrcaiov, TO 
TO a(f)@apTov Kal el TL Tf/9 TOV tcpeiTTovos 
OVKOVV co? ayaOos OIKTOV \a/jt,{3dvL TOV 

S, ft)? (70^)09 OVK dyVOel TOV TpOTTOV T>)9 

o-o^ta? ^ az/ el ?; /cat 7; TOU Bi/caiov Kpians ov 
15 7/3 az^ Tt? dfypoavvr) TTJV d\r)@rj $iKaiOGVvr)v 

22. Tt OUZ^ eV TOL/TOt? TO OLKdLOV , TO 

8 om rou vulg ll e%#/>w] XP OVU ^ ii 9 Ka ra rai roi ] \ ar avrov g /cara 
O.VTOV 1 vulg |j 10 om TO crcxpov 1 vulg j, om ro LKO.LOV TO Swarov n KCU 
aiov /cat Swaroi 1 vulg jj 11 om roi fl vulg || 13 KO.L ws cro0os 1 vulg 

Merc. Cond. 3 Kadairep b Xdpos o\ov 
irepLxavuv TO 5e\eap. 

1. dLaif/evadeis] being cheated of 
its desire for thatwhichis really good 

2. TO yJr\ 6i>\ i.e. TO K.O.KOV. 

4. ov yap] A fresh parenthesis, 
the main sentence being again re- 
sumed with the words ev TavTrj TOL- 
vvv. For his guile would not 
have been effectual, had not tJie setn- 
blance of good been spread upon Hie 
hook of evil like a bait, 

7. eKovffiws] This word plays 
an important part in Gr. s argument. 
Though man was deceived, his lapse 
into evil was the result of his own 
decision, and this fact influenced the 
manner of his redemption. 

g. TrdfTa /JLOL] These words in- 
troduce the apodosis. Over against 
the circumstances of man s fall, Gr. 
sets the other factor in the problem, 
i.e. the nature and character of God. 
In the following clauses : OVKOVV ws 

dyaObs cro^tas 5 o.v eit] ri ovv ev 
TOVTOLS TO OLKO.LOV ; he passes in 
review the main attributes of God. 
God s action was limited by Mis 
justice, which must necessarily ac- 
company the exhibition of His good- 
ness in desiring man s salvation and 
Mis wisdom in discovering a means 
to effect it. 

il>. KO.TO. TavTov^ si/nnl. 

22. Hoiv t/ien was God s justice 
exhibited? In abstaining from a 
tyrannical exercise, of force against 
Satan. As Justice requires that those 
who have bartered away tJieir own 
liberty should be restored by the pay- 
vient of a ransom to their lawful 
owners, so in the case of man a 
tnel/iod of redemption was needed that 
was consistent with justice. This 
involved the payment of such a raw- 
som as the owner was willing to 

16. /U.TJ TvpavviKrj] Krab. quotes 


rtvl xpijaao-Qai, Kara rov Kare-^ovro^ ^yua? avOevria, 
yu-T/Se TOJ TrepiovTi r?5? >vvd/jL(i)s ttTTocTTTtf crazrra rov Kpa- 
rovvros Kara\L7Tiv nva SifcaioXo yias d<f)opjj,r)v r<M SL 
r}8oi>r)s /carabov^cocra^vco rov avOpwrrov. /caOaTrep yap 
OL xprj/jidTMv rrjv eavrdov e\6V0epiav arro^ofJievoL Sov\oi 5 
r(t>v (tyvrjaafjiGvo^v eiaiv, avrol Trparrjpes eavra/v /cara- 
, /cat ovre aurot? ovre aXXro nvl virep e/ceivcov 
rr}i> eXevOepiav 7ri/3oijcracr0ai., KCLV V7rarpiSai 
wcriv 01 TT/DO? rrjv o~VfjL(bopav ravrjjv avro/jiO\r)- 
cra/ re?- el Se rt? KySo/jievos rov aTre/u-TroX^^e^ro? /3ia TO 
Kara rov (avrjcra/jievov ^pwro, aSt/rb? eivai >6!;i rov VO/JLW 
rcrrjOevra rvpavvixws e^aipovfAevos e^tovelaOai Se rrd\i,v 
el /3ov\oiro rov roiovrov, ovBels 6 KwXvwv PO/HO^ eari 
(23) Kara rov avrov rporrov eKOvaiws TJ/JLMV eavrovs 
drrefjL7ro\ r)(jdvrwv eSet rrapd rov 8t dyaOorrjra 7rd\iv 15 
rffjia^ et? e\ev6epiav e^aipovfievov fjir/ rov rvpavvucov, 
aXXa rov ^ifcaiov rpoTrov 7rivor)@r)vai r>}9 a^a/^X^crea)?. 
euro? 8e earl rt? TO eVl rcS Kparovvn rroirjcravOai rrav 
OTrep av eOe\oi \vrpov dvrl rov Kare^o/jievov \aftelv. 

23. Ti roLvvv el/cos rjv IJLCL\\OV rov tcparovvra \af3elv 20 

22. 8 ei Trarptdes 1 vulg j| 18 TIS TCO eTriKparovvTi l*n vulg 

Dionys. Areop. de eccl. Hier. c. 3 edition and MSS b and c mark the 

i i Trjs...a7rocrTaTiKrjs Tr\-rj6vos, ws r) beginning of a new chapter at this 

Kpv(f)ia 7rapd.6o(Tts ^x ei i T Ka ^ f)IA&v point. In MS f the division is made 

KaTa\vffacra Kpdros, ov Kara SiVa/xiv, before the words ouros 5^ <rri rts. 

ws UTrepLffxvov(ra, Kara 8e rb /JLvariKus In all three MSS the new chapter 

TJIMV Trapadodcv \6yiov, ev Kpiaci /cat has the following colophon : "On 

diKaioavvr]. To this Maximus has ffv^a\\ay/aaTiK-r]v -riva. Trotetrat TT]V 

appended a note in which he refers \i>Tpwffi.i>. 

to this passage of (Jr. 23. IV hat then was the ransom 

^. ftu<aio\oy. ] * a just plea in his which Satan was likely to choose? 

own defence. His pride led him to seek something 

5. xP 7 ?/ ctc "rwi ] for money. which was higher and better than 

8. fTriporjo affdat] To claim liberty that which he held, in order to make 

on their behalf , For this sense of a gain in the bargain. The spectacle 

e7ri/3oa<r0cu cp. Basil de Spir. S. c. x of power displayed in Christ s miracles 

(25) ras CK TUV eyypcKpwv diroSfi^eis led Satan to select Him as the ran- 

Tri(3owi>T(n. som-pricc, while the veil of Christ s 

14. Kara rov ai r6i ] The Paris humanity, hiding the Godhead, made 


e\ecrdai ; BvvaTov eaTi Bi aKO\ov0ov aTo^acrfjiov Ttva 
TJ)? eiriOvf^ia^ avTov \a{3elv, el Ta TrpoBrjXa yevoiTo rjfjuv 
TWV ^Tov/juevwv TeKfjLrfpia. o TOLVVV KaTa TOV ev upxf) 
TOV avyypd/jLfjLaTO 1 !; TrpoaTroBodevTa \6yov TU> vrpo? TOV 
5 evrj/jLepovvTa $6ovw vrpo? fjiev TO dyaOov eTrifJLvaas, TOV 
Be TT)? KaKias ^o(f>ov ev eavT(> yevvrjaa^, dp^r/v Be r>)? 
7TOO9 TO, ^e ipw poTrfjs Kal vTrodeaLv Kal oiovel /jujrepa 
T?;? \OL7Ti)s KaKias Ttjv (friXapxiav voarjcras, TLVOS av 
dvTii\\daTO TOV KaTevpfJievov, et fJLTf or)\aorj TOV v~\ffT)\o- 

10 Tepov Kal fjiei^ovos dvTaXXdy/jbaTos, w? av fjid\\ov eavTov 
TO KaTa TOV Tt>(f)ov Ope^reiev TrdOos, TO, fjiei^w TWV e Xar- 
TOVWV Bia/jLeifiojAevos ; d\\d JJLTJV ev rot? CLTC aiwvos 
iaTopovfJievois, ev ovBevl (rvveyvwKei, TOLOVTOV ovBev, ola 
Ka0e(t)pa irepl TOV rore (fraLvo/juevov, xvotyopiav davv- 

15 Bva&Tov, Kal yevvrjcriv d(f)0opov, Kal 07J\i^v e/c 7rap0evias, 

23. 2 etra irpod. vulg || 5 om /j.ev fl vulg |j 8 om av f | 13 om laropov- 
/j.ei>ois h ]i 14 Trjv r. <f>at,vo/u.evr)i> vulg || acrvvrpLaarov 1 vulg 

Him an object of desire rather than deais . . . TTJS S^/xo/cpart/c^s TroXiretas 

of dread to the adversary. In the eXevdepia. 

wish to save man we see exhibited the 1 1. TV<J>OV\ Satan wished to satisfy 

goodness, in the ransom by bargain his pride by making a gain in the 

the justice, in the manner by w/uc/i exchange and getting more than he 

the ransom was effected, the wisdom gave (TO, /uetfw T&V eXarrbvuv dia- 

of God. /uet/So/xei/oj). The whole conception 

1. 5i aKo\ov6ov~\ reasonably, a is crude and repellent. 

variant for the more usual /card TO 14. TOV Tore </>.] i.e. Jesus Christ. 

OLK. ib, Kvotf). davvd.] Ace. to the 

2. ei rd 7rp65.] if the evident earlier belief the virginity of Mary 
facts of the case were taken as proofs and her child-bearing were hidden 

to us of that which we are seeking." 1 from Satan. Cf. Ign. Kph. xix. 

3. ev dpxiJ] i-e. c. 6. 15. yevvrjcnv ci(pdopoi>] Cp. c. EH- 

6. o-pxty dt] Opposite these twin, iv p. 625 (Migne) ^re/ce, /cat 
words in MSS / and e occurs the ov5ev -TJTTOV 17 d^Oapcria ffvv8if(f>vKd- 
marginal note on airb (f)i\apx<-a-s X^ 7 ! T V T OKU. The belief indicated 
er paxtf^i-o-^ f 6 5id/3o\os. Gr. de- here in a Virgin-birth, as distinct 
scribes the love of power as the from a Virgin-conception, was a 
originating cause of the tendency to corollary upon the wapdei ta widely 
evil in Satan, and the foundation current among the Fathers. See 
and as it were mother of other Sch\vane Dogmengeschichte \ 186, 
wickedness. 233 fi. 

7. vwodfcrLv] base? founda- ib. QJ]\T]V\ ^ giving suck? 
tion? Cp. Arist. Pol. vii i. 6 inrb- 


tcai avwOev 7rifjLapTvpov(ras rcu vTrepfyvel rijs dia$ etc 
TWV aopaTwv fywvtis, KOL TO)V T^? </>ucreft>9 a 
&i6p0a)cri,v aTrpaiyfjidrevTOv Tiva /cal tyi\riv, ev 
IJLOVM real op/nf) TOV ^eX^aio? Trap avTov >yivo/jievr)v, TTJV 
re TCOV TeOvrjKOTWv evrl TOV {3iov dva\v<Tiv, KOI TTJV TWV 5 
KaTdSiKtov (ivdppvcriv, KOI TOV KaTCL Twv $aifj,6vo)v (froftov, 
KOI TMV Kara TOV depa rraOcov TTJV e^ovcriav, /cal TTJV 
&ia OaXdcr&rfS rropeiav, ov Bia^wpovvTOS e< eKtiTepa TOV 

3 nva KO.L\ re /ecu e |! 4 
dfglp I! 6 avapprfcnv h 

2. (puvas] I oices fro>n the un 
seen world, testifying from above to 
surpassing worth. 1 The reference 
is to the song of the angels at the 

3. di6pOu<nv] His command of 
a mode of healing natural infirmi 
ties without trouble or the use of 
means, by a mere fiat and effort of the 
will." 1 A7rpa7^drei;Toi ,lit. nothighly 
wrought or laboured. The adv. 
a.Trpayfjia.TcuTW i is used by Synesius 
in the sense of without trouble. 
^iX^c implies that it was by the 
simple exercise of power, unaccom 
panied by any employment of human 
skill, that the cures were effected. 
The reading of Krab. v\f/ij\r)i> is only 
found in the late Ms / . 

5.\v<7Lv~} the return of the 
dead to life. For this sense of dvd- 
Ai/<7i9 cp. c. 39 Trpoy eavrov dvaXvwv. 
Cp. also Luke xii 36. Krab. con 
jectures dvdK\fj(TLv, but this is un 

ib. KO.L rr]i> r. K. dvdppvviv] These 
words are only found in the MSS 
b,e,h,n. They occur in the Latin 
translation of Morel, who renders 
damnatorum absolutio. Krab. 
gives the same rendering, and thinks 
that there is an allusion to Origen s 
teaching upon the final restoration 
of all sinners. See below, c. 26. 
But from the context it is obvious 
that the words, if genuine, must 

om /cat rrjv ...avappvcnv 

refer to something before the Cruci 
fixion. If the words are not genuine, 
it is difficult to account for their in 
sertion in the text, whereas their 
omission might be explained as per 
honmoteleuton, owing to the resem 
blance of dvd\vaiv and dvdppvaiv. 
The rescue of those under con 
demnation might mean (i) the 
absolution of sinners during our 
Lord s earthly life (Moore A , and 
P. N. Fathers vol. v p. 493) ; 
(2) the deliverance of those who 
had deadly diseases (e.g. the noble 
man s son) ; (3) the deliverance of 
those already possessed with devils, 
thus leading on to r. /caret TUV 5. <p. 
Of these interpretations (2) or (3) 
is preferable to (i), and accords 
better with the class of wonders 
adduced in the context. 

6. /card T<JJI><iji>] fear in 
spired in devils. 

7. iraduv] Krab., following Her- 
vetus, translates potestatem in 
aeris affectiones. Glauber has 
(dass er) liber Stiirme Gewalt 
hatte. For this use of irddos cp. 
Greg. Naz. Or. xxviii 30 (Mason, 
p. 69) <rv de Zyvws cre\rivri<> (pvffiv, /cal 
Trdt>Tj. The ref. is to the stilling of 
the tempest. See Mt. viii 27 &c. 

8. Sid da\dffcrr)s TTO/).] In Mk 
vi 48 9 (Mt. xiv 25 6), and Jn 
vi 19 the expressions used are eVt 

and e?ri TTJS 6a\d(raris, 


7T\dyovs, /cat TOV TrvOfieva yvuvovvTos rot? Trapo^evovcn 
KaTd TTJV eVt Mft>cre&)9 0av/AdTovpyidv, XX avco T>/9 
emd>aveia^ TOV i/Saro? vTro ^epO oviJLevris r-fj /Sacret, /cat 
8ta TLVOS dacfiaXovs (ivTiTwrrias vTrepeLoovarj^ TO 

ra? eV eprj/jiiq Sa^tXet? eo"Ttacret9 TW^ eV TroXXat? 
acjiv evwvovjji^vwv, ot? OVT ovpavos 7rppi TO f. 


^peiav 7r\rjpov, XX e/c ra>y cipprjTwv Ta^eiwv T>/9 
10 ^eta9 8fi/ftyLt6&)9 7; (f)i\oTi/jiia Trpoyei, erotyuo9 a^)T09 rat9 
TWZ^ ^LCLKOVOVVTWV Gyyewpyov/jicvo^ /cat ota TOU 
rc5z^ eo~OiovTWv TrXetco^ yiyvo/jievos, rj re 3ta TWI/ 

o^otyayia, ov 6a\d(rar)s avTols 7T/309 T?) 
crvvio (f)povo r)s, aXXa roi) /cat TJ7 6a\dcjcrr) TO > 
15 Tfw^ I xflvwv eyKaTaaTreipavTOS. /cat 770)9 az^ Tt9 TO 

P/ ^ > ^V^^J* ^ 

eKdCTTOV T(t)l> Vdyy6\LKU)P OiqlOl UdVfldTWV , 

TOLVVV Tr]V BvVdjJLlV KddoptoV, 6 ^0 pO$ l> KLV(i> 7T\IOV 

om e-rrL 1 vulg |! Bavfj-aTOVpy.] eXevOepiav f j| 4 rti/os] TT^S 1 vulg j| 
s rou /xvoi S f \\ / ovpavodev f Ji /xari a] va/xa g 1 || 9 rauiawj/ 
dghnp || II dia.Koi>ov/ji.evwv g |j 15 KaraaTreip. vulg |; TO /ca^] ra /v. f TWV 
K. hp !! 17 om TOLVVV d 

not 5td daXdcra-r)?, as liere, but in Mk of the I^aris ed. gives panis para- 
vi 53 (Ml. xiv 34) StaTrepdcrai/res tus, eorum cjui impartiebantur tan- 
occurs, quam agricolarum manibus elabora- 

2. d\X ai>to] The sea did not tus, taking rats x ( P ff <- with ^77^- 

part and lay bare the bottom, as in wpyov/mevos. The bread was multi- 

the . miracle of Moses, but in this plied by the very act of distribution, 

case the surface of its waters pre- and so may be said to have been 

sented a solid ground (viro^p<rov- produced in the hands of those 

/j-evrjs), and supported (vTrepeidoixrys) who distributed it. The word ly- 

His steps by a kind of firm resist- yewpyelv is not found in the Lexi- 

ance (5td TIJ/OS dcr0. di Tiri Tr. ). For cons. 

67ri0. cp. c. 8. For a^Tiri Trias 12. /co/aou] i.e. the bread increased 
cp. Gr. Naz. Or. xxxi 32 (p. 189, the more they were filled. A some- 
Mason) cr^e^eFcra TOJ avTiTviru. what rhetorical way of expressing 

5. v-rrepo^iav] l contempt? dis- the fact narrated in Mt. xiv 20, Mk 

regard." 1 vi 42, 43 &c. 

9. ra/uetwi ] On this form see 13. 6\j/o(f>ayia.~\ banquet, used of 
Deissmann Bible Studies p. 182. a dainty repast. Here it refers to 

10. 0t\ort/xia] munificence? the feeding of the multitude with 

11. tyyeupy.] The Latin transl. the fishes. 


8 9 

roO Kare^ofjievov TO TrpoKei^evov elSev ev TU> avva\- 
\dyfjbari. TOVTOV ^apiv CLVTOV aipelTai \vTpov TWV ev 
rfj TOV Oavdrov (frpovpd KaOeipyfJievwv yeveaOai. d\\d 
fjir/v dfjiifyavov TJV CLVTOV yvp,vfj Trpocr/SXe^at rfj rov Oeov 
(j)ai>Ta(TLa, fj,r) crap/cos riva /jbolpav ev avro) 0a)pr]o-avra, 5 
r)v 17877 Bid rt/s d/jLaprias Ke^eipwro. Bid TOVTO Trepi- 
Ka\VTTTeTai TTJ aapxl rj Oeorrjs, &)? av, Trpos TO avv- 
ov T6 Kal auyyeves avTa> (3\.e7T(DV, /JLTJ TTTOijdeirj TOP 

4 om avrov 1 vulg || 6 Trept/ce/caXuTrrat vulg 

1. TO 7rpoKfi/j.fvov] sati. tJiativhat 
was proposed in the bargain was a 
i^ain upon wJiat /u- licit/. 1 By TO 
TrpoKfi/j.. Gr. means Christ, who 
represented a type of humanity 
superior to that which Satan held 
in bondage (roO /oare^.). He was 
therefore not only an equivalent for 
it, but would leave a margin of gain 
to Satan. 

2. O.VTOV atpe?rcu] The idea that 
Christ s death (or blood) was a ran 
som to Satan appears in Iren. c. 
Hacr. v I. I. It was adopted by 
Origen, who speaks of the blood of 
Christ as the price demanded by 
Satan (/;/ Rom. ii 13) and elsevvhere 
(in Matt, xvi 8) says that Christ 
gave His / I X 7 ? a s a ^vrpov to Satan. 
The idea was still further worked 
out by succeeding writers. It oc 
curs in more or less developed form 
in Ambrose, Augustine, Leo I, and 
Gregory I, in the last of whom it 
reaches its most repulsive expression. 
See esp. Ambr. Ep. Ixxii 8 ; Aug. 
de 7 nn. xiii 14 ; Leo M. Sermo 
xxii 3 ; Greg. M. Mot: xxxiii 7. 
Athanasius does not recognize the 
theory, while Gregory of Nazianzus 
(Or. xlv 22), and in later times John 
of Damascus (de Fid. Orth. iii i, 
27) reject it. Still it was widely 
current until Anselm in his Citr 
Dens homo guided thought in a 
different direction. 

ib. T&V ev Ty r. 6. (pp. Kad.] Gr. 
refers here to the harrowing of hell. 
He does not apply the ransom to 
those yet living, or to generations to 

3. d\\a jj.-f]v~\ The idea con 
tained in this passage that the 
humanity of Christ served to veil 
His Godhead from the eyes of Satan 
is more fully expressed in c. 24 ry 
7rpoKa\v/j./J.a.Ti rrjs 
Kpv(pdr) TO Oetov , iVa. . . 
TO AyKtcrTpov TTJS deoTtjTos, and in 
c. 26 aTrararcu yap Kal avTOS TU TOU 
avdpuirov Trpo(3\r)u.aTt. 6 TrpoaTrarT?- 
ffas TOV avdpuirov. Cp. Greg. Naz. 
Or. xxxix 13 eiretoT] yap yero dr]TT-rj- 
TOS elvai TTJS KaKias 6 aocpi.a Trjs, deo- 

fieXeafeTca, tV ws 
rpo<r/3aAu>j/, ry 9e 
See further Mason Five Theol. Ora 
tions of Greg. Naz. p. 117. The 
earliest trace of this idea of a decep 
tion of Satan by the reserve shown 
in the Incarnation is in Ignatius 
JKph. xix. It may have been sug 
gested by I Cor. ii 8. 

4. Trpocr/SXei/ cu T7/...0. ] to gaze 
on the unveiled appearance of God. 
For the use of the dat. with TT/KKT- 
/3\<?7retJ/ see Pint. Cato Mi. 65 

7. <7iW/3o0oj>] looking at that 
whichuias well-known and familiar? 


TJ-;? vTrepe^ovar)^ vv^Lew^ KOL TTJV 
Sia TWV Oavfjidrcov e vrl TO ^ei^ov &iaXd/j.7rovo av 
/caravoijo as, eTriOvfjLrjTov fjia\\ov rj fyoftepov TO 
elvai voiAiar). opa? OTTCO? TO dyaOov ru> Si/caia) avve- 
5 ^ev/crai, KOI TO crofyov TOVTWV ovtc aTTOfcetcpiTai. TO yap 
Sia T/7? ToO acu/jLaros 7repi/3o\f}s ^wprfrrjp rrjv Oeiav 
eirivorjarai yevecrOai, w? av rj vjrep rj^cv OLKO- 
r) TrapairoSiaOeir] rw (f)o/3a) TTJ? 6etKrjs eTrifyaveias, 
Kara ravrov TTJV aTroSei^iv e%et, TOU dyaOov, 
10 TOT) o~o(f)ov, rov Sitcalov. TO fjiev yap e\(r6ai crwcrai 
T/J? dyaOoTijTOS eo~Ti fMapTvpla TO Se (rvva\\ayfj,aTiKr}V 
i Trjv TOV Kparov/JLevov \vTpaxriv TO &LKaiov 
TO Se ^wprjrov >C enrtvoia^ TroirjcraL TW 
TO d^ctipijTOV T/}? dvwTaTco cro(f)ias TTJV dTroSei^w 
15 24. AA-V eiri^reiv el/cos TOV TT) drco\ov0ta TMV elpr]- 
Trpoo-e^ovTa, TTOV TO SvvaTov T% OeoTrjTOs, TTOV rj 

8 Trape/JiTrodio dei.r) f [j deiKTjs e?rt0.] wfiriXrjs ep,(f). fl vulg |[ 9 

vulg || lo <ro(pov] + TOV dvvarov f |J TO /j.ev ...craxrat desunt in e 13 
6t e?r. e 

i . Trjv T7pe/xa] perceiving the ivc find power conjoined ii>itJi love. 

power which shone out quietly more In the first place Gr. maintains that 

and more in His miracles. Gotfs condescension to the weakness 

3. 7ridv/uiriT6i>] See the passage of /nttnan nature in the Incarnation 

quoted above from c. 24. was a greater proof of omnipotence 

6. x <JJ P t l T V 1 ] ^P- infra x <JJ PV TOV than any wonders of the natural 
...T exdpy. for the idea cp. c. 26 creation. For it showed that His 
eiros TOV upoiTovvTos yfvecrOaL. The power is not liinited by the bounds 
Divine power became x^/ 37 ? 7 " 7 ? to of nature, but can pass beyond them, 
Satan by being inseparably united just as our wonder would be excited 
with the humanity, which the ad- if we saw aflame stream downward 
versary had chosen as his \vTpov, instead of upward. In order that 
and which served to veil the God- Satan might be led to accept the 
head. ranso>/i offered on our behalf, Christ 

7. einvoTJa-aL] used, like 5t eVt- concealed His Godhead in the veil of 
j/oias below, of a device or in- our humanity and thus introduced 
vention. life and light into our nature. There 

24. The question, however, may was nothing unreasonable in a plan 

be asked, i How was the Divine power which brought cleansing to those 

displayed in t/ie Incarnation ? This defiled with sin, life to the dead, 

can only be answered by considering and guidance to those who had gone 

the sequel of the Gospel story in which astray. 


9 1 

d(f)0apo-ia TT}? #eta? Swa/iews ev rot? elprj/jbevois oparat. 
7va TOLVVV teal ravra <yevr)Tai tcara(f)avfj, ra efa^rjs TOV 
/jLVCTTtjpiOV StaovcoTT^craj/zez , ev ot? /uaXtcrra Bei/cvvTat, 
o-vjKKpafjLevij rf) (f)i\av0p(i)7rla rj 8uz/a/u?. irpMTOv /juev 

OVL> TO T7)V TTaVToSvva/JiOV <f)V(TlV Kal TTpO? TO TdTTeiVOV 5 

T?}? dvOpwTTOTiiTOS KaTaftfjvai la^vaai TrXeiova TT}? Bvvd- 
T^Z/ ttTTo&e^tz e^et 7} rd /jieyaXd re teal V7rep(f)vrj 
Oav/jLdrwv. TO fjLV yap fjueya n Kai v^jn^\bv e%ep- 
Trapd r/}? Oeias Svvd/jbews Kara fyvaiv TTCO? 
KOI aKo\ov6ov. Kal ov/c dv Tiva ^evidfJLov ejrdyoi 10 
TTJ drcofj TO \eyeiv Trdcrav TTJV eV TO> KocrfjLW KTICTIV Kal 
Trdv 6 TL Trep e^co TWV $aivop,evwv KaTa\a/j,{3dveTai, ev 
Tf) Suvd/jLet TOV Oeov avo-Trjvai, avTov TOV ^eA-T^aro? 


Trepiovaia T/? ecrTi TT)? bwd/jiews ovSev ev TO?? 15 

. f avyKeKpa/J(./u,. gl || 
.] doy/Jiaruv deghnp 
e || 13 TT; ^eou 5i j/. 

24. i om dtLOLS e ;! 4 <rvyKeKpa./u.i>r)] vvv 
5 om /cat l vi(l j| 6-7 TTJV air. TT/S 5i f. 1 vulg || 8 
10 aKoXovdiav e || 12 or: TrepJ + ai/ vulg || ec<;] + 
1 vulg I; 15 ws ou5e^ f 

?. roO [tvffTi/iptov] here prac- 
tically= the Gospel story, i.e. the 
revelation contained in the life of 

4. <rvyKKpafj.evTj] Gr. maintains 
that the power of God can only be 
considered in conjunction with the 
purpose of love to which it was 
directed. The love of God for man 
provided the most splendid occasion 
for the exercise of His omnipotence. 
All through this treatise Gr. em- 
phasizes the moral glory exhibited 
in the creation and redemption of 
man. With the present passage 
may be compared the language of 
the collect for the xi th Sunday after 
Trinity, Deus, qui omnipotentiam 
tuam parcendo maxime et miserando 
manifestas (Gelasian). 

8. 6a.viJLa.Twv] Gr. is thinking 
especially of the wonders in Crea- 
tion, not only of miracles in the 

more special sense of the word. 
This is shown by his reference to 
Creation in the succeeding passages, 
esp. that beginning OVTWS /cat rrjv 
dtiav. In place of 6a.vfji6.rwv one 
group of MSS reads 5oy/j.a.Twi> which 
is evidently a corruption. 

12. w T&V 0aip.] The invisible 
creation includes the parts of crea- 
tion beyond our ken, and also the 
world of created spirits. 

14. oi}crtw#eVros]Ot}crtoDj = to give 
being or ovvla to anything. The 
idea is that the thing which was 
brought into being was but the 
expression of His will and pleasure. 

15. Treptoi crta] The humiliation 
of the Son of God is a surpassing 
display of power, because it exhibits 
a power which is not limited even by 
what seems opposed to nature. For 
the explanatory clause Kw\vofj.vys 
attached to dwd/u-eus without an 


Trapa (f>v(7iv K0)\vo/jievr)<i. w? jap i&iov eari TT}? TOV 
overlap ?j eVt TO ava) (j)opd, teal OVK av rt? 
a^iov 7rl TT}? (f)\oyos rjyrjcraiTO TO (frvcrttcws evepyov- 
lievov el Be peovcrav evrl TO KCITW KaO* ouoLOTr)Ta TWV 
5 fjL,(3pi6u>v crwfjbdrwv tSoL TTJV (f)\6ya, TO TOLOVTOV eV Oav- 
TroieiTai, TTW? TO 7rvp KOI Siajjuevei Trvp ov /cal ev 
pOTrw TT}? /ci,vrj(T6Cds ItcfBaivei Tr]V (fcvcriv, ejrl TO 

(f>p6/JiVOV OVTWS tCdl TT)V Oe idV T6 K 

%ovcrai> ^vva/jnv OVK ovpavwv /jieyedTj /cal 
10 avyal Kal rj TOV TravTos StaKooy^crt? Kal 77 

TWV OVTWV oiKOVOfjiia TOCTOVTOV oaov rj eVl TO do~6eves 
<f)V(T6a)s rjfjiwv (TvyKaTaftacris &LKWcn,, TTW? TO 
<iv TO) TaTreivu) yevo^evov, Kal ev TW Taireivw K 
Kal ov KaTaftaivei TOV vtyovs, TTW? OeoTrjS dvOpwjrivrj 
j^ crv/JLTrXaKelaa (pvcrei, Kau TOVTO yiveTau Kal eKelvo e<TTiv. 
67Ti8r) yap, KaOcos ev TOL^ efJLTrpoaOev eip^Tai^ fyvcrLV OVK 
etyev TI evavTia ^vvafja^ ciKpaTw Trpocr/jLi^ai Trj TOV Oeov 
Trapovaia Kal yvfjuvrfv VTroaTr/vai avTov Ttjv efjifydveiav, 
a)? av ev\rj7TTOi> yevoiTO TO> 67ri^rjTOVVTL vrrep rjuwv TO 

i TO. avw d j| 3 tjyrja ot.TO ehn 17701x0 fgH -rjyeiro vulg 6 om /cat ante 

Ota/xe^et 1 vulg || 12-13 ev r. rair. TO v^rjKov f || 13 yevo]J.cvov om 
vulg || 14 TO vtj/os 1 vulg || 16 Trpovdev dehnp || 17 afcporaraj deghnp 

article cp. c. 16 TO 5 ovov lv Trj TTCOS is preceded by ei> OavjuaTiTroie iTcu. 

(f)V(TL...7ropevo/uLfrr) (note). The ex- 14. ov KO.Ta^aiveC\ The con- 

pression Trapa (f)v<nv is contrasted descension of God does not involve 

with KaTa. <pv<rii> above. any loss of His transcendent dignity. 

8. OUTWS /cat] The wonders of He becomes man, and is God. 

Creation do not present such a 15. TOUTO 7tVeTat] An inexact 

display of Divine power as does expression. Though the eternal Son 

the condescension of God in the became man, it is incorrect to say 

Incarnation. that His Godhead became avdp. 

1 1 . ot/cofo/u a] For this use of 0i;crts. 

oiKovo/jiia cp. antea c. 12 Tas KaTa 16. ev TO?J ^LtTrp.] Cp. c. 23. 

TOV KOajJLOV OlK01>OfJ,iaS ^TTLffKOTTOVVTfS. if). (pVffiV OVK f^X ev ^ Cp. C. 15 

12. (Tiry/caTa/3a(m] condescen- and in the present chapter infra. 

sion, a term constantly used of the 19. ws av ev. 7eVotTo] sc. TO delov. 

Incarnation. For the idea of Gr. that our Lord s 

ib. TTWS /C.T.X.] The sentence is humanity concealed His Divine 

modelled upon the parallel sentence nature from the eyes of Satan see 

above, wQs TO Trvp K.T.\., where the cc. 23, 26 with notes. 


avTaX\,ay/jia, rc3 TrpoKaXv^art, TT}? (/>ucrea>? rjfMwv eVe- 
Kpv<j)0rj TO Oelov, i va Kara TOL/? Xfyvovs TW^ l^Ovwv rc3 
T>;? crapKos o-vyKarao-Trao-Ofj TO ajKKTTpov T//? 
#al oi/rco r^9 0)779 TO> Oavdray elaoiKio-Oeia r]^ 
Kal TO) a/cor TOV (/>&>TO9 7Ti,(j)avei>Tos e%a$avL<T9fi TO 5 
TO) </>&>Tt /cat T-7 0)77 /caTa TO evavriov voov^zvov ov jap 
e%i (f>vo-Lv ovre O-ATOTO? Sta^eveLV ei> ^>OJTO? 7rapovo-ta, 
OVT Ocivarov elvcu ^corj^ evepyovcrrjs. OVKOVV eirl Ke(f)a- 
\aiwv TOV fjLvarijpiov rrjv aKO\ov6iav ava\afiovT<s evreXrf 

a7TO\O yiav vrpo? TOL? KaTri<yopovvTa<s TO 

OTOV X^P ll> <^ avT *jS V Oeorrj^ rrjv 
av6pu>7Tivriv /carepyd^eraL awrrfpiav. &el jap Sia irdv- 
TO)V TO Oeiov ev TOL^ TrpeTrovaais inro\i]^e<Tiv elvai Kal 
AT TO Jiev L/^Xw? evr avTov voelcrOai, TO 8e T^<? Beo- 


3 SeXea^uart g*hn li crvi aTrocnraffd rj 1 vulg ;| 5 ffKoret vulg || 
fl vulg l| ea0ai/K7#?7Ta; vulg e^a(f)aviadi.r] fl vid [| 6 ^"WT?] + TO f vulg || 
8 /ce0a\atw f vulg |j 9 TT/I OLKOVO^OLV /cat cucoA. f j| 10 7roir)aofj.eda dglp vulg |i 
12 ou xarepy. vulg i| 13 om /cat f vulg j| 14 VTT avrov e ij 15 a^tas] Stai Otas f 
om re 1 vulg 

2. Tors Xt^i oi ?] The same com- life tniglit vanish aivay." 1 

parison is found in Rufinus Coinni. 8. ou/coOi/] Gr. proposes in what 

in Sy nib. A p. 16. Similarly Gregory follows to repeat in brief summary 

the Great says (ilfor. xxxiii 7), in (eTri K(pa.\a.l<jjv} the course of the 

commenting on Job xl 19, in hamo argument for the Christian religion. 

ergo eius incarnationis captus est, In what follows he gives a resume 

quia dum in illo appetit escam of the argument from c. 20 onwards. 

corporis, transfixus est aculeo divini- <). evreXij] complete, full, and 

tatis. Jo. Damasc. (de Fid. Ortk. so effective. 

iii 27) uses the same comparison of 11. 5t eavrijs] i.e. without using 

death : -n-pdaeiffi roiyapouis 6 Qdvaros any agency inferior to itself. 

/cat /caraTrtwi TO crw/xaros SeXeap ry 12. 8ei yap] For Godhead can 

T?)S 0OTr)Tos ayKiffrpu} irepnreipeTai. never part with any of its befitting 

For a discussion of patristic teach- attributes. 1 For eli/at ev see c. i 

ing on the relations of the Incarnate p. 9 (note). Gr. is recapitulating 

Son to Satan see Oxenham Cath. the argument of c. 20 init. The 5td 

Doctr. of Atonement (2nd ed.) pp. iravruv is emphatic. 

125 140. 14. TO /j.i>] one part, e.g. not 

4. etVoi/ctcrtfei crT;?] And so when power without goodness. 

life had been domiciled with death, ib. TO de] white another cJiarac- 

and light had shone upon darkness, teristic of the proper dignity of God 

that which is the opposite of light and is parted with. 


evae/Bes voyfjua Set Trdvrws eiri 6eov TricrTeveaOcu, KOI 
orvvr)pTr)cr9aL $i? drco\ov6ias TU> erepw TO erepov. SeoeiK- 
Tai Tolvvv TO dya06i>, TO aocf)6v, TO BLKCUOV, TO BVVCITOV, 
TO (f)0opds dveTri&eKTOV, TrdvTa rco \6j(i) Trjs Ka0* ?;/u,a? 
5 oifcovofjiias eTTiSeiKvv fjueva. 77 dyadoTr^ ev TU> 7rpoe\ea-0at 
crwaai TOP avroXcoXora /caTaXafAfidveTai, rj aofyia KOI rj 
iKaLoo~vvr] ev rco Tporrw r^J? crcoTrjpLas TJ/AWV SieSel^Ot], 
f) ovva/JLLS ev TW <yeve<r9ai /Jiev avTov ev o/jLOLo^fjiaTi av- 
OpwTTov KOI o"%rj/jLaTt KaTa TO Tatreivov T?;? (frvaetos I^MV 
10 KOL e\7rio~6r]vai SiivaaOai avTov KaO^ ofjuoiOT^Ta TWI> 
dv0p(jt)7ra)i> rc3 OavaTa) eyfcpaT7]0f)vai, yevo/Jievov 8e TO 
oiKelov eavTO) teal KCLTCL fyvaiv epydaaaOaL. olicelov Be 
<j)u>Ti fjiev o d(pavio-/uLo^ TOV cr/corof?, %wf) Se rj TOV 6avd- 
TOV KaOaipecris. eirel ovv T?}? evOeias 68ov Trapevey- 
TO KO.T dp^ds T% fa)>}9 e^eTpaTTTj/jiev teal 
O rj/jLev, TL TOV el/coTO? ega> Trapd TOV 

/J,av9dvofj,ev, el 77 KaOapoTr)^ TWV ef a/^aprta? fJLo\vv- 
e(j)d7TTTaL, fcal rj far] TWV TeQvrj/coTWv, /cal rj 
ia T0)i> TreTrXavrj/jievtov, co? dp o re /jio\vcrfjLo^ tcaOap- 
20 ^6^77, Kal rj 7T\dvr] OepaTrevOeiri, /cat et? Trjv %wr)V TO 

i KO.V vvv-qpr. vulg || 4 Kad rj^wv h || 6 TOV aucrai f || 
6r)i>ai h |i 12 om /cat vulg || 14 Karevexdevres 1 vulg || 20 /cat 77 TrX. depa- 
n) desunt in g*p 

and that the not on 
one should be duly connected -with 10. \TTLO driven] refers to the 

the other Gr. is again referring hope entertained by Satan of getting 

to the argument of c. 20. Cp. ibid. Christ into his power. Gr. is re- 

et 5e Travra TrpocrTjvet avvdpafj-elv ev ferring to the argument of c. 23. 

rats irepi deov So^ats. The subject of e XTTtcr^j at is the 

4. rw Xo7^] Cp. c. 20 tVt TOV preceding ai>T6v. 

\6yov TTJS /car &vdpuirov oiKovo/mias. 12. /cara (f>vo~iv] explained by 

That passage illustrates the meaning what follows. It is the nature of 

of Kad Ty/Lcas here. light to expel darkness, and of life 

6. o-wcrat TOV aTr.] Lk. xix 10. to destroy death. 

8. 4v 6/i. dvdp. K. axniJ-o-Ti] Phil. 1 8. e0d7rreTat] Cp. c. 16 et 5^ 

ii 7. T?}s (f>. depends upon TO TO.TT. TTJS 0(. <rews rj/n&v avTov e<j>7)<p6a.i \eyei. 



25. To Be ev rfj (f>vo-ei yeveaOai I]IJLMV rr/v Oeorrfra rot? 
/jir) \iav /juKpo-^v^w^ Karavoovcft, TO, ovra ovSeva av e/c 
rov ev\.6yov ^evia^ov CTraydyoi. rt? yap ovrco vrjiTios 
rrjv ^rv\r)V w? et? TO rrav ft\errwv /jurj ev rravrl ma-reveiv 
elvai TO Oelov, Kal evftvofjuevov Kal e/Jirrepie^ov /cal ey- 5 
rcaOrf/mevov ; rov yap 6Wo? ef)7rTai ra ovra, Kal OVK 
evecfriv elvai TL fjirj ev TCO OVTL TO eivai G^OV. el ovv 
ev avT(o ra iravTa, KOL ev Tracriv eicelvo, n .Trai<jyvvQV- 
rai, rf) olicovofJiia rov /jivarrfplov rov Oeov ev dvOpcoTrw 
yeyevfjaOai, 3t8ao-/co^TO? TO> ovSe vvv e%w rov dv0p(*)7rov 10 
elvai TreTrio-Tev/Jbevov ; el yap KOI o T/DOTTO? T% ev 

25. i r]fj.wv yevecrOac 1 vulg (TJ/JLWV yeyevrjo dai. f) || 2 fJ,iKpo\p V^OLS 
vulg i| 4 aTTo/SXeTTw^ 1 vulg \\ 5 evdvo/nev 1 evSvov /J.ev vulg || 7repte%ov 
1 vulg |j 6 OVTWS f i| ra iravra 1 vulg ;j 7 /J.TI . . .e-^ov] et /U.TJ . . . e%ot f j! 96^ TT; 
.. 1 vulg |i rot ^eot 1 vulg jj avdpUTrois fl vulg || 10 yeveffdai f || rwv 
1 vul 

their use of such an argument. For 
a discussion of the present passage, 
and the relation of Gr. to Christian 
pantheistic thought, see Harnack 
Hist, of Dogma Eng. tr. iii 299 ff. 

5. evdvofAevov] lit. clothing Him 
self with it. The Latin transl. of 
the Paris ed. has induentem. For 
the idea cp. Ps. civ [ciii] i, 2. 

ib. e/XTre/xex 01 ] embracing 
Cp. Ps. cxxxix [cxxxviii] 7 ; 
xxiii 4; Amos ix 2, 3. 

ib. iyKa.d-rjfjievov ] residing in it. , 
Cp. Is. xl 22; Ps. civ [ciii] 3. 

6. rou...6Vros] Ex. iii 14. 

ib. e ^Trrat] Cp. c. 5 roO KO<TMOI> 
iravrbs i] i/Trocrratm TTJS TOV \6yov 
Sura/news e^ij-rrrai.. 

9. ev dvdpuTTu] The reading 
avdpuTTots is plainly a correction, 
due to the idea that avdpuiry might 
suggest that Christ assumed a man, 
instead of human nature. Cp. c. 16 
(note). Here it evidently means in 

10. ovde vvv ^w] explained in 
what follows vvv /JLCV o$v K.T.\. 
There is of course a wide difference 

25. That God should come to be 
in Jntnian nature. ougJit not to seem 
strange to its. For He penetrates, 
embraces and resides in all things, 
and all tilings depend upon Him, so 
that even no7i He is not external to 
man. Though tJie manner of His 
presetice in Nature is different from 
that in the Incarnation, yet He is 
present in man in either instance. 
In the one case, as the containing 
and upholding principle of Nature, 
He permeates our being. In the 
other case He infused Himself into 
our nature that He might deliver it 
from death and make it divine. 

3. TIS yap] Similarly Athanasius 
(de Inc. 41 42) appeals to those 
philosophers who maintained the 
immanence of God in Creation. 
The germ of the idea is found in 
the Timaeus of Plato. In Stoicism 
it appears as the Anima mundi. 
Cp. Verg. Aen. vi 724. For Jewish 
and Christian thought see esp. 
Wisdom i 7, Eph. iv 6. Both Ath. 
and Gr. undoubtedly have the 
Neo-platonist teaching in view in 

it. 1 


rov Oeov Trapovaias ov% o auro? OL/TO? e/ce/Vw, XX ovv 
TO eV ?}/LUZ> eivai KCLI i>vv Kal Tore Kara TO Tcro^ SiwfMO- 
\o r y7}Tai. ^^ A 4 6 ^ ^" cyxeKparai TUMP co? crvve^wv eV 
TCO el^at T^ fyvaiv rore 8e Kare/jit^Oij Trpos TO 7//xe- 
5 repov, iva TO rj^erepov rfj TT/^O? TO Oelov 7ri/JLiia yevrfrai 
Oelov, e%aipe6ev rov Oavurov Kal rf)<? rov dvriKi,fj,evov 
rvpavvioos efa> yevo/jLei OV rj yap eiceivov drrb rov Oavd- 
rov ejravoSos dpxn T ^ Qvr\T<u yevei rf)$ a? rrjv dOavarov 
forjv erravo&ov jLyverai. 

10 26. AXX To- a)? T? eV Ti5 TT)? BiKatoo-vvrjs re Kal 
cro^ua? e^eracrei TT}? Kara rrjv oiKovofjiiav ravr^v Oecopov- 
eva<yerai 7rpo$ TO vofjaaaL arcar^v riva r-t~)v 

eirivevofjcrOat, vrrep i]^v TW 6eu>- TO jap 
<yv/jivfj rfj deoTTjri,, d\\? vrro rfjs dv6pwrrLvi]s 

i om o vulg n 3 o crvvex- ^ VU ^S 1 r iva T0 W-J om T0 ^A 1 - vu ^g I; 
6 TT?S avTiKi/j.ei>r)s rvp. e 26. 10-11 Oi/c. e^eracret /cat croc/ncts 1 vulg |j 

12 om TT?* vulg |j 13 om ^(,77 1* ou vulg 

between the hypostatic or personal 77ie conspirator and the physician 

union of God with man in Christ, both vrix a drug with food, but the 

and the union of God with creation aim oj~ tJic one is destructive, luJiile 

through the indwelling of the Word. that of the other is beneficent. The 

This is not clearly brought out by purpose of the deceit practised tip on 

Gr. , although the contrast which he Satan was to benefit not merely the 

proceeds to draw in the next clause victim of Satarfs deception, but also 

involves some such idea. the deceiver himself. 77ie Divine 

i. CtXA o?>j> K.T.X.] a clause power in its contact u itJi evil acts 

answering to ei yap. Though... as a refining fire. Satan himself 

yet anyhow. Nw refers to the shall be purged by it and be led to 

presence of God in man in the acknowledge t/ie Justice and saving 

course of nature, rore to His pres- efficacy of the Incarnation. Then, 

ence in man through the Incarnation. when the purifying discipline has 

4. rrfv (frucnv] nature (not done its work, all Creation shall 

specially human nature). send up to God a chorus of praise. 

26. The fact tJiat the Godhead 12. dTrar-rji> rivd] The text lias 

was veiled from Satan may be the support of all the MSS. The 

thought to involve an act of de- words must be regarded as forming 

ception whicJi is inconsistent witJi a secondary predicate, that this 

Justice and wisdom. To this Gr. method devised for us by God is 

replies that the justice of God was a kind of trick. The reading of 

shown by requiting Satan according Krab. is d-rrdrri rwl, which appears 

to his deserts, in that the deceiver in the margin of the late MS c, being 

was in turn deceived. GocTs wisdom undoubtedly, as he shows, a con- 

was displayed in combining with a jectural emendation of Max. Mar- 

jiist recompense a purpose of love. gunius, who wrote the MS. 


K6Ka\vfjL/j,evr}) dyvorjOevTa Trapd TOV e%6pov, TOV 6eov 
ei>To? TOV KpaTovvTos yeveaOai aTTcurt] Tt? ecm Tpojrov 
Tivd /cal 7rapa\oyi,o-/j,o$, eTrewre/o iBiov TWV 
earl TO Trpos GTepov T? TWV eTTilBov\evo^evwv 
Tpejreiv teal d\\o Trapd TO l\ r mo 6ev Karepyd^ecrOai. 5 
rtXX 6 Trpo? TTJV d\rj6eiav /3\67ra)v TrdvTcov /xriXtcrra /cal 
TOVTO Trjs &LKaioavvris re teal r?)? aofyias elvai 

$Ltcaiov {lev *ydp ICTTL TO KCLT d^lav 
, croipov Se TO fjL7JTe 7rapaTpe7T6iv TO $i/caiov, 
TOV d<ya6ov TT)? $>i\,avdpw7rias CTKOTTOV aTco-^wpL^eiv TT;? 10 
TO Bi/caiov Kpicrews, d\\d arvvaTTTeiv d\\r}\ois 
d/mcfroTepa, Trj fjiV Siicaiocrvvr) TO KCLT d%iav 
, Trj 8e dyadoTrjTi, TOV CT/COTTOV r^? <^>i\av- 
OVK eJ;(,crTd/j,vov. aKOTnjo-M/jiev TOIVVV el JJLT] 
Ta Bvo TavTa TO?? ^e^ovoaiv evOewpelTai. rj fjiev yiip 15 
TOV KaT d^iav dvri&oa-is, &i 779 o aTraTeoJV dvTaTcaTaiai, 
TO Bi/caiov &eiKvva iv, o 8e CTKOTTOS TOV <yL i yi>o/j,evov fiap- 
Tvpla Trj? TOV evep^ovvTos d^aOoTrjTo^ >yiyveTai. loiov 
/jiev yap T?;? oifcaioa-vvrjs TO exelva ve/jueiv e/ca crrco, top rt? 
ra<> dp xas /cal Ta? atTta? 7rpoKaT{3d\6TO, wcrTrep ?} yij 20 
yevrj TWV KaTa/3\rj06VTO)v dnrepfJidTwv teal TOU? 
dvTii&(i)o-iv croc^a? Se TO eV TU> TpoTrw T/}? TWV 

a.ira.vrwv \* |! 6 om rt]v h || 17 yevofj.evov h || 18 oni 
f |j 20 -e/SaXXero 1 || 22 ai a5i5a><nj/ 1 vulg 

i. ayvoridevTa] Cp. a>itea c. 24. regards 5t/c. as governed by OLVTI.- 

Behind this conception of an act of 5t56vra, leaving dyadoT-rjTL to be 

deceit practised on Satan there lies regarded as a dat. of circumstance 

the more profound idea that Satan s or respect. The Latin rendering of 

cunning was outwitted by God s the Paris edd. is similar. It is better, 

wisdom. The ars ut artem falleret however, with Moore, to regard both 

of Venantius (in the hymn Pange datives as similar in construction. 

lingua ) is applied to a different Injustice, making a proper reco in - 

point in the history of redemption. poise ; in goodness, not departing 

5. Trapa TO e\TTLa-0^] The victim from the purpose of love to man." 
of a trick is taken by surprise and 16. aTrareiop] deceiver. The 

finds his expectations disappointed. word commonly denotes a quack 

7. TOUTO] i.e. the outwitting of or impostor. 
Satan. 20. uatrep i] 777] an application of 

12. rrj [lev diKcuoavvr)] Krab. St Paul s maxim (Gal. vi 7) 5 yap 

S. 7 


6/jLOiO)v dvT ibbcrews fir) eKTreaelv TOV /3eXT/Wo?. wcnrep 
yap TCO eSea/jLari OJJLOLW^ Trapafjiiyvvo-i TO (f)dpjj,a/cov /cal 
6 e7Ti/3ov\6vcov /cal o TOV 7ri/3ov\v06VTa Ictyfjievos aXX 
o fjiev TO &y\r)Tijp(,ov, 6 3e TOI) 8r)\r}Tr)piov d\e^rjTr)piov y 
5 teal ov&ev 6 T^OTTO? T% OepaTreias TOV CTKOTTOV TTJ? evep- 
yecrias &ie\vp,r}vaTO el yap /cal Trap d^oTepcov (j)ap- 
fjbdfcov /Jbi^i^ ev rpofiy yiyverai, d\\d Trpos TOV CTKOTTOV 
e -v/ra^re? TOI^ p^ev erraivov/Jiev, TCO Se -%a\7raivo/JLev 
/cal evTavOa Tc5 pev /caTa TO Sitcaiov \oyw e/ceiva 

100 ciTraTeoiv dvTi\afjLf3dvei, v TCL o-7rep/j,aTa Sia T^? i&ia? 
Trpoaipeaecos /caT/3d\6TO avraTarat yap /cal auTO? TW 
TGI) dvOpcoTTOV 7rpo/3\ij/jLaTi, 6 TrpoaTraTrjcras TOV avOpwrrov 
T(f> TT}? rjSovfjs 8eXea<r//,aTt " 6 8e CT/COTTO? TWI^ yiyvo/jbevcov 
7rl TO /cpetTTOV TTJV 7rapa\\ayr)v e^L. o fjiev yap 7rl 

15 &ia(f)6opa TT}? ^>uo-6&)9 T^ aTraTrjv evtfpyrjcrev, 6 oe 
Bi/caios ap,a KOI dyaOos /cal cro<pbs ejrl crcoTTjpia TOV 
/caTa(f)@apevTOS Ty eTTivoia Tr}? ttTraT^? e^p^craTO, ov 
fjiovov TOV aTroXwXoTa. Sid TOVTCOV evepyeTwv, aXXa /cal 
avTOV TOV Trjv aTcwKeiav /ca9 rj/Awv evepyr)O~avTa. e/c yap 

3 e7ri/3ouXei;^e^Ta] 7rt.j3ov\evovTa e || 4 aXe^iTrjp. vulg a\^iTr/p. eh || 
7 ev rt) rpo(f>r) f || 8 TCJ 5e] TOV de vulg || 10 a^riXa/i^ai/erat d |j 10-11 r^s 
7T/90. rrys iStas f || 14 irapa\\ayr]v^ [jLTafBo\r)i> f || 16 a/J.a KO.I ay.] /cat ay. 

a/xa e j] 16-17 rw^ KaTCKpdapevruv f || 19 r?;! a?rw\.] om TT;! vulg 

fdi airelprj avdpuTros, TOUTO /cat ^ept- His Divinity. See note c. 23 

aet. p. 89 with references. For rou 

I. TOU /3eAnVos] i.e. rou <TKOTTOV dvdpuTrov see note c. 16 p. 72. 
T?},? (fiiXavdpuTrias, which he has 13. 5e\ea0>iari] Cp. antea c. 21 
mentioned above. 5e\earos 5t/c77f TaJTrjs /ca/ctas ayKiarpip 

ib. wairep yap] The method of TTJS roO /caXou (pavracrias TreptTrXacr- 

the cure in the case of the physician flet tr?;?. 

is the same as that of the poisoner, ib. 6 8e (T/COTTOS] The purpose 

but that does not interfere with the of the deception changes the nature 

beneficence of its intention. of the action and makes it good. 

9. TW /j.v . . .Xoycp] on the prin- 17. eirLvola] Cp. antea c. 23 

ciple of justice. 5i eVtj/oi as with note. 

II. aTrararat yap] a. parenthesis. 19. avrbv rbv r. oV vepy.~\ For 
The main sentence is resumed with the idea that Satan himself shall be 
6 5 cr/coTTOs. purged and finally saved, see Orig. 

12. Trpo/SX^yuart] the screen of de Princ. iii 6 (cp. i 6). 

the human nature, which concealed ib. e/c yap TOV Trpocr.] The 


roO Trpoaeyyicrai rfj %wf) [iev TOP Odvarov, TW (f>a)rl Se 
TO CT/COTO?, rfj d(f>0apaia Se rrjv <^6opdv^ d^aviajjibs jj,ev 
TOV ^eipovos yiyveTai KOI et? TO fjirj bv /jLTa%a)prjo-is, 
M(f)e\ia $e TOV diro TOVTWV KaOaipofievov. KaOdirep yap, 
(LTi/jLOTpas v\rj$ TW xpvo-w K.aT a \Jii\Q elcfr]^, Trj Sta rov 5 
Trvpbs SaTrdvrj TO d\\OTpi,6v re KOI aTrojS^ rjTov ol 6epa- 
Trevral TOV %pvcriov KaTava\(*)(ravTs 7ra\iv 7rava<yovcri, 
7T/309 rrjv Kara (f)vaLV XafATrrjBova rrjv TrpOTi/jLorepav v\rjv 
ov/c aTTOvos fjbevroi ryiverai rj SidtcpiGiS) ^povco TOV Trvpbs 
Trj dva\WTLKr] SwdfLei TO voQov e^acfravi^ovTos, 7T\rjv 10 
a\\d depajreia T/? e o-Tt ToO %pvcriov TO e/CTa/crjvai avTO 
TO 7rl \vfjir) TOV tfaXXof? ey/cei/jievov KCLTO, TOV avTov 

OavaTOV KOi fyOopaS KOl Q-KOTOVS KOi L Ti 

e/cyovov TCO evpeTfj TOV /cafcov TrepityvevTcov, o 

^9 9eia<; Swd/jLews Trvpos oi/crjv dfyavi- 15 
O~/JLOV TOV Trapa (frvcriv /caTepyaadfjuevo^ evepyeTel Trj 
/caOdpcret, TT)V (frv&iv, KOLV eTTtTro^o? r) Sta/cp^crt? 77. OVKOVV 
ouS av Trap CLVTOV TOV avTiKei/mevov /JLTJ elvai SiKaiov T 
teal o-coTrjpiov TO yeyovbs dfA^i/BdXoiTO, eiTrep 6t9 aiadrjo-iv 
T/7? evepyecTias e\6oi. vvvl yap KaOaTrep ol eirl Be pa- 20 
Trei TefJLvbjJievoi Te /cal KaibfJLevoi 

5 TTJS ari/j,. v\, fl vulg || 7 XP V(TOV dehnp |[ 8 TrpoTi/u.oTepai>] Trporepav 
|| ii avro] avrw dgp Trap aurw 1 vulg || 12 KO.\\OVS] na\ov 1 
vulg || 14 cyyovov deg lvia hup j| 17 KaQapaei] (Kfrdapcna vulg + e^atpe^ei/Tos 
TOU O.VTT) Kara/xt^^ei/ro? ou /caXou g 1 :| 19 -jSaXXoiro 1 vulg || 20 eXdoi vvv 
/cat yap gp e\#cu vvv ei yap d (om yap e) I 1 !! eX^ot vw OL yap h || 6epa- 
ireias e 

contact of sinful creatures with God 19. TO 7670^65] i.e. the a-rraT-rj 

must result in the final disappear- practised. 

ance of evil, and the purification of ib. ei 7rep...<?X0oi] The form of 

those affected by it. The Divine expression suggests uncertainty. Gr. 

power acts as a refiner s fire, which is venturing a conjecture of what 

shall purge even Satan himself. For might possibly be. 

the teaching of Gr. on the KaQapffis 20. vvvl yap] Similarly Origen 

of souls see cc. 8, 35 (notes). urges (c. Ccls. vi 56) that, as men 

The allusion to the refiner s fire do not blame physicians for the 

occurs in Orig. c. Cels. vi 44. pain which they inflict, neither must 

9. OVK aw. /xei/roi] The UVTOI. men blame God for the pain of 

is answered by Tr\r]v aXXa below. remedial punishments. 




0pa7Tvovcri, rr) o&vvy r?}? TO/XT}? opijjLvo-o-6p,evoi, el Be 
TO vyiaiveiv Sia TOVTCOV Trpocryevoiro teal 77 rt)? Kavcrews 
ahyrjSaiv 7rape\0ot, %dpiv eiaovrai rot? TTJV Oepaireiav 
eV avrwv evepyijaacri, Kara rov avrov rporrov rat? 
5 fjbCLKpais TrepioSois e^aipeOevros rov tca/cov rrjs (jbucreco?, 
rov vvv avrf) Kara^i^Oevro^ /cal cruyu-^ueVro?, errei&av tj 
et? TO dp^alov drroKardo-raais rwv vvv ev tca/cia Kei^e- 
vwv yevrjrat, ofJLofywvos r) ev^apiana rrapd Trdcrrjs earai 
TT}? /cTtVew?, fcal rwv ev rf) KaOdpcrei KKo\a(T/Aeva)v Kal 
10 rwv /jLrjSe rrjv dp^v eTTieri6evTwv tcaOdpo-ews. ravra 

2 TOl TOf 1 Vlllg |! 4 TT OLVTOV 6 67T ai TOfS Vlllg \\ 6 O.VTOLS KCLTa/J.. 

om 77 e i( 7 Acei / uej a;j ] yevo^evwv g 1 || 8 om r; 1 vulg 

4. rats /j.. TreptoSots] For Trepiodos 
in the sense of a circuitous route 
cp. c. 15 p. 64 and c. 17 p. 73. 
In de An. et Res. pp. 152, 157 
(Migne) Gr. uses the expressions 
rots KadrjKOVffi -%povoi.s, /maKpais Trore 
Trepcodois. See further note on ctTro- 
Ka.TdffTa<ns below. 

7. ft s TO dpx-] Gr. conceives 
of the primal condition of man and 
of his tempter, as it existed ideally, 
and as it would have been realized 
had not sin intervened. 

ib. aTTO/iardcrracrts] The source 
of the phrase is Acts iii 21. For 
Gr. s further treatment of the ques 
tion see esp. de An. et Res. pp. 104, 
152, 157 60 (Migne); Or. de Mor- 
tuis pp. 524, 525 (Migne); de Horn. 
Opif. c. 21, and c. 35 of this treatise. 
Germanus, Bp of Constantinople 
(obiit 733 A.D.), ace. to Photius 
\Bibl. Cod. 233), maintained that 
Gr. s works had been falsified by 
the Origenists, who had inserted 
many passages from Origen s writ 
ings. But such language occurs too 
frequently in Gr. s writings to admit 
of this supposition, which is not 
borne out by any indications of a 
change of style. Vincenzi (?;/ S. 
Greg. Nyss. et Origenis scripta et 
doctrinani} has attempted to weaken 
the force of this universalistic teach 
ing, by pointing to other passages 

where Gr. appears to assert the 
eternity of punishment. Thus in 
Or. c. Usurarios pp. 436, 452 
(Migne) he has aiuvios \u-7rrj and 
i) aiuvios Ko\aais. Gr. in fact does 
not exhibit perfect consistency of 
language on the subject. In numer 
ous passages he asserts the ctTro/ca- 
TaaTaffLs. In others (e.g. c. 40) he 
repeats the language of Scripture 
about the unquenchable fire and 
the undying worm. There is 
similar inconsistency in his treat 
ment of human generation. See 
c. 28 p. 105 (note). In the present 
treatise his polemic against the 
Manichaeans and his idea of the 
negative character of evil would 
incline him to emphasize the restor 
ation of all things. In tie An. ct 
Res. p. 104 (Migne) he makes use 
of i Cor. xv 28. See further Introd. 
p. xxiii,and on the subsequent history 
of the doctrine of aTTOKardcrracrts see 
Schwane Dogmengeschichte ii pp. 
240 f. , 604 f., 6n f. 

8. OAIO^WVOS] Gr. uses similar 
language in de An. el Res. p. 72 
(Migne) ctAXd /ecu Trap eKtivwv 
6fj.o<puivajs TI ojuioXoyia rrjs rod XptcrroO 
KVpiorrjTos &TTCU. 

9-10. TUV ...T<JOI>] See c. 35 where 
the two classes are more exactly de 


rrvr(OV TWV 

/cal rd roiavra Trapa&i&wcri TO /J,eya avarrjpiov -7-779 

Si wv jap /carefjii^Orj ry dvdpw- 

(f)VCTG)S IBiCO/jidrcOV yVO- 

re teal dvarpofir)? /cat av^aew^, real 
rfjs rov 9avdrov rreipas Bi6%\0(t)v, rd Trpoeiprj- 5 
rrdvra /careipyacrrai, rov re avQpwrrov r% /ca/cias 
e\v0pwv /cal avrov rov rrj? /ca/cias evperrjv Iw 
Tacrt? yap eanv appwcrrLa^ rj rov voa-rjfJiaTos 
/cav eVtTTO^o? y. 

27. y A/c6\ov0ov 8e Trdvrws rov 777309 rr/v fyva iv rffJLwv 10 
dva/cipvd/jievov Sia Trdvrcov Se^acrOai royv IScco^idrcov av- 
T7;9 rrjv rrpo^ rjuas (rvvavatcpacriv. xaOdrrep yap ol rov 
pvrrov TMV i/jbariwv eK7r\vvovres ov rd /juev e wcrt rwv 
, rd Se drroppvrrrovo iv, aXX drr p%>}9 u^P 1 

rwv /cij\iSa)v arrav ro v^aafMa, W9 15 
av ofJLoriiJLOv eavrw Si o\ov ro l^dnov yevoiro, Kara ro 

8 i>oa-r){j.aTos] crcj/zaros gp 27. 12 om yap deg*hnp || 14 
1 vulg || 16 eai^rw] ev auraj f || yevrjraL e [| TO /cara r. ta. 1* vulg 

3. t Siw/xarwj ] the properties could have been assumed. But 

or distinguishing characteristics of humanity was not in heaven, and 

human nature. Cp. c. 27 /;///. and there can be no cure which does not 

p. 104. touch the ailing part. Again there 

7. avrbv T6i>...cvpTr)i>] In this is no more dishonour in assuming a 

passage Gr. definitely connects the human than a heavenly body. Every- 

healing of Satan with the Incar- thing created, whether in heaven 

nation. In what way its benefits or on earth, is equally below the 

were applied to the adversary he dignity of God. But if all things 

does not tell us, nor does he discuss are equally below God, the one thing 

the relation of the xa^apcrts to the that is consistent with His honour is 

historical work of Christ or show to succour the needy. And it is this 

the relation of his idea to the which we acknowledge Him to have 

language of Scripture. done. 

27. It was needful that He Who n. ava.Kipvdfj.ei oi ] infusing Fli in- 

assumed our nature should assume it self into. 1 Cp. c. 1 1 KaraKipvaTai. 

in all its distinctive features. That ib. iStWyudrw^] Cp. c. 26 supra 

nature needed to be cleansed in every (note). 

part. Corresponding to this the 12. <] Cp. c. 16 p. 

Power which restores human nattire 70, and see note c. 11 p. 57. 

must embrace it in its whole extent 15. i)(f)a<r/u(.a] the whole texture 

from beginning to end. This could of the garment? 

only le effected by a hitman birth. It 16. 6/x6rt//,o^] l ttnifo rm in charac- 

might be urged that a heavenly body ter. 


tcrov \afJLTrpvv9ev IK TT}? TrXucrew?* ourw?, fjLO\vv9ei<Trj<$ 
rfj daapTta TT}? dv6 pwjrivr]s &>?}? ev dp^rj re KOI T\evrrj 
teal rot? t fiecrov Tracriv, eSet Sta irdvrwv yevecrOai rrjv 
eK7r\vvovcrav Svva/jiiv, teal yu,^ TO fjiev rt 6 e pair ev area ra> 
5 KaOapo-iw, TO Be TrepuBeiv dOepcnrevrov. TOVTOV 
TT)? fft)?}? TJ/JLCOV oYo Trepaa-Lv eKarepwOev 
TO Kara TTJV dp^v ^rj/jiL /cal TO TeXo?, Ka6" etcciTepov 
vpicrKTaL Trepan TJ Siop0o)TiK7] TT)? (f)vcrew^ Su^ayL6t?, Kal 
TT)? /3%^9 atyafJievr) Kal pe^pi TOV TeXou? eavrrjv eireic- 

10 Teivaaa Kal T<L Sid //ecrou TOVTWV Trdvra $ia\aj3ov(Ta. 
jjuas 8e Tcacriv dvOpaiTrois TT)? et? T^ fco^ ovaiy? Trapo- 
Sov, TroOev &ei TOV eldLovTa Trpo? TUJLCL^ d(joiKi(rQr]vai 
TO) /3iw ; e% ovpavov, (frrjcrl TV%OV 6 SiaTTTvcov w? alo"%p6v 
T Kal a&ogov TO el^o? TT}? dvOpcoirivrj^ yevecrews. XX 

15 OVK i]v eV ovpavw TO uvOpatTrivov, ovSe Tt? eV T^ VTrep- 
K0<r/J,l(p %wf) /caKias voaos e-ne^wpia^ev. o Be TW dv- 
upa>7ra) KaTa/jii<yvv/jit:VOs TU> CTKOTTW TT)? axpeXeias eTroieiTo 
TTJV (TwavaKpaoriv. evOa TO IVVV TO KaKov OVK tfv, ovBe 

dl OCOTTLVOS 7TO\lTVeTO /3lO$, 7TW? eTTL^TJTei Tt? 

4 om rt deghnp H 7 rw /cara dehn J 9 oni roi e [| eireKTeivovcra. e |! 
10 TO 5ia p || n /JLias 5e] exstant seqq in euth 1456 |! 12 oiKLffdrjvai 1 vulg |j 
13 ^(rei el* via n 0i(ret h euth 16 |, 16 eTrexwptao-ei/ dglp || 16-18 o 5e...<ri > - 
avaKpaffiv om euth 16 || 17 Trpos rw tr/coTrw f || 18 avaKpacriv d /cat 
f || 19 om o fl vulg 

4-5. ry /v-aflapcrtV] On the word 11. /xtas 5e] The section which 

Kaddpffiov see Suicer. It is here follows as far as the end of ch. 28 is 

used in its primary sense of a reproduced in Euthymius Zig. Pan. 

purification. Dogm. pt i tit. vii pp. 224 f. (Migne). 

6. 5tet\?7 / a ; uej 77s] embraced ivit/i- 12. eicroiKKTdiji ai.] Cp. c. 24 

in two limits, one on either side? Cp. r-^s i"w^s rw da.vd.rui elaoiKia-Oeiarjs. 
5ta\a/3oucra below. 13. e oupct^oO] The belief that 

10. rd 5ta /x^crou] Gr. assigns a the flesh of Christ descended from 

place in the work of redemption to Heaven was actually attributed to 

the whole of Christ s earthly life Apollinaris (cp. Vincent Lir. Com- 

and not merely to the death. mon. xii (17)), though apparently 

Similarly Iren. ii 33. 2 says: Omnes without sufficient reason. The idea 

enim venit per semetipsum salvare however seems to have been current 

...infantes, et parvulos, et pueros, and was refuted by Greg. Naz. in his 

et iuvenes, et seniores. Ideo per first Epistle to Cledonius. This may 

omnem venit aetatem. have suggested the idea here to Gr. 



TO) 060) TcepiTC\aKY)vai TOV avOpwrrov, /jid\\ov Be 
dvOpcoTrov, a\\d dvOpcoTrov TI, eioa)\ov KOI 6/Wo>//,a ; 
r/9 & av eyeveTO rr/s <ucreft>9 77/40) i> ?; oiopOwaris, el TOV 
7TLyeiov a)ov vevo&r) KOTOS eTepov TI TWV ovpaviwv TTJV 
Oeiav eirifiifyav e Sefaro; OVK ecrrt yap deparrevdrjvat, 5 
TOV KdfJivovTa, /jur) TOV TTOVOVVTOS pepovs IBia^ovTG)? Sea- 
fjuevov TI]V laviv. el ovv TO f^ev KCL^VOV errl 777? r/v, 77 Be 
Oeia Svva/jiis TOV Kafivovros /Ar} e^tj^lraTO, Trpos TO eav- 
rr}? /3\7rovo-a TrpeTrov, axprjaTos r}v TO> dvOpoiTrw r) rrepl 
Ta /jirjoev TJ/JLLV e-micoivwvovvTa TT)? 6eia<$ ^fz^r^eco? o"%o- 10 
\ia. TO fjiev yap aTTpevre? eTrl TTJS OeoTrjTo^ laov, elnrep 
o Xw? OefALTov eo~Tiv aXXo TI Trapa Ttjv Katciav (iTrpeTres 
evvoelv. 7r\rjv TW fiLKpo^v^ws ev TOVTW KpivovTi TT\V 
Oeiav /jLeyaXeiOTTjTa, ev TGJ (jurj oeao~0at, TWV 

3 om 77 euth 456 || 5 e7rt//,t^.] eTridTj/juav 1 vulg || 8 eavrtj I 1 euth 

1. 7repi7r\a/c??j/at] lit. that the 
man should be enfolded around the 
God. The humanity is conceived 
of as a vesture with which the God 
head is clothed. For rbv avdpuirov 
cp. c. r6 ev yap rui di>a\770^efTi 
Trap avrou aLvdpunri+i (note). 

2. et dwAoi ] A body taken from 
any other source than human nature 
would be nothing else than an imi 
tation of a man. 

3. Ti s 5 av} Another argument 
against the suggestion contained in 
e ovpavov above. Human nature 
would not benefit from the com 
mingling of the Divine with anything 
else but itself. The remedy must be 
applied to the ailing part. 

8-9. Trpbs TO...TrpTroi ] A causal 
clause attached closely to the hypo 
thetical statement et.../u.7? e ^Tj^aro. 
Eaur^s is governed by Trptirov which 
is found in a few cases with the^w. 
Cp. Soph. Ajax 534 with Jebb s 
note. Here the gen. may be due 
to the substantival notion contained 
in TO irpeirov. 

9-10. 77 . . . dcrxoXta] The occupa 

tion of the Divine Power with objects 
which have nothing in common with 
us would have been of no profit to 
man? In ra /u.. i}. eiTLKOLvuvovvra 
he is of course referring to TO. ovpdvia 

11. TO fj.ev yap dTrperres] Gr. now 
passes on to another point. The 
indignity to God is no greater in 
the case of the assumption of an 
earthly, than of a heavenly body. 
The real line of demarcation is not 
between earthly and heavenly, but 
between created and uncreated. 

ib. fiTTtp] Gr. contests in his 
usual manner the appropriateness of 
the use of the word dirpcTres with 
reference to anything but moral evil. 

13. TT\TJV K.T.\.] But for him 
who in a narrow spirit judges that 
the Divine majesty consists in this, 
that it does not admit of partici 
pation in the peculiarities of our 
nature, the dishonour is not lessened 
by the fact that the Divine Being is 
conformed to a heavenly rather than 
to an earthly body 


yfjLwv ISico/jLaTcov rrjv KOLVwviav, ovSev fj.a\Xov rrapa^v- 
6eirai TO aoo^ov ovpaviw <7&>//,art 77 7riyi(p avcj^rifJLa- 
Ti(r6r}vai TO Oelov. TOV ydp vtyia TOV KOI ciTrpOdiTOV Kara 
TO v\lros XT)? (ucre&)? 77 KTICTIS Tracra tcaT(i TO taov CTTL TO 


TO yap Kaff 6\ov dirpoaiTOV ov TLVI /JL<=V e<TTi TTpocriTOv, 
rro $e djrpoo TreXao Tov, XX e?r tcr?;? TTCIVTWV TWV QVTWV 
V7rpav(TTrjKV. ovT ovv TI yrj TroppwTepco TT}? 
ecrrtv, oi/re o ovpavos 7r\7jcriaiTpos, ovre TCL ei> ef 
10 Ta)i> crToi%eiwv ev^iaLTM/Jieva Siafyepei TL d\\7J\wi> ev TCO 
TOVTW, &)9 TO, [lev l^dnTTeaOai TT}? dirpoa-iTov (f)v- 
, TOL Be dTTOKplvea-Oai, 77 ovrco 7 av /Jbrj &ia TrdvTWV 
to*?;? Sirjiceiv TTJV TO TTGLV eTrifCpaTovaav ^vvajjav VTTO- 
XX ev TLCTL 7r\ovdovcrav, ev erepot? ev$e- 
15 ecTTepav elvai, KOI Ty irpos TO eXarTOV re Kal Tr\eov KOI 
fjiaXXov Kal f)TTOV $La(f>opa avvOeTov IK. TOV aKO\ovOov 
TO Oelov dva(f)avrjcr6Tai,, avTo TT/OO? eavTo fjur) 


(/>ucre&)?, eTepM Se TIVI yeiTViwv Kal eu\ij7TTOi> eV TOV 

4-5 OL<f). eiTL T. K. f I! 7 TLVL 5e ttTT. g l 1 TO 5f CtTT. Vlllg [| Olll TWV 

ovrwv p || 8 inrepaveiTT-rjKei ] desunt seqq in euth || Q 7r\r)<nffTpos 1 vulg || 
10 a?r aXX^Xwi/ p |j 12 ourw] oi/re vulg || /ir/] /x^re del vulg et ^T; n || 
13 Sia.Kpa.Tovffai g 1 li 1 6 ro /xaXXov Kat TO TJTTOV d || 18 /^T; iroppwOev dghnp || 
g*p || 19 yeiTVLuri dghnp || fi XTjTrTos fl* vulg 

i.- i5ui)/j.dTuv] slightly diff. from 16. ffvvderov] on account of the 

the use supra and in c. 26. Here it difference of measure and degree, the 

is rather peculiarities. Divine Being will in conseqtience 

ib.] pacify, re- appear to be composite, and incon- 

lieve, soften. The subj. of the gruous with itself, if it be conceived 

verb is cri/crx. TO delov. to be remote from tts, so far as its 

6. Ko.6 1 6 \oi] God transcends nature is concerned, but be adjacent 

creation absolutely and not merely to some otlier created thing and from 

relatively. its nearness easily apprehended. 1 

12. 77 OUTW 7 &v] To assume 18. TW \6ytp TTJS 0t/creo;s] is ex- 

that some parts of Creation are plained by rrjs airpoairov <t>u<reus 

nearer than others to the Divine above. Gr. is referring to the false 

Nature impairs belief in the com- deductions drawn from the greatness 

pleteness of the Divine immanence. of God. 


yiyvoiro. aXX o X?7$r)<? Xoyo9 7rl rr}? vtyrj- 
X?}? ttfia? oure Kara) ySXeVet 8ta crvyKpicrews, ovre avw 
Trdvra jap Kara TO iaov rrjv rov Trai/ro? eTTLararovo-av 
Svva/jiiv vTTofte/Srjrcev, ware, el T?]V eTriyetov fyvcriv dva- 
%iav T?}? TT/JO? TO delov oltfo-ovrai <TUyL67rXo^9, ov& av 5 
aXX?; ? vp60L7j TO a^tov e^ovaa. el Se eV tV?;? TrdvTa 
T?}? afta? aTroXt/ATrai/erat, ei/ Trpejrov eVrt rc3 ^6a> TO 
TOV Seo/Jievov. OTTOV TQivvv r)v f) z/ocro?, e/cet 
la) p,evrjv ^VVCL/JUV oyu,oXo ( yoO^T6?, rt e^&> TT}? 
roX^ v^6&)9 TreTTicrTev/ca/jLev ; 10 

28. AXXa tco)/jia)$ovcri, Trjv $V(TIV TJ/JLWV, KOI TOV r^? 
TpoTrov Sia0pv\\ov(rt, KCLI OLOVTCLI, Sia TOV- 
oielv TO /jLvcrTrjpiov, &)? avr^evre? oz^ 
elaoSov TT}? roO avOpwTrivov /3iov 
ai. aXX r/S?; 7re/3t TOVTOV teal ev 15 
rot? e/jLTTpocrOev etprjTaL \6yois, OTI /JLOVOV ala^pov Ty 
eavTOv (f)vcri TO tca/cov ecrrt icai ei TI rrpos Trjv KCLKLCLV 
oiKeiws e^ei. rj 8e rr}? (frvcrecos d/co\ovOia, 6eiw /3ov\rj- 

i TTJS 1^77X775] r?7s tcTT^s g 1 om TTJS h || 34 T7)s...TriffTaTOV(rr)s 5vi>a/}s 
ehn |j 7 er TrpeTr.] e/unrpeTrov 1* V1<I vulg || om rw ^ew d om rw fl 28. 12 yej - 
1 vulg || dia6pv\ov(ri degp |j 13 oi/j a>?/ f euth 16 || 14 rw 
17 eavrov] (f> eavrov g*p || 17-18 /cat et...exfi] /caj/...ex>? 1 vulg 

i . 6 aXydris \6yos] The true evil. There is nothing evil or dis- 

account in dealing with the Iran- honourable in the bodily constitution 

scendent dignity of God does not of man. The organs of human birth 

compare what is above with what are worthy of not less, but more 

is below in creation. The true honour than otir other organs, for 

comparison is between creation and through them is secured the immor- 

the Creator. All created things are tality of the race. 

equally beneath the Divine Power. ir. /cw/xo;5oO<Ti] l f/iei> ridicule our 

7. %v Trp^Troi ] The real justifi- nature, and harp upon the manner 

cation of the assumption by God of of our birth. Aiad pv\\fw = to keep 

human nature is to be found in the on talking about. 

moral character of God. It is con- 12. did TOUTUV] by these means, 

sistent with His character to succour i.e. by what they say in derogation 

the needy. of nature and its processes. 

28. Gr. vindicates the manner 15. e0d.i//ao-0cu] Cp. c. 16 rrjs 

of human birth against the objection 0i5(recos TJ/ULUV avrov efirjfidai. 

that it was unbecoming that God ib. rjdr)...eip.] i.e. cc. 9, 16. 

should enter human life in this way. 18. aKoXovdia] sequence or 

The only thing which is inconsistent course of nature. 1 Contrast Gr. s 

with the character of God is moral language in de Virg. c. 12. 


fjiaTL KOI vofjiw Biara^Oelcfa, jroppco TT}? Kara Kafclav 
ecrTi &ta/3o\?79, r) OVTCO y av eTrl TOV Brjfjiiovpyov rj Karrj- 
yopia rr}? </>ucrea>9 7raviot, el TL TWV Trepl avTr/v eJ? 
alor^pov re real aTrpeTres Bia/3d\\oiTO. el ovv fjuovrj^ 
5 Ka/CLas TO 6elov K%copt,crTai,, ^>ucrt? Be Ka/cia OVK eo~Ti, 
TO Be avaTTJpLov ev dv0pa)Tra) yeveaOai, TOV 9eov, OVK ev 
Ka/cia \eyet, 1} Be TOV av6p(DTrov eTrl TOV {3iov 
fiia eo~TL, 8i >7? TrapdyeTat, eTrl TTJV ^corjv TO 
Tiva vofjLoOeTOva iv eTepov TpoTrov TO> 6ew rr}? e/? TOV 
10 ftiov TrapoBov oi eTcicrKefyQ^vai fjiev Trapa r^? Oelas 
aaOevr^cTaaav ev KaKia TTJV ^>vo~iv ev\oyov 
, Trpos Be TOV TT}? eTricrKe^rew^ TpoTrov Bvcrape- 
, OVK elBoTes OTL Tracra Trpos eavTrjv rj KaTa- 
TOV aco/juaTos oyu-ortyLta)? e%et, Kal ovBev ev TavTrj 

15 TWl^ 7T/309 TTJV GVGTaCTlV TV)? fwr)? (TVVTe\OVVTWV &)? 

aTifJiov TL rj Trovrjpov BLa(3d\\Tai ; Trpos eva yap CTKOTTOV 
TI TWV opyaviKwv fjbe\wv BtaaKevrj Tracra avvTeTaKTai. 
o Be crtfOTro? ecrTL TO Biaueveiv ev Trj ^wf) TO av6p(i)- 
TTIVOV. Ta aev ovv \oi7rd TWV opydvwv TTJV Trapovcrav 

i y af] yap f j| 4 om re vulg \\ 5ta/3a\oiro f 5ta/3aXAerc e \\ om fj-ovys 
euth || 5 T? verts p 0i>crei euth 16 || fca/ctas fl vulg || 7 et 5e el* vulg || 

8 Trapayiverai 1 vulg || fayv] desunt reliqua in euth 4 || yevo^evov h || 

9 rtj/a] j/o/xoi/ ^tei nva fl* vitl vulg || 12 Kpivavres f || 18 TO 5ta/xez/eti ] oiu 
ro 1 vulg |! TOP avdpuTrov 1 vulg 

i. irbppw -.r.X.] zV unassailable 14. OyCtori/xws ^x et l is of uniform 

on the ground of moral evil. value, 1 as contrasted with &n/m.ov 

2. 5?7 / tuoi;p76j ] the Maker, a below. Cp. OIJ.OTLIJ.OV c. 27. 
sense of 5^/x. found in Plato (cp. 17. 6pyavi.K&v /xeXcDi/] the whole 

e.g. A ^. 530 A) and esp. in the organic structure of the body* The 

Neo- Platonic writers. phrase TO. dpyavucit /m,\r) comes from 

4. el ofrV] The apodosis begins Aristotle. See Eth. N. 3. i. 16. 
with riva K.r.X., the clauses TO 5^ 19. Ta /uei/ oCi>] The other bodily 
/UUCTT. and 17 5 ToO avdp. forming organs have as their aim the main- 
part of the protasis. tenance of the already existing life 

10. iriffK(J>drii>cn.] For this word of man. By them the power of 
and eTTKr/ce ^ews below cp. note on perceiving and acting (17 alffdrjTLKrj 
CTricTKe^LV c. 15. re /cat evepyrjTiKT] Swcuus) is exer- 

11. aa6tv....Tr)v (f>v<Tiv~\ For the cised. The generative organs have 
construction of this clause cp. c. 16 in view the future, and secure, by 
ev rfj <t>v<rei...iropevontvri and c. 37 the propagation of the species, the 
TOJ (t>dopo7roiu}...dva/j.txd{i>Ti. continuance of the race. 


TWV dvOpwTrwv %(or)V, aXXa TT/DO? a\\i)v evepyeiav 
eva, Si wv t] aicrd rjTiKij re KCLL evepyr/Tifcr} Svva/jus 
ra 8e yevvrjTifcd rov /zeXXo^TO? e^et rrjv 
TTpovoiav, 8S eavTwv rfj (frixrei, TJJV ^ia^o^v dvTeiad- 
yovra. el ovv Trpbs TO ^petwSe? /3Xe7ro?, r/Vo? av C LTJ 5 
TWV TifJiiwv elvai vo/j,i,%oneva)v eiceiva Sevrepa ; rtVo? Be 
OVK av TrpoTi/Aorepa Kara TO ev\oyov fcpivoiro ; ov jap 
a) KCLI aKofj teal y\u>(T(Tr), rj aXXw Tivl rwv alo-Orf- 
TTpo? TO St^i/e/ce? TO 76^09 r][jLwv Sie^dyerai, ravra 
rcaOcos elp^rai, TT)? Trapovarj^ earlv a7roXauo-e&>?* 10 
ev e/ceivois i] dOavaaia crvvTrjpeiTai rfj dvdpa)7r6rrjTL, 
&>9 del fca0 ijjjiwv evepyovvra rov ddvarov airpaKrov elvai 
TpoTrov rivd KOL avi]WTov, Trdvrore irpos TO \elTrov bid 
TWV eTTiyivo/u-evcov eavTrjv avTicrayovo"r)s TT}? (f)vo~ec0s. TL 
ovv fiTrpeTres Trepie^ei rjfjbwv TO fjuvo Ti^piov, el Bid TOVTWV 15 
fcaTe/JLi^dri o 0eos Tro dvOpwjrLvw /3iM, 81? wv ?} (j)V(7i$ Trpos 
TOV OdvaTov fjid^eTat ; 

29. AXXa fJieTaftdvTes avro TOVTOV St eTepcov irakiv 

i ra> avdpuTTU vulg || 2 77 evepff]TLK.-r} dhlnp vulg || 4 om rrj vulg \\ 
6 om voiJLL^ofJieviijv cKeiva e |j 13-14 5ia TUV] 5i O.VTUV vulg || 14 airetcra- 
yayovcn]s vulg || 15 5ta TOI TWI/] + f K Trapdevov Kadapas euth |j 17 
e : desinit euth 

i. cri^^x 6 ] l hold together] i r. e/ceiVots] refers to ra yevvyriKa.. 

* maintain in being* Cp* ffweKTiicft 12. ws...eZVcu] The clause is 

c. 5. For this use of ^WTJ cp. c. S consecutive. l So that death, though 

rr\v far]i>...5ia\i>ffda.i. continually operating against us, is 

5. TO xp ei &5es] utility. rendered, in a way, ineffectual and 

ib. T LVOS civ cirj] Greg, has in fruitless. 

mind the passage i Cor. xii 14 24. 14. avTeurayovcrri s] Since, by 

9. Sie^cryeTcu] conducted, car- means of the succeeding generations, 
ried on, maintained. Cp. Greg. nature is ever introducing herself 
Naz. Or. xxviii 16 Ka6 6v r6 TTCLV to Jill tip the gap? 

fapeTai re /cat dif^dyerai. 29. WhyJ it may be asked, 

10. rrjs TT ____ ct7ro/\.] The senses was the Incarnation so long de- 
mentioned are concerned with laycd? To this Gr. replies by 
present enjoyment. The gen. is adducing the illustration of the 
possessive. With TTJS trap, diro- physician who allcnvs a disease to 
XaiVews cp. TT?I> irapovffa.i> wf)v come to the surface before he applies 
above. his remedy. 


7TL^ipOV(Ti TOV \6yOV Kdl (fraCTlV, i KO\OV KOL 

TrpeTTov TCO 9ew TO yevo/jievov, TL dv/3d\TO Trjv evepye- 
alav ; ri Se ovtc eV appals OIHTTJS T?}? tfa/a a? TT]V eVt 
TO 7r\eov avrfjs Trpoobov vTrere/jiero ; vrpo? Be TOVTO 
5 avvTOfJios o Trap rf/j^wv earl Xoyo?, on o~o(f)ia yeyove KOI 
TOV \vcnre\ovvTos rfj (frvaei TrpofjirjOeia ij Trpo? rrjv evp- 
avaf^o\i^. KOI yap ETTL TWV crw/jiaTL/coyv 
, OTCLV rt? 8ie(f)0opa>s ^fyLto? v(j)ep7rrj rou? 
, Trplv airav eVl rrjv eTrifydveiav 

10 TO Trapd fyvcriv ey/cei/jLevov, ov Kara^ap/jLaKeveraL 
TTVKVOVGI TO crMfJua Trapa TWV T%VIKO)<> /jieOo&ev 
rd TrdOrj, AA dva/juevovcri TO ev&ofJLWXovv aTrav ea> 
yevecrOai, KCLI OUTGO yvjjivw TCO TrdOei Trjv larpeiav Trpoad- 
yovaiv. 67Ti&r} TOIVVV a7ra eveo~Krf^re Trj <f)vaei T^? 
15 dvOpwTcoTriTos TI T^? Katcias ^oo~o?, dve/jieivev o ToO TTCLV- 
TO? OepaTrevTrjs /jUjSev V7ro\ei(j)0rji>at, TT}? Trovrjpias eZSo? 
Trj <pvo~eL. Sid TOVTO ov/c 

29. i </>77<Ti p i| 2 om rw gnp || 3 rt 5e] exstant secjq in euth 156 || 
4 Tr\iov 1 vulg || aur?7s] eaur^s e afrof g* || Trapodov d || uTrere/^i/ero vulg || 

rourous f i| 5 Trap ^tv e j| om /cat e || 8-9 roi;s Tropous] TTOI OUS 1* om rous 
f vulg || 9 fj.(f)aviav vulg || e*/caXi;0#.] eX/d cr^^i/at euth || 12 fMcvovai ]* vulg || 
15 ai>f/J.evi> vulg 

1. KQ.K.i$f.iv} i to find fault with? 7. f?rt TcDf o-w/u.] The same 
TOJ> \6yov, our teaching. illustration occurs in Origen r/^ 

2. rt ai/e/SaXero] This question J rinc. iii 13, with reference to 
is also dealt with by Athanasius God s dealing with sinners. It is 
Or. c. Ar. i 29, ii 68. In the Or. reproduced in the Or. in diem nat. 
in diem nat. Chriiti (a spurious Christi p. 1132 (Migne). 

work, printed in the edd. of Gregory) <S. 5te0#opu>s] intrans. Xu/i6s 

there is a passage dealing with the humour, used of the bodily juices. 

same question, which is plainly When some corrupt humour steals 

modelled on the present passage. betieath the pores 

See Migne, pp. 1130 i. 10. oi > Kara0.] it is not treated 

3. rt 5 OUK] The following luitk drugs which close up the body. 
passage as far as diox^ovvai rbv The object of the physician in such 
filov in c. 30 is quoted in Euth. cases is to open the pores of the 
Zig. Pan. Dogm. pt i tit. vii (pp. body and bring out the disease. 
228, 229, Migne). 12. TO ti>5o/ji.iixovi>] lurking with- 

4. L7rer^/u,ero] intercept, cut in, hidden. 1 Xva^veiv takes here, 
off its further advance. Cp. Ar. and below, the ace. and inf., as often 
Eq. 291 i/TTore/xoO/xat ras 65oi s aov. in class. Greek. 


TOV <$>6ovov Kal T*)V d$e\$OKTOviav TOV Kdiv rrpoordyei 
TO) dv0pd)7T(i) Tr}v OepaTreiav OVTTW yap TWV eVl Nwe 
/carcia e^eKaptyev, ov&e rrj? 5)oSo/u- 
TJ %a\7Tt} voaos dve/ca\v(f)0rj, ov8e rj 
TWV AiyvTrrtwv Oeofjua^ia, ov8e ?} TWV "Xcrcrvpiwv vrrepr}- 5 
fyavia, ov$ r; TWV lov&aiwv Kara TWV d<yiwv TOV Oeov 
/jLiat<povia, ou8e t] TOV ttpwSov Trapdvofjios TraL^o^ovia, 
ovbe T(i d\\a TcdvTa oaa re fJivrj^oveveTai /cat ova 
eo> TTJS iaTOplas ev ra?? Kadefrj^ yeveals /caTe7rpd%0rj, 


Trpoaipeo eo i, fiXacrTavovcnjs. 7rel ovv Trpos TO dicpo- 
e(f)6ao-e fjueTpov rj /caKia, Kal ovSev TI Trovijpias 
ev rot? dvBpctiTrois aToX/jirjTov i]v, 609 av Sid 
T^? dppwcrTias Trpo^ayptjcretei rj OepaTreia, TOVTOV 
ov/c dp^ofjuevriv, d\\d Te\6Lw9elcrav OepaTrevei TY)V 15 

30. Et 5t : rt? \6ry%iv oiTai TOV r,^eT6pov \6yov, 
OTI Kal /jLTa TO 7rpoo~a^Orji>aL TTJV OepaTreiav GTL 

3 om KO.TO.4>dapevTwv e j| cro5o/xtriV7js] CTO/XITI/CT/S h crw//,ari/C7;s dg*l*p 
(habet in marg ra yo/moppa ~\eyei p) ]| 4 airfKa\v(f)dr] efhn euth || 77 oi>5e 
1 vulg !1 s ^fo^ax a] ftoi o/uaxtci e |j 6-7 oi5e 77 r. Iov8..,,fj.iai<povia om 1* vulg |: 
7 oi 5e...?rai5o0oj ta om n euth |j iraidofiovia] /xiai00fta e j| 9 TT/J e^w icr- 
roptas e || 12 iJitTpov e<f>0a(rei> ef 

l war against Got/, 1 TT]V virepri^aviav. Cp. Is. xxxvii 23, 

with reference, of course, to Pharaoh. 24. Possibly, however, Gr. was 

See Or. in <t. n. Christi I.e. TTOU yap for the moment confusing the As- 

6 Beo/maxos t apaw ; The word tieo- Syrians with the Chaldaeans. Cp. 

fj.dxos occurs in Acts v 39. Similarly Hah. ii 4, 5. 

Chrysostom, in his panegyric on 6. lovSalwv] Cp. Mt. xxiii 34, 

the Egyptian martyrs (ii 699, ed. 35. Mtat0o/ta, blood-guiltiness? 
Montf.), speaks of Ar/L Trroi rrfs 7. 7rat5o0o^t a] Mt. ii 16 18. 

6eo/jt,dxov Kal /xaj/i/cwraTT/s. 9. ^w rrjs lar.] i.e. unrecorded. 

ib. virep-r](pa.via\ pride, arro- 3O. ^ Why J it may be asked, 11 has 

gance. The word is used by the not sin ceased noiu that the remedy 

fathers to denote contempt of God has been applied? To this Gr. an- 

and insolence to men. See exx. swers by an illustration. When a 

cited by Suicer. The author of serpent has received a deadly blow on 

the Or. in diem nat. Christi I.e. t/ie head, the blow does not irnme- 

has a similar passage : rr\v Ao-ffvpiwv diately deprive the extremities of life. 

/cat TOV Hapovxo8ov60 op In like manner sin has received its 



/jie\irai Sid rwv dfJLaprr^jidrwv o dv0pa)7Tivos /3to?, 
VTTo&eiy/jiarL nvi ra)V yvaypL/jiwv o^Tjy^Orjro) rrpos rrjv 
d\r)6eiav. warrep <ydp 67Tt rov o<f)(O<;, el Kara 

rr]v KCLLpiaV X/3ot, OVK V0VS aVVVeKpOVrai rfj 

5 Koi o Karomv oX/co?, XX r) fjiev reBvrjKe, TO Be ovpalov 
en e^rv^rat rw ISia) OV/AM KOI rrjs fwrt/o}? Kivrfcrecos 
ov/c eo-reprjrai, oi/rco? ean KOI rr]v /catciav IBelv TCO 
fj,ev Kaipito 7r\r)yio~av, ev Se rot? \ei"^rdvoi^ eavTrjs en 
SioxXovaav rov ftiov. aXX dfyevres real TO Trepl TOVTWV 
10 rov \6yov rov /jLvo-rrjpiov /jbe/jL^eo-Oai,, TO yLt^ Bid rcdvrwv 
SiijfCiv rwv dvOpcDTrwv rrjv rrianv ev air la rroLOvvrai. 

KOL rl S?^7TOT6, (paaiv, OVK ITT! rrdvras rjXOev r) 

3O. i 5i ap.apr^p.arwv cl |j 3 TTJS /ce0a\T?s deghnp 
TOU (Tw/xaros oX/cos f || ovpeov vulg |] 6 e^vx^Tcu f 
/u,ews 1 vulg || 7 ecrre/OTjrcu] + rw i5tco ^i^w d || 9 rov /Si 
desinit euth || TO] rov hi* vulg || 10 /xe/x0ovrat rou 

12 ^flrif 6 

, aXXa 

5 o /car. oX/cos] 
Kivrjaeus] 8vva- 
rw jStw 1 vulg: 
CTT. Arm ro f || 

despatch, but though moribund it is 
not yet wholly dead. A further ob 
jection arises out of the fact that 
grace has not come to all. 77iis, it 
is argued, shews either a want of 
will or a want of power on God s 
fart. Gr. replies that the objection 
might have weight if all had not had 
the chance of accepting Gocfs offer. 
But the Christian faith has been 
proclaimed in all languages. Again, 
God has left something to man^s 
initiative. He is free to accept or 
refuse, and if he refuses the grace 
which is offered, it is not God who is 
to be blamed for such refusal, but 

3. wcTTrep yap] The simile is 
reproduced in Or. in diem nat. 
Christi p. 1133 (Migne). 

4. rr\v Kcu/nai>] sc. 

5. 6 Karbiriv 6X/c6s] the coil be 
hind, i.e. all that follows the head. 
OX/c6s is used of the trail of a ser 
pent. Here = coil. 

6. ei/ uxtoTcu] kept alive, ani 

ib. 0i ,uaj] spirit, here used of 
the animal life, as in Plato s division 
of the animal part of the soul into 
6v/u.6s and TTi6vfj,ia. See Rep. 439 E 
and cp. 410 D. 

ib. rfjs fan.Kr]s Kivrjcreus] vital 

8. Xet^d^ots] still in its rem 
nants harassing the life of man* 
Elov is used absolutely for human 
life. For this sense cp. c. 8 rov 
j3ioi> r]fj.uii> rrj veKphryri. fffitvvva dai 

9. dXX d0eVres] Gr. now 
passes on to another objection, the 
want of universality in the spread 
of Christianity. But abandoning 
their complaint against the teaching 
of our religion on this point also, 
they make it a matter of accusation 

12. r; x^P ts l A synonym for the 
Gospel, as commonly in St Paul s 
epistles. Cp. Acts xx 24, 2 Cor. vi 
i, viii 9, Col. i 6 (with Lightfoot s 



TrpoaOefjievwv rco \6yw ov piKpov eVrt TO 

e/009, rj /JLTJ /3ov\rj0ei>Tos rov Oeov irdcnv d<f)06va)s 
rrjv evepyea-iav velfJiai, r) ^ ovvrjOevros Trdvrws ; u>v 
ovOerepov KaOapevei TT}? /u-e/x-v/rew?. oure yap d/Bov\riTOV 
elvai TO dyaOov TrpocnJKei ru> Oew, ovre d&vvarov. el ovv 5 
dyaOov TL 17 TTIOTI?, Sta TI, fyacriv, ov/c eirl irdwras 77 %a/?i? ; 
el fJiev ovv ravra real Trap 1 r)/j,wv ei> TO) Xoyw /careo-Keud^ero, 
TO jrapd rov Oeiov ySouX^aTO? d7rofc\Tjpovo-0ai, TO?? dvOpco- 
Trot? rrjv iricmVy rwv pev /ca\ov/jL6va)v, rwv Be \OITTWV 
dfjLoipovvrwv TT}? K\rj<T(0s, Kdipov etyev TO TOIOVTOV ey- 10 

I \enro/j.ei>ov f !( 2 Trao-ar 1 vulg || 3 vet^tai] eiJ at 1 vulg || 3-4 wi/ ovd 
erepov dp vulg Tra/ rws ovv ov darepov f || 5 TrpoarjKeL r. a. f || 6 (f>T]<nv e || 

8 om TO f vulg i! 9 TOW /xej>] rcoz^Se /ue^ 1 |j 


1. 7rpoo"^e/xeVw^] while some 
attached themselves to the loord? 
A67os is used as commonly in the 
N.T. of the preaching of the Gospel. 
Cp. e.g. Acts iv 4. 

2. 77 yu.7j /SoiA.] Such want of 
universality, it is urged, shewed 
either a lack of will, or a lack of 
power, on God s part. Compare with 
this whole section Butler s Analogy 
ii 6 Of the want of Universality in 

4. dpovXfjTov] not according to 
His will, i.e. that God does not 
will to do what is good. 

7. raura] i.e. Tb...d.TroK\ripovcrdai 
which follows, /f, therefore, in our 
argument, lue had taken up this 
position. For KaraffKevd^eiv, used 
of the structure of an argument, 
cp. c. i /caracr/cei d(ret (note). 

8. a.TroK\-r)povff8a.L\ ^ 1 hat faith 
is dealt out at haphazard, some being 
called and the rest having no part in 
the call. 1 A.TroK\ripovv = to assign 
by lot, with the further thought of 
distribution at random, and not on 
a rational principle. Thus a7ro- 
K\rjp(jjTiK<j}s is contrasted by Origen 
with TTay/m^v(j}s and wpicr^.ej W?, and 
co-ordinated with /card avvrvx -Q- 1 - 
See Philocal. (ed. Rob.) p. 210, and 
esp. p. 242 where he says (f>povovaiv 


ara a.TTOK\ripw(nv o deos 8v 
dv 5 6e\et cr/cAT/ptVei. 
This rendering is preferable to that 
of Hervetus (in the Latin version of 
1573), who translates abdicaretur 
fides, taking diroK\-r)povv in the 
sense of exhaeredes facere. Cp. Ar. 
Pol. vii i r. 8 a,7TOK\r)povi> TOVS TrXetouj, 
and the cognate word d-rroKXrjpos. 
The idea of Gr. is that there is no 
exclusive or arbitrary bestowal of 
grace on particular classes. It is 
offered by God freely to all. In this 
denial of an un-scriptural form of 
the doctrine of election, and in his 
insistence on the freedom of the will, 
Gregory s language recalls that of 
Justin Martyr Apol. i 43 a 7ap 
ei yU,aprcu rbvde TIVO. dyadbv eZVcu /ecu 
r6vde <f>av\ov, ovd j OVTOS dirbdeKros 
ovde eKeivos fj.e/j,TTTos. Kal av ei fii] 
TrpocLLptcrei eXevGepa irpbs TO (pevyeiv 
rd cucrxpd /cat aiptiadai. rd Ka\d 8v- 
vaniv <?X L T0 o-v6p(joirLov yevos, dvai- 


ntvwv. For Gr. s insistence on free 
will see c. 7 (notes). 

y. KaXou/x& wi ] used in its N.T. 
sense, like /cXT/o-is, which follows, of 
the call to the knowledge of the 

10. f X ei/ ] The omission of av 
(ace. to the best MSS) marks the 


K\rj/jia Kara rov /AVcrrrjpLov rrpofyepecrdaL el Se 
eVt rravras 77 icXr/cris, ovre d^ias, ovre rjXucias, ovre ra? 
Kara rd eOvr] &ia(f)0pds Sia/cpivovcra Sia rovro yap rrapd 
rrjv 7rpa)rr)v dp^rjv rov KTjpvy/jiaro^ o/jboyXaxro-OL rcdai 
5 rot? eOveaiv ol Statcovovvres rov \6yov e/c Oeias emrrvoias 
dOpocos eyevovro, &)? av /Jiijoel^ rrjs t^Sa^?}? rcov dyaOwv 
afJLOipi]creiev TTW? av ovv rt? Kara TO ev\oyov en rov 
Oeov alriWTO rov JJLTJ Trdvrwv eTTL/cpartjcraL rov \6yov; 
6 yap TOV Tra^To? rrjv e^ovcriav G^WV Si V7rep$o\r)v TT}? 

10 efc rov av0p(D7rov rt/Lt?)? d<j)rJKe n fcal VTTO rrjv rj/juerepav 
e^ovauav eivai, ov JJLOVOS e/cacrros ecrri tcvpios. rovro oe 
eornv rj jrpoaipecris, d$ov\wrov n ^prf/Aa KOI avre^ovaiov, 
ev rfj e\ev6epla TT)? oiavoias fcel/juevov. OVKOVV eVt rou? 
/AT] Trpoaa^Oevra^ ry rclarei ^itcaiorepov av TO TOLOVTOV 

15 eyK\rj/jia /jLeraredeir), OVK err\ rov KeK\r^Kora Trpbs avy- 
KardOeaiv. ov&e yap errl rov \\erpov Kar dp^ds rov 
\6yov ev 7ro\vav9pa)7r(p rwv lov$aiQ)v eKK\7jaia /crjpv- 
v Kara ravrov TrapaSe^a/^evcov 

4 om TrptoTtjv e || om roi^ vulg || 6 oni adpows d || om r 

vulg || 7 om ovv deg*hlnp || 7-8 atrtwro rts 1 om rts deg*hnp vul 
ert K. T. e. f || ro deiov f || CUTIWVTO vulg || 15 fj.eTa.6eir] e |j TT\V 
j*\id vulg i| 1 8 /car avrov d KCLT avro f 

certainty of the conclusion stated in ment is now adduced to account for 

the apodosis. the want of universality in the spread 

1. o/xori/xos] See antea cc. 27, of the Gospel. God respects man s 
28 (notes). free-will and leaves him free to 

2. dias] "ivortk? rank." 1 accept or refuse grace. 

3.. 5id TOUTO] a parenthesis. 10. rt/x^s] by reason of the ex- 

The apodosis begins with TTCUS ay ceeding honour in which He held 

o$v TLS. man. 

4. ojjiby\wffffOL] Acts ii 8 II. 12. ddovXwrov TL "X.P-] Cp. c. 5 

6. d^pows] all at once, as con- rrjs Kara, ro ddf<nroTov /ecu aurf^ou- 
trasted with the gradual acquire- aiov xdpiros. 

ment of a language. 15. <rvyKa.Td0e<riv] Cp. c. 5 OVK 

ib. rrjs didax-] The gen. is de- w r^s rwi a.vrChe^ovrwv avy Kara- 

pendent on TU)J> d7a^u) . ^ecrews (note). 

7. TTWS d^ 0^ ris] The text is 16. eTrt roO II.] Acts ii 41. 

in some confusion, as rts has fallen 17. eKK\-r)ffia] used here quite 

out of several MSS, while f alone generally of a gathering of people. 

preserves obv. Cp. Acts xix 32. 
9. 6 yap r. TT.] Another argu- 


, TrXe/ou? oi/re? TWV Tremo-TevicoTtov ol a 

TOV diro(TTo\ov e (/> ofc OVK eTreicrOrja av. ovoe 
yap r)v etVo?, ev icoivqj TTpOTeOeicrrjs 7779 ^aptroc, TOV 
Kov<Tia)s dTrocfroiTrjcravTa /jirj eavTov, a\\ erepov TT)? 
&vcrK\ripias eiraiTiacrOai. 5 

31. AXX OVK, aTTOpovcriv ov8e TT/OO? TCL rotavra rrjs 
epia~TLKr/s dvTi\oyias. \eyovcri yap ^vvaaOai TOV Oeov, 
etTrep e/3oi;/\6To, real TOL>? dvTLTVTrcos e%ovTas dvay/cao-Tircws 
(f)\Kvaao-0(U TT/OO? rrjv TrapaSo^rjv TOV /C7]pvy/jLaTOs. TTOV 
Toivvv ev TOVTOLS TO avTe^ovcT iov ; TTOV 8e 77 dpertj ; TTOV 10 
Se TWV KdTopOovvTwv o eTraivos ; fjbovwv yap TWV dtyv %wv 
T) T(J)V dkoywv eVrt TCO d\\OTpiw (3 ov\ri IJLCLT L TT^O? TO 
&OKOVV TrepidyearOai. ?} oe XoyiKrj re KOL voepd fyvais, 
edv TO KCIT efovaiav o-TTO^rat, ical TTJV X^P iV r0 ^ voepov 
o-vvaTT(*)\e(Tev. 6t9 TI yap ^pi]o-eTai TTJ oiavoia, rrj? TOV 15 
TTpoaipeicrOai TI TWV fcaTa yvco/jirjv e^ovcnas efi erepco 
; el oe aTrpatcTos f) Trpoatpecris fJieiveiev, r)(f>dvi(TTac 

3 om t]v d II TrporatfeicTTjs vulg 31. 7 ept(rrt/c7?s] cupen/c?7s f |j: 

8 e/SouXero] sic codd || 10 TTOU 5e 77 aper?? om vulg || 12 77] /cat f || 17 /mevoiev 
1 fj.i>OL vulg 

5. 5uo-KX77/3ias] lit. ill luck. 
The word is opposed to Xf^ts. 

31. />^/, ? / way ^ urged, 
?y//j/ did not God compel belief? 
This, Gr. replies, would have been 
to destroy free-will, and with free- 
will, virtue. Praise or blame in 
such a case would no longer be appli- 
cable to human actions. It is not 
God s goodness, then, but the disposi- 
tion of the hearers, which is re- 
sponsible for the fact that all have 
not received the faith. 

6-7. rrjs epiffT. ai>T.~\ Tijs would 
be represented in English by the 
indefinite article, a captious reply. 
E/HCTTIKT/S denotes that the opponents 
reply from a mere love of disputing, 
without having any serious argu- 
ments to put forward. See Plato s 
definition of r6 ^piffri-KOv Soph. 225 

C sq. There is also a disparaging 
reference in di>Ti\oyias. 

8. ctya-y/cao Ti/cws] opp. to (ri /t- 
POV\VTIKU>S. Cp. Plato Legg. 9301? 
ffVfJ-^ovXevriKbs dV C LTJ v6fj.os ...ovu 

11. K.a.TopdovvTwv~\ intransitive, 
those who succeed. Gr. is thinking, 
of course, of moral success, a sense 
of the word which Stoicism had 
brought into common use. 

13. 77 <5e XOY.] Cp. antea c. 8 77 
voepa 0ucrts. 

14. d-rrod-rjTai.] ^ if it puts aside its 
freedom, it loses at the same time its 
privilege of belonging to the intel- 

lectual order? Cp. Gr. s treatment 

of free-will in cc. 5, 7. 

15. rrj dtavoia] See note on rrjv 

c. 6. 

n 4 


/car avay/crjv rj aperi^ r) a/cwrjcna rr<> jrpoaipecrecos 
l(7a dpeTTJs Be pr) ovar)?, 6 $109 rjTifJLWTai, a^rj 
KaTop6ovvTwv o eiraivos, afcivBvvo? rj d^ 
77 Kara TOV (SLov $ia<()Opd. rt? jap av eTi Kara TO ev\oyov 
5 rj $ia/3d\\oi TOP aKO\ao~TOV 77 eTraivoir} TOV <T(t)<f)pova ; 
TauT?;? KaTa TO Trpo^etpov ovo-rjs eKaaTw rr)? diroKpio-ews, 
TO {jbTj^ev (/> rjfjbLV TWV KaTa ^v^^v elvai, Svvao-Teia 3e 
KpeiTTOVi ra? avOpWTTivas Trpoaipeaeis Trpos TO TU> Kpa- 
TOVVTI &OKOVV TrepidyeaOai. OVKOVV ov rr}? d 
10 TOV 6 tov TO e<yK\rjfjia, TO /JLTJ iraviv eyyeveaOai TTJV 
d\\a TT)? ia0ea-eu>s TWV ^e^ofjievwv TO Kijpvy/ia. 

32. Tt TT^O? TOVTOLS Ti TTapa T0)l> dvTl\<y6vTWV 

TO /JidXto-Ta fjuev /jLiyoe o\cos $iv et? OavaTov 

1 vulg 

vulg || 2 TJTI/ZWTCU] + /cai xad eiju,ap/j.evTjv 

avLKTjros vulg || 5 5ta/3aAot hp 32. 13 om TO f || 

2. 6 ^Stos] life there and then 
loses its honour. The perfects ^0d- 
vLffTO.1, ^ri/iwrai, 0.^)17 pyrai imply that 
the result follows immediately. For 
this use of /3tos cp. antea cc. 8, 30 
(notes). After ^rtjuwrcu / and the 
Paris edd. have the gloss /cat /ca0 
ifMapfj.i>r)i> xwpet 6 Xo7os, reason 
moves in accordance with fate. 

3. aKivdwos] sin may be in 
dulged in with impunity. 

ib. &KPLTOS] and all difference 
with regard to the manner of life be 
comes no longer discernible^ i.e. the 
distinctions between a good and a 
bad life no longer exist. 

10. ^7/c\T]/xa] It is not God s 
goodness, but the disposition of the 
hearers, which is responsible for the 
fact that all have not received the 

32. Another ground of objection 
is the death of Christ, or, if not the 
death, at least the shame attending 
it. But without such death our 
Lord^s assumption of Jiuman nature 
zvould have been incomplete. The 
death again ivas necessary in order 

that man might be delivered from 
death. By dying Christ stretched 
out His hand to fallen man to raise 
him tip to life. The union which 
Christ has effected with mankind 
enables us to share in His resurrec- 
tio)t. The death upon the Cross has 
a mystic meaning, and reveals His 
Divine nature no less than His 
humanity. 7 he projecting arms of 
the Cross witness openly to our eyes 
the fact that Christ binds all Crea 
tion to Himself, and brings all things 
into harmony. His Death was fol 
lowed by His Resurrection arid As 
cension, which bore unmistakeable 
testimony to His Divine pcnver. 

13. TO /-idXio-Ta jutv] The corre 
sponding clause is introduced by el 
<5e /ecu below. The objection is first 
stated in a more sweeping form. 
Gr. s opponent protests against the 
introduction of death in any form 
into the plan of redemption. The 
clause To.../m.T]8e...8fiv answers to rl, 
and is paralleled below by TO IJ.T]... 


irelpav e\0elv TTJV VTrepe^pvcrav (f)V(Tiv, d\\d KOL 8/ya 
TOVTOV rf) irepiovaia TJ}? ^>vvd^Lew^ Svvacrdai, dv fj,era 
pqa"T(t)vr)S TO Sotcovv KaTepydaacrOai,. el Se /cal irdviw^ 
eSei TOVTO yevecrOai /card TLva \6yov airoppijTov, d\X ovv 

TO fJUTj Tft) ttTtyLtft) TpOTTCD TOV OdVCtTOV K(l 6v(3 pi<7 9r}l>ai. Tt? 5 

<ydp av yevoiTO, tyrjcri, TOV SLCL aTavpov OdvaTOS aTifJiOTepo^ ; 
TI ovv KOI TTpos TavTa (fra/jiev ; OTI TOV BdvaTov pev dvay- 
KOLOV 7} yVOis d7Tpyd%Tai. TOV yap aTrai; fjieTaa^elv 
^? dvOpwTroTTjTO? SLCL irdvTWv e8et ^evecrOai TCOV 
TJ}? (f)i>o~6(i)s. el TOLVVV Svo Trepacri, TT}? dvBpw- 10 

ii\r)/j,/jLV7)<> ev Tc3 evl <yev6jJLevo^ TOV ecfre^rjs 
/jur) jrpocnj\lraTO, T^/ureA.?)? av rj TTpodeo-^ e/jieive TOV eTepov 
TWV T^? ^)ucre&j? rjfMwv i&iwfJidTwv ov% d^ra/jbevov. 
$ dv rt? &i dfcpifieias KaTa/jiaOcov TO /jLvcrTijpiov ev 
Tepov eiTroi fMrj Sid Trjv yeveo Lv <JUyLt/3e/3r//cei U TOV fldvaTOV, 15 
d\\d TO ejjL7ra\Lv TOV OavaTov ^dptv 7rapa\7](f)0ijvaL TTJV 

4 om yevecrdai. 1* vulg || 5 rw /JLTJ artyu,a> e /J.TJ TO; ari/ia; vulg || 

6 om yap e || 8 Karfp-yafcTai 1 vulg || 12 e/meve dg*hnp 7670^6 e [j 13 om 
TUV 1 vulg || i5iw/x,aroj 1 vulg || 14 paBwv f 

2. /xerci, pacrrcivT??] with ease, justifies below in the passage begin- 
i.e. without submission to suffering. n i n g o ^e crrai/pos. With Gregory s 

3. ei 5^ /cat] A modified form treatment of the whole question cp. 
of the preceding objection. If for Ath. de Inc. cc. 21 25. 

some inscrutable reason (/card rtim 10. iSiwadra?^] Cp. c. 26 p. 101 

\6yoi> a-jrop^TOv) it was necessary (note) and c. 27 init. 

that Christ should die, the shameful ib. duo Trepacrt] Cp. c. 27. 

manner of His death might in any n. T evi] i.e. birth. ToO ^0. i.e. 

case have been avoided. death. 

7. TO^ /Jiff] Gr. gives 12 ^treXT^s] but half complete. 

two answers to the objection against With a\f/a/jt.ei>ov we must supply 

the introduction of death into the avrou. 

Divine plan. The first is introduced 13. rd%a 5 &v rts] A still stronger 

by ptv in the present clause. The argument (euXoywrepov). The death 

second follows in the clause begin- was necessary to deliver man from 

ning rctxa 5 &v rts. The complete death. 

assumption of human nature ren- 14. 5t aitpipeias] A more exact 

dered the death necessary. A still knowledge of the revelation shews 

stronger necessity for it was to be a deeper significance in the Death 

found in man s need of deliverance of Christ. T6 /j.vffTrjpLov is here used 

from death. The particular manner in a general sense for the Christian 

of the death, i.e. Crucifixion, he revelation. 

8 2 


<yeveo~iv ov yap TOV ^fjaat, Seo/ze^o? o del wv rrjv 
Ti/crjv v7ro&vTai yeveo~iv, a)OC rj/Jids eTrl Trjv wr)V rc TOV 
Oavdrov dva/caXov/jievos. eirel ovv 0X779 e Set yeveaOai TT)? 
c^ucreco? rjfjboyv rrjv eic TOV Oavdrov TrdXiv eTrdvobov, olovel 
5 %ipa rc3 KetfJLevw opeyaiv Bid TOVTO Trpos TO rifjieTepov 
7nKV fyas TTTW/jia, TOCTOVTOV rc3 0avdra) irpocnjyyio-ev, CKTOV 
TTJS ve/cpOTrjTos (ityaaOai KOI ap^r^v Sovvai TTJ fyvaei TT}? 
avao~Tdo~e(i)S TOJ iSia) crwfJuaTi, o\ov Trj $vvdp,ei avvava- 
orTrjo-a? TOV avOpwirov. 7TLor) yap OVK d\\o0v, dXTC eV 
10 TOV r)fjLTpov (^vpafjiaTOf; o 0eo$6%os av6pw7ro<5 TJV, 6 Sta 

Thdrt s 

I ow] $wv fl vulg |i 2 yevvrfcnv f 1 vulg || 3 oXws fl 1 || e5ei yevea6ai. 0X775 
l*vid vu ^g || ^ om T ^ v vu jg i| ,. pey W i/] + /cat el* vi<l vulg [| 7 
dghnp TT; veKporrfTL Trpoaa^acrdai. e || r?;^ <f)V(Tiv f vulg || 8-9 <rvvat>. r. 
r. dvva/jt.ei 1 vulg j| 9 aXXaxodev f || 10 o...a^^pw7ros] 7)...ffap% l* v a 
a. l* vid vulg Thdrt 8irm 


i. ^7?<rai] The force of the 
aorist is to enter into life. Cp. 
Ign. Rom. 6 f^r] e/JiTrcdifffjTe /x.ot 

ib. 6 del w* ] Cp. c. 25 TOV yap 
OVTOS e^TJiTTai TO. 6i>ra. The MSS, 
however, are divided in the present 
passage between $&v and <av. The 
reading fwf may be due to the 
tendency of the group // to para 
phrase the text. Fronto Ducaeus 
thinks that the phrase 6 del u>v may 
contain a reference to Heb. vii 25, 
but this is very improbable. Krab., 
following the Latin Version of the 
Paris edd., renders aeternus, though 
he retains fav in his text. For the 
phrase 6 del &v cp. Ex. iii 14, Ps. 
Ixxxix (xc) 2, Rev. i. 8. 

6. Trrco^ct] Krab. rightly trans 
lates cadaver, following Hervetus. 
Fronto Ducaeus, however, suggests 
lapsum, in view of Kvirrei Trpos TOV 
TreTTTW/cdra below. 

7. vKp6Tf)To<i] Cp. c. 8 init. TO 

TOV fi lOV 7)/JiiOV Trj l Kp6T7]Ti fffieWV- 

<rda.L and ibid. 77 vKp6Tr)s...TrepiT^df] 
Trj 6t$ ddavaaiav KTi<rdio"r) <f>vaei. 
Our state of death. 

ib. ai/ acr^cu] Cp. c. 15 deov dv- 
<i ai//aa6ai. (pvaews (note). 
The inf. is consecutive after rcxroO- 

8-9. O\OV...TOV di/#.] ,the whole 
man, i.e. body as well as soul. 

9. eTreidr] yap] The passage 
which follows as far as dvopducrai 
TOV KeifAfvov is reproduced in Theo- 
doret Dial, iii (Impatibilis), p. 300 

10. 01/pdyu.aros] The use of this 
word, which lit. means a lump of 
clay or dough, is derived from 
such passages as Rom. ix 21, xi 16, 
i Cor. v 7. Cp. Numb, xv 19, 20. 
It is used by patristic writers to 
denote the human body, human 
nature, the lump of humanity. 
Cp. Gen. ii 7. 

ib. 6 deoSoxos &v9puiros] This 
inexact language might seem to indi 
cate that the humanity of Christ was 
itself a personal subject. In later 
times, when Nestorianism had arisen, 
such language would have been 
avoided. The expression has been 
altered in the text of/ and the Paris 
edd. into i] 6eo56xos ffdp. Forsimi- 


I I/ 

r^9 avaardcretos crvve7rap6e\s ry Oeorrjri, wajrep ejrl TOV 
/cad 77/y-a? a-w/xaro? 77 TOV evos TU*V alcrO^r^picov evepyeia 
7T/30? airav rrjv crvvaiaQ^div ayei, TO r]vu>fjbei>ov T< 

77 TOU jjiepovs avaTCLcris 7r TO TTOLV >ie.p^eTai, /cara TO 5 
<7uj>e^e? re Acal r^vwfjievov r?}? (pvorews etc TOV fjuepovs eiri 
TO o\ov crvv6K$i,8o[jLevi]. Ti ovv efa) TOV elrcoTos ev TW 
fjLVO-rrjpiM (jiavOdvo/jLev, el tcvTTTei ?rpo? TOV TreTTTWKOTa 
6 ecrrcos" 67rl TO dvopOwaai, TOV tceifjievov ; o Se o~Tavpo<$ 
el fjiev Tiva KOL eTepov Trepie^ei \oyov f3a6vTepov, elbetev 10 
av ol TWV /cpvTTTwv eVitcTTO/oe?. o 8 ovv 6/9 77/10,9 etc 

3 a-n-ar] waaav deghnp Thdrt rom [] a,(.aQt}<Ji.v f || ro] roi Thdrt || 4 TIJ/OS 
ej/os I om evos vulg || 5 roc] e/c TOL> Thdrt rom : desunt folia nonnulla 
in g || om Kara Thdrt rom j| 7 ffvv$i$oiJ.vris f ffvvdidofji.ei r] 1 vulg (rfpStSo- 
Hevov Thdrt || 7-8 e/c TOV ^vo-T-rjpiov d /mvaTypiov Thdrt rom || 9 e?rt TO] 
TTi rw of |! ai/op^.j ai/a<TT77<rcu 1 vulg || 10 a //.ey] 77/utj/ 1 et /XT; vulg 

f VUlg J! I I KpVTTTO/J.l><Ji}V 1 VUlg j| eTTtCTTOptS l*vul yulg 

lar language see Greg. Naz. Or. 
xxix 19, xxx 2, with Dr Mason s 

i. oWep 6?rt T.] y/<^ <7^- ///^ 
action of one of the organs of sense 
communicates a common sensation to 
the whole which is united with the 
particular member. 1 The MSS are 
divided between a.irav and irdaav. 
The latter reading is found in the 
Roman edition of Theodoret. Hut 
the alteration of airav into Tracrav 
before o~vvaicrQri(ri.v is a natural one 
for scribes to make. For the idea 
cp. i Cor. xii 26, 27. 

4. Ka.9a.irep e^6s TWOS] as though 
the whole of human nature were one 
living being. 1 T??s 0i;(rews here refers 
specially to human nature, but the 
whole idea is based on the Platonic 
view of the Universe as faov ?{j.\{/v- 
Xov. See Plato Tim. 30, and esp. 
69 C irav Tboe ^vveffTTjcra.To, ^ov v 
f$a fyov airavTa, ev aiVy dvijTa Te. Similarly Synes. Calv. 
Enc. p. 71 D !5ei yap, ofyuu, elvai TOV 

faov CK {uu 
For Plotinus view see Ritter and 
Freller Hist, of A. Philosophy, vol. 
iv p. 581 ff., and, for the Stoic con- 
ception of crv/UTrddeia with regard to 
the Universe, Zeller Stoics, Epi- 
ciireans and Sceptics pp. 183 ff. 

5. TOV /u.povs~\ the particular 
member i.e. Christ, whose Resur- 
rection, by virtue of the avfj.ira.6eia 
of humanity, becomes a principle of 
life for the race. 

7. crui/e/vStSo/xei r/] l being impart- 
ed from the member to (lie -whole, by 
reason of the continuity and unity of 
the race? 

9. 6 5 aTavpos] Gr. now 
passes on to give a second reason 
for the manner of the death of 

10. el fj.ev TWO. Ko.1 eTepov] Gr. 
does not profess to exhaust the 
mystical teaching of the Cross in 
what he is about to say. It may 
have some other deeper meaning, 
for those who are versed in mystical 


tftcet, TOIOVTOV eariv. eTreiBrj Trdvra Kara 
TOV v^frj\oTp6v re icai OeioTepov \6yov ev ru> evayye\i(o 
/cal ei prjTai /cal yeyevrjTai, KOI OVK eGTiv o TL /j,ij TOIOVTOV 
o ov-)(l TrdvTws fjiil;is TIS efJL<f>alverai TOV Oeiov 

5 7T/00? TO dvOpdOTTlVOV, T?}? flV (f>Wl>1]S TJ T?}? TTpd^eO)? dl>0pO)- 

s, TOV Be /caTa TO /cpvTTTov voov/jievov 
TO Oelov /ji(j)aii OVT(is, d/c6\ov0ov di eir/ KOA ev rco /jiepei 
TOVTW fjirj TO fjiev /3XeVetF, irapopav Se TO eTepov, aXX eV 
fjiev TO) OavaTw KaOopav TO dvOpcoTrivov, ev Be TU> TpoirM 
10 TroXvTrpay/jLoveiv TO OtioTCpov. eTreiorj yap i$wv ecrrt TT}? 
OeoTijTOs TO Bid TcdvTwv r > )/ceu> /cal rfj (f)v<Ti TWV OVTWV 
Kara TCCLV yLtepo? o-v/jLTrape/CTeivecrQai ov yap av TL 

2 \oyov] fli.ov l* vitl vulg 
p ovdfv TOIOVTOV eanv vulg 
8 5e] 5ia \* || 9} 
Thdrt" irm ffKoirw Thdrt rom 

i> rt>) tvayy.] om f || 3 ecrrt rt I 1 p || o /J.T) 
4 o] w defh^np ev w vulg || <pa.iveTO.L e || 
Thdrt irm || rpOTrw] avBpwirw vulg 

teaching. KpvwTuv i.e. the hidden 
sense of Scripture. He is referring to 
the allegorical method of interpreta 
tion, which was so marked a feature 
of the school of Origen. Gr. claims 
that his own exposition in the 
following passage is e/c TrapaSocrewj, 
i.e. an interpretation which had be 
come traditional among the churches. 
See notes below. ETrucrrwp a 
poetical word, conversant with, 
practised in. 

l. /card T. v\f/.] Gr. here ex 
pounds the principle on which the 
allegorical interpretation rests. All 
words and events (KCU aprtTai /cat 76- 
ytvrjTai) in the Gospel have a higher 
and more divine meaning than that 
which lies upon the surface. There 
is a mixture of the human and 
divine element in Scripture. Cp. 
Origen in Lev. Hoin. v, and see 
Bigg Christian Platonists pp. 136 

6. di^ayofji,^vrjs] Cp. Sit^dyercu 
c. 28 (note). 

ib. TOV 5e K. T. KpvirTov] Awhile 
the mystical sense manifests the divine 

7. a.Ko\o\^ov K. T.X.] These words 
as tar as TroXuTrpay/j.ovtii TO BeiOTtpov 
are quoted by Theodoret Dial, iii 
(Impatibilis) p. 300 (Migne) with 
reference to the two natures in 
Christ. There are however con 
siderable variations in the text of 
the passage as it appears in the 
edd. of Theodoret, Sirmond reading 
ddavaTif) for davaTtf), and a.vdpuirt 

for TpOTTlfi. 

ib. ev rcfj /j.^pfL roi To;] in this 
part also, i.e. in regard to the death 
of Christ, no less than the other 
events of His life. 

10. TroXi TTpcry/zoi eu ] Cp. c. to 
TToAi/Trpcry/uocnVT/s (note). 

ib. eTreidri] The apodosis begins 
with TOVTO 5ia TOV aTavpov. 

12. cri ,u7rape/CTei e<r#cu] * extend 
throughout the nature of existing 
things in e?;ery part. 
duration? continuance. 1 



ev TCO elvai, /it?) ev TO) OVTI (Jievov TO Se 

ov ?} Qeia <f)vo-is eariv, rjv ef dvdytcrjs Tricrreveiv ev 

evai rot? ovaiv 77 
Sid TOV (TTavpov 



rerpa^ TOV /car avTov 
, &N e/c rov /meaov, icaO o vrpo? eavrov 5 
<TvvdTTTTai, reacrapa^ dptO/Jiela-Oai ra? 7Tpo/3o\d<;, on 6 
67rl TOVTOV eV rc3 /caipw rrjs Kara rov Odvarov ol/covo/j,ias 
l^ 6 TO irdv Trpos eavrov avv&ewv re KOI crvvap- 
earl, ra? Sm<o/9Of? TMV ovrwv (f>vaei$ nrpos fiiav 

T KOI dpfJUOVlCiV $1 O,VTOV (TVvdyWV. V jdp IO 

rot? ovo-iv r) dvw TL voelrai, rj Kara), 77 TT^OO? ra /card 
TO 7T\dyiov irepaTa Sia/3a[vi rj evvoia. dv TOIVVV 

6 Trpocr/SoXas h || 7 rourw f || om rw d || 8 eairrw \* vld vulg || 

lf || 9 om ecrri vulg || ll ra TrAcryia e vulg Trpo? ra TrXcryia 

3. TOVTO 5ta rot} (rraupoO] Simi 
larly Ath. afc 7f. c. 25 says that 
Christ spread out His hands upon 
the Cross to draw to Him, and 
unite in one, both Jew and Gentile. 
Cp. Lactantius Divin, Instit. iv 26 
(Migne, p. 507) Extendit ergo in 
passione manus suas orbernque di- 
mensus est ut iam tune ostenderet 
ab ortu solis usque ad occasum 
magnum populum ex omnibus lin- 
guis et tribubus congregatum sub 
alas suas venturum. Gr. presents 
the same thought in a fine passage 
in Christi Kcsurr. Or. i pp. 621 ft . 
(Migne). Cp. also contra Ennom. 
v p. 696 (Migne). 

4. TtTpa-)(ri\ seeing that its 
figure is divided into four parts. 

5. ws ^/c roO fj.(rov] so that from 
the centre^ where the whole converges, 
the projections are four in number? 
Ilpo3o\ds refers of course to the 
four divisions of the Cross diverg 
ing from the centre. 

6. 6 rt] resumes the TOVTO. 

7. rw Kaipf] i.e. the hour when 
he carried out the plan of redemption 
by the death on the Cross. 

ib. T?}S K. r. 6dvaTov olK.~\ Cp. 
c. Eunom. v p. 708 (Migne), 
where the same phrase occurs. 
Similarly Gr. speaks of r\ KCLTO, TO 
Trades OIK. and 77 Kara TOV aTavpbv 
OIK. 7 he dispensation of His death. 1 
OiKovo/j.ia is here used of the plan 
of redemption. See c. 5 rrji/ /car 
avdpuirov oiKOvo/j.iav (note). 

ir. rd /cara TO TT. Tr^para] the 
boundaries on either side 

12. diafiaivet. i) Zvvoia] thought 
passes over to. For the idea cp. 
in Chr. A esurr. Or. i I.e. Ai>d- 
fi\ei]/ov yap ei s TOV ovpavbv, Kal TO. 
/fdrw fiddr) r<p XoyiafMy KaTaforjffov, 
^KTeivov TTL rd 7rXa7ta Kal rd axpa 


voiav, Kal \6yiffai TIS iartv i] raOra 
<rwx.ov<ra dvva/^ts, olov rts (nVSeayio? 
TOV TravTos yii>ofj.ei>Tj. Kal 6\f/ei u>5 
ev TT) diavoia i] Trepl Trjs 

aTavpov yx a P affffTaL ^ or the 
attempt to find the symbolism of 
the Cross in nature see Methodius 
adv. Porphyrium c. i (ed. Bonw. 
p. 346). 


eirovpavltov rj TWV VTro^Ooviwv 77 TWV K.CL& etcaTepov 
TOV TravTOS Treparcof TJ)V dvcrracriv, 7ravTa%ov rco Xo ytcryLtco 
(TOV TrpoaTravTa ?; OeoTrjs, /JLOVIJ Kara TTCLV /xepo? rot? ovaiv 
evOewpovfjievr) /cal ev TO) eivciL ra TrdvTa crvve^ovo a. etre 
5 S?; Oeorrjra rrjv fyvaiv ravTvjv ovofjud^eadai %/3?) etre \6yov 
iTe ^vva/jLLv eLTe ao(f)iav etre aXXo TL TMI> {j-^r^Xoiv re tcai 
fjia\\ov eVSetfacr^at ^vva^kvwv TO inrepKeifjievov, ovSev 6 
Xoyo9 rj/jLMV Trepi (frwvrjs i] ovo/J-aros T) TVTTOV 
Sia(j)6pTai. eVel ovv Trdaa irpos avrov t] KTIGI 
10 Kal Trepi CLVTOV ecrrt, tcai 8t e/ceivov ?rpo9 eavrrjv 
yiveTai, TWV avw rot9 fcdrco KCLI TMV 7r\a i yia>v vrpo? 
St dfceivov crvjji^vofievwv, eSet fj,r/ fiovov $i dfcoijs ^yita? 7rpo$ 
rrjv TT}? deorrjros Karavorjcnv %ipa<ya)yel<7@ai, d\\d Kal 
TTJV O^TLV yeveo dai ra)V v^lrrj\orepcov vorjfjidTwv &i&dcrKa\oi>, 
J S 006V teal o /ueya? op/jn^Oel^ IlaOAo? /jivaraywyel TOV Iv 
Xaov, ^vva/juiv aurot? eWi#et9 ^^ T7y9 oi,8ao-/ca\las 
TO <yv(tivai TL e<JTi TO /3d6o$ fcal TO v-^ro^, TO T ?rXaTO9 
TO /jurf/co?. eKaaTijv yap TOV aTavpov 7rpo/3o\r]V ISiw 

4 0eti}pov/Jii>r) f i| 5 677] 5e dehnp [; 6 om rt e |l 7 roi virepK. el* v " 1 

vulg || 9 ?rpos aurov Tracra 1 vulg |j 17 TO ui/ os] om TO dhnp |j 18 TO /J.-TJKOS] 
om TO f |i 7rpo<r^o\-r]v f avfj,TTpo^o\r)v l* vi(l vulg 

3. 7r/?oa7raj>T$i] everywhere your Cross teaches sublime thoughts 

thought is preceded and met by the by the spectacle which it offers to 

presence of Deity. . Cp. Ps. cxxxviii the eyes. 
[cxxxix] 8 10. 15. 6 tfe;/] St Paul starts from 

7. TO UTrep/c.] Cp. prol. flvai the spectacle of the Cross with its 
TWO. di ivafjui TT)I ...TOV Travros virep- four projections. Eph. iii 18. Gr. 
KfiiJ.vr]v. has the same application in in Chr. 

8. 0u ?7S K.T.X.] expression or Kesnrr. Or. i p. 624 (Migne). Cp. 
title or form of phrase. Jren. v 17. 4; Rulinus Comm. in 

10- Trtpt auTov] about Him," 1 i.e. Symb. Apost. 14; Aug. flfe Doctr. 

by reason of the Divine immanence. 6V;; . ii 41 (62). 

ib. <TV/j.<f>vrjs] lit. grown together ib. ^vtrTay^yel] ^ initiates Cp. 

with. And through Him acquires Ign. Eph. 12 llavXov ffu/uLfJ.vffTa.1 TOV 

union throughout, the parts above i)yiaa-fj.eyov. For the Christian appli- 

being, through Him, connected with cation of terms which were used of 

those below, and the opposite sides the heathen mysteries see Phil, iv 12, 

with one another." 1 i Cor. ii 7 lie. Cp. also Wisd. viii 4. 

13. ciXXd Kal TT?I> o l/ tf] The See further note on fj.vrjde io i c. 33. 


/carovofjid^ei, vtyos fjuev TO vTrepe^ov, ftdOos Se TO 
, TrXaro? re Kal /jLrjKos ra? 7r\ayias eVracre^? 
\6<yu>v. /cal o-atyeaTepov eTepwOi TO TOLOVTOV vo^pa 717)09 
olpai, Troiel ol$ (frrjcrlv OTL Ez/ TO* ovofJiaTi 
XptcrroO irav <yovv Kafji^reu eTrovpaviwv Kal 7riyeio)V 5 
/cal KaTa^Ooviwv. VTav6a Trjv jjiearjv Kepauav fjiia trpocr- 
rjyopia BLa\a/jL/3dv6(,, TTCLV TO oia ^eaov TWV eirovpavLwv 
Kal V7ro%0ovi(0v ovo/jidcras eirLyeiov. TOVTO fjueiJuaOr^KafJiev 
Trepl TOV aTaupov TO fJLVdTrjpiov. ra Se drro TOVTOV TOI- 
avTa KaTa TO ciKoXovOov Trepie^ei 6 \oyo^, &>? o/jioXoyeLcrOai 10 
Kal Trapa TWV aTcldTwv /jirjoev d\\oTpiov eivai 7-779 6eojrpe- 
TTOI)? V7ro\rjtyeci)s. TO <ydp yLtr/ e/jLfAeivai T 
a? Bid TOV criSrjpov KaTa TOV crcoyu-aro? yevo^evas 
Trpos TO elvai 7ronj(rao~0ai, /car l 
T (f)aii>eo~daL /nera TTJV dvdcrTaaiv TOi9 //-a^^rat?, ore 15 
/3ov\OLTo jrapelvai re avTols /JLTJ opcofjievov Kal ev /u,ecr&> 

6 Kepaiav] Kaipeav l* vi 1 /ecu yaiav vulg || 7 KaraXa/x/Sai/et l* vi 1 vulg Xa/i- 

(3avei h || 14 etpcu] avaaTrjvai 1 vulg || 15 rois /J.a.8. /w. r. a. 1 vulg 

i. rets 7r\a7i as e/crdtreis] the kind of secondary predicate. 7^ 

extensions on each side? i.e. the two events which follow, as contained 

horizontal arms of the Cross. in the account, are so consistent in 

3. erepw#t] Phil, ii 10. character, that even unbelievers erY. 

6. TTJJ/ fjxayv Kepalav] ^ the central Kara TO d/c. i.e. consistent with the 

cross-beam.^ Kepai a is used of the character of a Divine Being. 

yard-arm of a ship. Here it refers 10. ws] depends upon roiavra. 

to the transverse beam which divides u. dfoTrpeirovs VTTO\.~\ Cp. c. 10 

the upright beam of the Cross; rrjv BeoTrpeirij didvoiav and c. 24 8ei 

hence it is called 17 /j.eari Kepaia. yap 5td iravTuv TO dtlov ev TOLL S 

Cp. irav TO OLO. fj-f^ov T&V eirovpaviuv TrpeTrot /trats viroKri^effiv elrat. 

/cat vTroxQoviwv below. Gr. uses 13. <ri5ripov] Jn xix 34 [Mt. 

language closely resembling this in xxvii 49]. 

the passage already cited from 14. Trpos TO etVcu] offered no 

c. Ennoni. v p. 696 (Migne) where impediment to his existence. Gr. 

he says TT/V 5e tyKdptriov Ka.0 is thinking of the Resurrection life. 

eKa-Tepov Kepalav T^J TOV /J.TJKOVS The best MSS read eiVcu, while / and 

Te Kal TrXaTous 6v6 / uaTt diacr rjfj.a.ii wj . the Paris edd. have d^ao T^vai, which 

ib. p-iq. Trpoffriyopia] refers to is obviously a conjectural emenda- 

cirLydwv, which includes ace. to tion. 

Gr. both TrXdTOS and /i^/cos. 16. /UTJ bpu/u.ei oi ] prob. a refer- 

9. TO, 5^ d?r6 TouTOf] The words ence to Lk. xxiv 36, where the 

aTa TO axbXovOov form a phrase ec p.ff^ avT&v is also found. 



rr}? elcroftov Trjs oid TWV 6vpwv Trpocr- 
re TOL>? /jbaOiyras rfj 7rpoo (f)vcnjo L TOV 
, 7ray r ye\~\.eo 0ai re Kal TO yu-er avrwv elvai, /cal 

i^ecrOai, /cal rco p.ev 

5 TOV ovpavov dvievai, ra> &e voovfjuevw Travra^ov elvai, 
oaa ToiavTa Trepie^ei rj iaTopia, ovStv rr}? eK TWV \oyicr 
ias Trpocrbeerai vrpo? TO 6eld re eivai Kal rr)<> v 
8i;f/a/xea)?. 7Tpl wv ovSev olfiai 

K.CL& Ka<7Tov Sie^LEi^ai, ai)To6ev TOV \6you TO vrrep 
10 (f)V(TLp ep,$aivovTos. dX^J eTreiorj p,epo<$ TL 

Kal TJ Kara TO \ovTpov ICTTLV oiKovo/jua, b LT6 
et re (f)(t)Ti(Tfjia etre TraKiyyeveo-iav $OV\OITO rt? 
, ovSev TT/OO? TTJV bvofjLaaiav 
av e^ot Kal Trepl TOVTOV /3pa%ea ie 

i fj.r)dev] fj.T]8 fl vulg || 6 \oyia ^wv~\ \oywv d || 8 om 8eiv e || 
10 eK<paii>ovTos 1 vulg || a\\] exstant sqq in euth 457 || n Kara] irepi. 
1 vulg || 12 eire 0wncr/Lta om e* 

1. dcr68ov] Jn xx 19. 

2. 7T/)0(70U(777(7et] Jll XX 22. 

3. TO /xer avrdov elvai] Mt. xxviii 
20. The present inf. eivai repro 
duces the eijj.1 of the Evangelist. 

4. fj.r]devl /meat})] Cp. c. 6 TroXXy 
TOJ ^tea-y (note). 

4-5. T< /xei (f)aivo/j.evi{}...Tt^ 5e 
i/oou/xe/^w] /f //;<? eye... to the mind? 

5. a^terai] Acts i 9. 

10. d\V CTretS^] Here Gr. passes 
on to the subject of the next section 
of His treatise, in which he deals with 
baptism. The whole of the follow 
ing passage, as far as TO eirrjyyeX- 
fjievov OVK dfj.(pi^d\\ovTes in c. 34, is 
quoted in Euth. Zig. Pan. Dogm. 
tit. xxv pp. i252ff. (Migne). 

ib. fAV(rTiK&v 5.] a part of the 
doctrines of revelation. 1 Mu<rTt/c6s 
refers to the earlier sense of /j.v<rTr)- 
piov, a revealed truth of the 
Christian religion. Cp. c. 9 T6 
/jLvarripiov rrjs dXydetas. There is 
no reference here to the other 

sense of ^vaT-qpLov = a sacramental 
rite, as sacraments have not yet 
been mentioned, and the /cat before 
ij Kara TO \ovrpov K.T.\. definitely 
connects what Gr. says with what 
precedes, i.e. the /j.vaTr)pi.a of the 
Incarnation and the Cross. 

u. i] Kara TO \ ot/c.j the dis 
pensation of the washing. Cp. Eph. 
v 26, Tit. iii 5, the latter of which 
passages supplies also the word 

12. 0wTt<r y aa] Cp. Heb. vi 4, 
x 32. Cp. Justin Ap. i 61 /caXemu 
5 TOUTO TO \ovrpov 0WTto - yu6s, us 
(fiuTifo/uitvwv TTJV didvoiav T&V ravra 
fjLavdavbvrwv. Similarly Gr. says, 
in Bapt. Christi p. 592 (Migne) 

OTTOV L 5u>p TO /J.VffTLKOV, Kl Kdi 

7TfeO/x.a TO fatrvpovv, TO 6ep[, TO 
TTi poetS^s, TO TOI)S dcre/yas Kalov /cat 
TOI)S TTKTTOi s (puTifyv. For alterna 
tive titles of Baptism see Clem. Al. 
Paed. i 6 (p. 113, Potter), Greg. 
Naz. Or. xl p. 698. 


33. IVTreiSai/ yap Trap 1 TJ^LMV TO TOLOVTOV 
OTI, TOV OvrfTov 7T/30? T7)V ^WTjV /JLeTci/3aivovTO$, (iKo\ov9ov 
r)V TTJS TrpMTrjs yeveaea)^ 7rl TOP OvrjTov Trapayovcnjs ftiov 
erepav yeveaiv e^evpeOrjvai, /j,r)Te (ITTO <j)6opas dp^ofievrjv^ 
/jitjT et? <p0opdv KdTO\.r) r yovo av, XX els ddavarov ^WTJV 5 
TOV yeyevvrj/jievov Trapdyovaav, tV, waTrep etc ^J^TT}? <yeve- 
creco? 6vr}Tov ef (ivdy/cr]? TO <ye r yevvr]fjievov vTrearTj, ovrws 
e : T^? /Lt^ Trapa&exo/jLevrjs (f)Bopdi TO yevvw/^evov KpelTTov 
ryevrjTai T>)? ex TOV BavaTOv $>6opas CTreiBav ovv TOVTWV 


OTL ev^r) Trpos 6eov /cal %dpiTos ovpavias e7ri/c\rj(7^ ical 

33. 4 yevvr)fft.v euth 7 vulg || 6 yeyfvr}/j.i>ov dehp TO y. 1 || 
uo-irep yap 1 vulg || 7e^j/77<rews 1 vulg || 7 yeyevrj/j,. hnp || 8 <f>dopav] + yev- 
fl vulg || 9 7ej/7jTat] 767ei i 7?Tat d || om ovv 1 vulg || 10 
i euth 45 

i. Chaps. XXXIII XXXVI. On Baptism. 

33. Just as the natural birth is The protasis is resumed by 

our introduction to this mortal life, ovv TQVTWV, and the apodosis begins 

so the new birth of baptism is our at dvcnreid&s t^ovcri. 

introduction to eternal life. The 2. Trpos T/JJ> farjv] i.e. to eternal 

means by which this regeneration is life. 

effected is prayer to God, the invo- 11. fvxv TT. #] Cp. Justin Ap. 

cation of Divine tfrace, water, and i 61 euxe0"0cu re KO.L airelv vrjffTev- 

faith. If it be asked how these ovres irapa rov 0eov TU>V irpo-rjfj.ap- 

effect the beginning of a neiv life, Tijiut-eviov &(pe(riv OiddcrKovrai, r)/j.u)v 

it may be sufficient to reply that we avv(.\)\o^vwv Kal crvvvriaTevbvTUv 

do not understand how the natural avrois. 

process of generation effects the pro- ib. ^ciptroj ovp. ^Tri /cXTjcrts] Cp. 

duction of a human being. In either in Bapt. Christi p. 584 (Migne) TO 

case the answer is the same. The vdwp ovdev &\\o Tvyx&vov 77 vSup, 

result is due to the presence and rov d^Bpcoirov et s rrjv 

working of the Divine Power, using vot]rr\v dvay^vvrja-iv, r^s Avudev x-P L ~ 

natural means to effect some higher TOS fu\oyov<n]s avr6 : de Bapt is mo 

end. p. 421 (Migne) TTO.V 05wp fwirrjdeLov 

For Gr. s treatment of Baptism et s rr\v ToO /SaTTTttr/xaTos xP et a "> 

see further his treatise in Bap- ^6vov dv evpr) TriarLv rov \a/x/3d- 

tismum Christi, esp. pp. 581, 584, vovros, Kal evXoyiav rov ayid^ovros 

585 (Migne). iep^ws. 

i. TO rotoOToi ] explained by on. 



vScop KOI TTtcrrt? earl St wv TO T??9 dvayevvr/<Tcos 7r\r)pov- 

Tdl fJLVarrjpiOV, SvarTreiOcOS e^OVCTt TTpO? TO (f)aLv6fJLVOV 

/3Xe7roz Te9, o>9 ou crvfJLfBdivov rfj Trayye\ia TO crcoyLtaTt/cw? 
V6pyovfj,i>ov. 7rco9 7p, fyacriv, ev^r) Kal cW<7yu,eo>? $6/0.9 

5 67TL/C\ / rjO lS 7rl TOV vBciTOS yiVOfJ,ev 

fjbvr)6el(ii yiveTcu ; TT^O? 01/9, etVep yu-r/ 
TVTTCOS, tt7rXo>9 e^apKf-l \6yo^ 777)09 
dyayelv crvyKardOecriv. avTepwrrjcrwi 
T^9 Kara a/ip/cd yevvrjcrews TTCLGIV 6Vro? 7rpo&r)\ov, 77009 
10 avdpwTTOS /CLVO yii>Tai TO 669 d(f)Op/j,rjv T/}9 (rvaTCLcrea)? TOV 
%a)ov KaTa{3a\\,o/ji6vov. dXXd /J.TJV ovBels eV eiceivov \oyos 
6(7Tli> o \oyicr/jLa) Tivl TO TfiOavov efyevpicrKwv. Tiydp KQIVQV 
0^09 dv0pa)7rov 7rpo$ TTJV ev 


e^oiev vri- 
TO{) Soy/jLaros 
yap, TOV rpoTrov 

3 (TU/uLa.TiKoi> e [| 4 077cri^ en || 5 yevo/j-ev-rj e |j 6 fj.vovfj.evots fl vulg || 

om /ATJ vulg ij 7 avrXws e || 8 avTepwrrjffd} /m.ev vulg |j ?rept rou rpoirov p || 

9 76^ ^<rea;s] + rof dnp || 12 e&vpia KUv 1 vulg euth 45 || 13 om e^ et VU ^S il 
opos] <nrep/j.a 1 crTrep^art vulg opa<ns f |[ om OewpovfJLevrjv d 

8. criry/farcitfecrti ] Cp. c. 5 ou/c 
w TT)S TWV avrtXeyovTuv earl crvy- 
Karadeaews (note). 

9-10. TTWS &. eKelvo yiv.] Cp. in 
Bapt. Christi p. 584 (Migne) TTUJS 
ij vypa /cat d/xop^os oucrta avdpuTros 
yiverai; The same illustration is 
used by Justin (Ap. \ 19) in treating 
of the resurrection of the body, and 
also by Methodius de Resurr. ii 20 
(ed. Bonw. p. 235). 

10. a^op/j-riv] Cp. c. 5 iravrwv 
at>T<p T&V KO\UV ras d,<pop/j.d.f tyKara- 
ffKfi>a<ras (note). 

11. Kctra/3aA\.] used of the sowing 
of seed in Plat. Theaet. 149. Cp. 
Ileb. xi n. 

ib. dXAd fj-rjv] Yet surely in 
that case there is no principle which 
discovers by any process of calculation 
the probable cause. 

13. 6 pos] the definition of a 
man. This is a common sense of 
the word in philosophical writers. 

ib. ev e/ceiJ y] i.e ry a"irtp/j.aTi. 

2. yUL O T^ptoj ] here approaches 
the sense of sacrament. Cp. c. 34 
rijs /ivcrrt/fTjs Tavrr)s oiKovo/JLias. 

ib. -jrpos TO 0ati/.] i.e. TO aw/ma- 
TI/CWS et>pyovfj.ei>ov, which includes 
the ritual action, the material em- 
ployed, and the formula of Baptism. 

3. Trj 7rayy.] The grace pro- 
mised in Baptism is a spiritual gift. 
How can the bestowal of such a 
gift be said to coincide with the 
performance of an outward, bodily 
act?- In in Bapt. Christi p. 581 
(Migne) Gr. defends the sacramental 
principle by a different argument 
from that of the present chapter. 

5. ^WTJS a-px^yos] Apx- is here 
used as an adjective. A source 
of life. 1 

6. fj.vTjde io i] Cp. c. 32 /Avara- 
ywyti (note). On the use of the 
words fJLveiv and /m,vcrT7]piov with 
reference to the Christian Sacra- 
ments see Lightfoot s note on Ign. 
Eph. 12. 


crwyfcpivo/jievos ; avOpwiros \o<yiKov TL ^prj^ua KOI 
ecm, vov KOI e?rto T^ / a / 7;? SetCTLKov eictlvo 8e 
vypa rivl evOewpelTui TTOLOTTJTI, KCU Tr\elov ov&ei> TOV tear 
al(jQj]cnv opwfjuevov KaTaXafJiftdvei r) evvoia. rjv TOIVVV 
el/cos earrtv d*7r6icpl(riv r^Jilv ^^vkaQai Trapd TWV epcorrjOev- 5 
TWV on TTco? earl TTKTTOV ef etcelvov a-varr/vcu 
TOVTO teal irrepl TT}? Sid rov uSaro? yLvo/jLevrj 

res d TTOKpivov^Oa. eVet re yap Trpo^eipov eanv 
TWV rjpwTr^fjievwv eiTrelv on 6eLa $vvd/j,l etcelvo 

ryiveraL, 179 fjirj Trapovcnis aKivrirov eanv e/celvo TO 
Kol dj>evepyiiTOi>. el ovv e/ca ov TO vTrotceifjievov 
TOP di Opa)7Tov, aXX T) OeLa Swa/u? Trpo? dvOpwrrov 
fjierarroiel TO (^aivop.evov, TT}? ecr^aT?;? av ei 
etcel ToaavTJjv TO) 6e(t) Trpoo-jmapTvpovvTa? 
<iv TO> [Jiepei TOVTW TO Oelov olecrOaL Trpo? TVJV eKTT\ripto(Tiv 15 
TOV ^eX^yLtaro?. TL KOLVOV, (paaiv, V$CLTI Kal l^wfj ; TL Se 

KOIVOV, 7T/309 CiVTOVS pOV/LLl>, VypOTTJTL KOi eiKOVi deOV ,* 

I TroiOTTjra; (rvyKpi.vofji.evo5 vulg (rvyKpivo/J.evr)v f || o avdpujros vulg || 
2 eKfLva. e |j 3 Bewpeirat. dehnp euth || Tr\eov dehnp euth || 5 yevecrdai t]^(.v 
\ vulg y/JLuv e yivea-dai dhnp euth || 6 e| eKewov TTHTTOV dehnp euth || 7 om 
6ta f !| u5aros] + /cat Trvev/J-aros euth || yevofj.evrjs f j| 8 om re ehn || -rrpoxfipov] 
Trporepov 1 vulg : rursus incipit g II 9 epwrajyuei aw f || e/ceivos 1 vulg || 10 e/cai/o 
a. e. e om e/ceti o 1 vulg || 12 Trpos] ets 1 vulg || 16 (f>~r)(Tiv n || 5e] Sat d || 
i 7 avrov f vulg 

1. 7roi6rr;ra] quality. merely introduces the question TTUJS 

2. r5tai o?7Tt/c6i ] Cp. c. 6 Tr?!/ K.T.\. 

dLavorjTLKrjv 8i>va/uuv (note). The 1 1. TO inroKeL/uLevov] used here in 

definition of man as fyov \oycKov..., its Aristotelian sense of matter as 

vov KO.L eiTLffTrifj. rjs 5eKTt.K6v was a opposed to form vXrj. Cp. Arist. 

common one. See Reid s note on Pol. i 8. 2 X^w <5e v\7)v TO VTroKei- 

Cic. Acad. ii 21. /JLCVOV e^ ou rt aTrortXerrat Zpyov, 

3. 7rot6r77rt] a ^/. of attendant oto*> vcpavT-rj fj.v Zpia, dvopiavToiroL^ 
circumstances. For ^ewp. with an 5e xc^^^^. The matter does not 
adv. or adverbial clause, see c. 16 produce the man, but tJie Divine 
TO 5 oaov ... 5ieo5t/c<2>s ^ewpetrat power changes the visible thing into 
(note). Is seen to possess a quality a man s nature? 

ofnioistness." 1 14. aTOvelv] fr. &TOVOS, slack, 

4. rfv Toivvv] The reply then relaxed ; hence to be powerless. 
which, it is probable, may be given 15. iv ry yw^pet] in this respect. 1 
by those whom we asked how it is See Lightfoot s note on Col. ii 16. 
credible? The 6rt is recitative, and 



A,V ovBev e/cel TO Trapdoogov, el Oeov fiouXofievov TT/JO? TO 
TifiitoTarov ^(>ov TO vypov /JLeTapaivei. TO laov Kal errl 
TOVTOV (j)a^ei> ^i^ev eivai dav[jLa<JTov el OeLa 
TrapovcTia 7T/J09 d(f)0apo-iav /jueTao-fcevd^eL TO ev TTJ 


34. AXXa ^rjTovatv aTro&ei^iv TOV Trapelvai TO Oeiov 



TCOV ^ivo^vwv /caXov/mevov. 6 Se TOUTO 
dvayvcoTCi) 7ra\iv TO, KCLTOTCLV e^Tacr/jieva. rj yap 

) TOV Tr\v Sid crap/cos r]fjuv GTrtfyavelo av 
Oeiav elvai TOV TrapovTOS \6you avvT]yopt,a 
OS yap TOV 6eov elvai TOV ev aapKi 

e || 5 



i. Ti[j.iii)TaToi> i*y oi/ ] a Platonic 
expression. Krai), quotes Plat. 
Legg. p. 766 A &i>6puiros 8e, u>s 



4. TO ev T. 0.] ^ transforms what 
is born in a nature subject to corrup 
tion into a state of incorruption, 1 
i.e. by the regeneration of baptism. 

34. Wliat proof , it may be asked, 
have we of the presence of the Divine 
Being, when invoked in Baptism? 
To this Gr. replies that the miracles 
of the incarnate Christ shew that 
the Divine power has been present 
among men. Moreover God is a God 
of truth, and He has promised to be 
present with believers who call upon 
Him. Add to this the fact that the 
baptismal rite is preceded by the 
invocation of God through prayer, 
and we thus have more than sufficient 
proof of His operation in the sacra 
ment. In human generation the 
Divine power acts through the 
human parents without any stich 
invocation. In baptism there is the 
action of God s power, in accordance 
with His promise to be present in 

34. 7 TW a ytacr/x.w p 

this way, cooperating with the human 
will, and at the same time there is 
the help ivhich comes through prayer. 
Such prayer, even if it does not effect 
an addition to the grace received, does 
not hinder its opera/ion. 77ie opera 
tion of grace then in baptism is due 
to the fact that He Who promised it 
is Divine, while. His Divinity is 
shewn by miracles. 

7. eTrt ayi-acr/AM T. 7.] for the 
sanctijication of the rite? For e?rt 
to denote purpose see c. 5 CTTI TOVTOIS 

8. TO. /car. e.] our preceding 
investigations, i.e. the argument by 
which Gr. has established the Divine 
nature of Christ in cc. 1 1, 12. 

9. /caracr/cei Tj] l proof , cp. prol. 
KO.Tao Ktva is (note). 

ib. T7]v 5ia aapKos] Cp. c. 12 
eTTi roO dia crapnos 7][Mii> (pavepwtfei>TOS 
6eov (note). 

1 1 . 8et.-x_6evTo$} agrees with the 
substantival clause TOV debv dvat 
K.T.A., the whole forming a gen. 
absolute. Aeta;/ra /c.r.X. forms a 
subordinate clause, dependent on 
TOV ...(pavepwdevra. The reading of 
ehn and Euth. is an attempt to sim 
plify the construction. l For when it 



rot? Sttt TWV >yivo/jLeva)v Oavjjiao-t, rrjv (pvcriv eavTOv Se/- 
faz^Ta, avvaTreSei^OTj TO irapelvai rot? yivo/jievois avrov 
Kara Travra Kaipov e7TiK\tja-ax;. w&irep yap e/cdaTov raw 
OVTCOV ecrrt TIS IStorrjs rj rrjv fyvcruv r yvwpi^ov(ra, OVTCOS 
L&IOV T?}? 6eia<$ (f>varea)<> eanv rj d\r)9eia. d\\d p^rfv ael 5 
TrapeaeaOai rot? eTrifcaXov/jLevois 7r7Jyye\rai., /cal ev pecry 
TGOV TTLCTTevovTwv elvai, KOI ev nraai fjieveiv KOI efcdcrra) 
crvvzivai. OVKGT ovv av erepas et9 TO Trapeivai TO 9elov 
Tot? yivofjievois 7roSet^e&)? TrpocrSeoifieda, TO fiev 6eov 
eivai Sid TU>V Bav/JLarcov CLVTMV TreTTLarev/core^, iSiov Se 10 

T7/9 #eoT?7TO? TO d/jLLKTW? TTpOS TO A/reOSo? ^LV 

ev 8e TO) dtyev&el TTJV vTrocr^ecreta^ Trapelvai TO 
r ye\/Aevov OVK dfj,(f)i{3<i\^oi>T<>. TO Se 7rp07] r yela 0ai, TTJV Sid 

I /cat 5ta r. 7. 0ai//xaTWJ/ elm euth Ban/naff LUV f \\ 4 tSiorT/s rts f 
5 i^tov e. r. #. 0. 1 vulg [| 8 om GUI fl vulg /cat ou/cer 1 vulg om 
deglmp euth || 9 irpoffSeo^tda. d j| TOJ /xei vulg || 10 aurov dhnp || 
ovres f II 10-11 t5tov...et5ores om 1* vulg || 13 OVK] f || a 
desinit euth 

wj shewn that He Who was mani 
fested in the flesh is God, seeing that 
He revealed His own nature by 
means of the ivonders exhibited in 
the events of His life. 

2. <rvi>awedeixdT]] The two argu 
ments on which Gr. rests his proof 
of the operation of God through 
sacraments are: (i) the Incarnation 
has shewn that God s power has been 
at work among men. (2) Christ s 
promise to be present with the faith 
ful and have special intercourse with 
them can be relied upon, because 
God is a God of truth. The present 
passage deals with the former of 
these. The latter is the subject of 
the following sentences. 

ib. rot s 7ti/o/xe^ots] Cp. supra 
T&V yLvo^v^v. // was shewn that 
He is present at what is done every 
time that He is itivoked? 

4. t StoTTjs] peculiarity? 

5. dXXa ^v} l well, then: 

ib. del Tra.p^aeada.C\ Mt. vii 
Jn xiv 13, xv 7, 16, xvi 23. 



Mt. xviii 20, xxviii 



ev Tracrt nevew] Jn xv 4 foil. 

avvelvai] have intercourse 
Jn xiv 23. 

ev 8e rw d\j/.] that the thing 
promised is there in virtue of the 
unfailing truth of the promise. 

13. TO <5e TrpoTjy.] while the fact 
that the invocation by prayer pre 
cedes the Divine dispensation consti 
tutes as it were a superabundance of 
proof. Gr. means that the facts al 
ready cited are sufficient to prove the 
working of Divine grace, apart from 
the argument derived from the 
invocation of God by prayer. He 
illustrates his meaning by the 
analogy of human generation in 
which Divine power cooperates 
with human effort irrespective of 
such invocation. 






fc\r)o-iv T?}9 eias ofcovofjias rrepiovaa r? 

rov Kara Oeov e7TLTe\elaOai TO evepyov- 
el yap eVi roO erepov TT}? dvOpwrroTroiiav el 
ryevvoiinwv op^at, KCLV JJUTJ e7riK\rj@fj Trap 
TO Oelov, TJJ rov Oeov Swdfjiei, KaOws ev 
eiprjrai, Sia7r\dcrcrovo-i, TO 
paiCTos ea"riv rj o~7rov$ 

jjba\\ov ev rw jTvevfj-ariKw T^9 yevvr) crews 
KOI Oeov TrapecrecrOai, Tot9 yivo/jievois 7rrjyye\^evov KOI 
10 Trjv Trap 9 eavrov ^vva^iv evreOeiKOTOs TCO epyw, KaOci 
/cat Tr}9 rj^erepa^ Trpoaipeaews 7rpo$ TO 
rrjv op/^rjv e^ovo-r}^, el o-v/ J L7rapa\i]<p0ei rj 
Bid T7}9 ev^rj^ avfjifjia^ia, p^aXXov e7rire\e^ 
TO (T7rov$a^o/jievoL> ; KadaTrep yap ol e7TL(j)avo~ai 
15 TO^ TI\LOV avTOL<? ev^opevoi TU> 6e<o ovoev dfjift^vvovo-i TO 

, ov$e /JLTJV d^pr]o~Tov eivai 
Trpocrev^o/jLevcDV crTrov&rjv, el Trepl TOV 
TOV Oeov ifceTevovaiv, ovrws ol TreTreiafjievoL Ka-rd 

4 Trap avrois f [| 5 TO 6. 5t evxys e om 5t ei/x^s f || 8 yevecrews deghnp || 
9 yu>o/u.i ois] jSouXo/iej ots f yvo/j.i>ois 1 vulg || 10 /ca^ws vulg || 14 7p] om 
d 5e 1 vulg 1| 67rt0ai at vulg || 15 eatirots e j| 16 /tj o/zei oi ] eao^evov fg 1 || 
1 8 TreTracTjU. ] Triri.crTev[J.evoi fl* vlj vulg 

His Divine power and His promise 
to come in this way constitute suffi- 
cient proof of His presence in the 
rite of baptism. 

il>. e7rt0aO(rat] a word found in 
Eph. v 14. 

15. auroiV] eavroZs. For this 
reflexive use of the oblique cases 
of auros see Lightfoot s note on 
Col. i 20. 

1 6. Trdt Tws] that which happens 
in any case? 

18. OUTWS ot ireTrei<T/j.froi] Or. has 
not fully expressed his thought in 
this sentence. We have to supply, 
with Glauber (quoted by Krab.), 
some such words as and make 
request to God. 

i. oi /coyo/zi as] here used of that 
part of the Divine plan which 
relates to the use of sacramental 
means. Cp. infra TTJS /JLVO-TIKTJS 
TavTrjs otVoro/xtas. 

5. iv Tots ^irpoffdev] in c. 33. 

7. aTrpaKTOs] their effort is in- 
operative and fruitless. 1 

10. KaOa TreTTtcrr.] on the strength 
of such passages e.g. as Eph. v 25, 

12. et cru/zTr.] if, at the same 
time, the help which comes through 
prayer be duly invited. 1 

14. Kaddirep /c.r.X.j The purpose 
of this illustration appears to be to 
shew that, even apart from any invo- 
cation to God to bestow His grace, 


dtyevSri TOV e7rayyei\afievov V7roo"%(7iv TravTcos Trapeivai 

17 TTpoaOijfcrjv Tivd TTOIOVVTCU TT}? ^d 
rrjv ovcrav ovtc dirocrTpefyovcriv. TO yap iravTws wveivai 
bid TO deov elvai TOV e7rayyei\d/jivov 7re7Tio~TVTai 77 Se 5 

OLCL TrdvTMV TO irapelvai TO Oelov ovo/jiiav d 

35. H 8e 6t9 TO v8cop /ca^oSo? tcai TO et? Tpls eV 
avTwyeveaOai TOV avOpwirov, eTepov e yu-Tre pieX t/ JAvaTtfptov. 10 
7TLorj yap 6 TT)? crwTrjpias rifjLwv rpovro? ou TOOTOVTOV e/c 

4 o L j eti at] om f eii>cu dg*hnp ira.pei.van. g 1 ! 1 || 5 ro] rov fh 35. 9 ets 
rpis] om fts fg a l vulg rpets defg*hnp 

i. ^vaTLK7}^...oiK.] through this 
sacramental dispensation. 1 For this 
use of /mvffTiKos with reference to the 
sacraments cp. c. Ennoni. xi p. 880 
(Migne) rrj rcDv /u,ucrTiK<2>v eBuov re /cat 
(rvfj-fioXuv KOLVuvlq. rr)i> (rwr^piav Kpa- 
rvi>ff6ai.. Similarly in in Bapt. 
Christi p. 581 (Migne) Gr. speaks 


3. TTpoffdrjK rjv] i.e. by their 

4. cri i eu cu] cp. supra e/cdcrroj 
o - i i e?rai. 

5. 77 5e r^s ^. fj.apTvpia] See 
supra and cc. 11, 12. 

35. 6"r. ;^(?z<v unfolds tJie inner 
significance of the rite of baptism. 
T/ie redemptive acts of Christ, His 
Death and Resurrection, rather than 
His teaching, are the means by which 
man s salvation is effected. These 
must be reproduced or copied by His 
disciples. Baptism is the means by 
which we imitate what Christ did. 
The threefold immersion and rising 
again from the water represent the 
three days 1 bit rial and resurrection. 
But in our case the process of the 
resurrection is only accomplished in 

stages, of which Baptism is the first. 
The imitation of Christ consists in 
the break with sin begun in baptism. 
The two things which contribute to 
the overthrow of sin are repentance, 
and the copying of the death of Christ, 
so far as the poverty of our nature 
allows. Our rising again out of the 
water corresponds to Chrisfs rising 
from the tomb, and shwvs the ease 
with which Christ first, and man 
kind after Him, pass to their resur 
rection. The htimble beginning made 
in baptism is a necessary prelude to 
our rising again to a blessed and 
divine life. For those who lack the 
purifying grace of baptism there will 
also be a resurrection, but in their 
case, in place of the washing of 
baptism, there is prepared the re 
fining fire. 

9. els rpt s] Cp. Trl rpi s Acts 
x 1 6, xi 10. And the threefold 
immersion of the person in it? 

10. /uLVffTrjpLov] The /J.v<TTr)piov 
here is the inner teaching contained 
in the rite of baptism, which he 
expounds in this chapter. 


1 3 o 


TT? Kara rrjv ia^rjv ixiTiyjjcrectiS evepyo? yeyovev ocrov 

$1 dVTWV WV 7TOirj(7V 6 TTjV 7TpO<$ TOV av9pW7TOV V 

Koivwviav, epyw TTJV ^corjv evepyrjaas, iva Sia T 

Trap avrov Kal avpaTroOewBeicjrj^ crap/cos airav 

TO avyyeves avr Ka 


f* vulg 

f crwStacrwc^j ai vul 

T. /cara r. 5i5. v<f>. \ did not oive 
its effectiveness so much to instruction 
by way of teaching? For v<pr)yr)(ns, 
which is a Platonic word, see note 
on v(j)7)yov/m.(i oi> c. 4 sub Jin. The 
words /caret r. did. define the character 
of such instruction. The essence 
of the Gospel lies, according to Gr., 
not so much in the verbal teaching 
of Christ, as in the redemptive acts 
of His life. 

2. uTroffTas /cotj/.] For the idea 
that the Death and Resurrection of 
Christ were representative and cor 
porate acts, in which He unites 
mankind with Himself, according to 
the teaching of St Paul (Rom. vi 
3 n), cp. Ign. Magn. 5 cV ou 
eav fj,7j audaip^rus ^w/xev TO diro- 
da.velv ds TO avTou Trades, TO ffiv 
CLVTOV OVK GTIV iv TJ/J.IV . ^inyrn. ^ 
fjitxpt-S ou fj.Tavor](Tiijaij eis TO irddos, 
6 iariv i]fj.u)v di>do~Ta(Tis. It is a 
special feature of the treatment of 
the Atonement in Athanasius. See 
e.g. de Inc. 8, 37 ; c. Ar. ii 7. 

3. ?p"yw...{ epyriaas] explanatory 
of firoiri<rev. l Seeing that He has 
made life an accomplished fact. 

*Epyu) opposed to Xtryy. Christ did 
not merely teach men how life could 
be found. He actually effected it 
in them through His assumption 
of human nature. 

4. ffvvairo6e<j}0ei(n]{\ Cp. c. 37 
ffvvaTToOfwOrj TO dv 6 paw LVOV, and for 
the idea see c. 25 Mxre/xt;^?? irpbs TO 

r)fJ.TpOl , tVOL TO r)/J.fTpOV TTj TTpOS 

TO 6elov i-7rtfjLi^i<f, yevTjTai delov. The 
idea of a tfeuxris of human nature 
resulting from the Incarnation is 

found as early as Irenaeus (iv praef. 
3 Jin., 38. 4). It appears in 
Clement and Origen, and is of 
common occurrence in Athanasius 
and later fathers. The scriptural 
starting point of the phrase is to be 
found in the two passages Ps. Ixxxi 
(Ixxxii) 6 and 2 Pet. i 4. Cp. also 
Eph. iv 17 24. By Athanasius it 
is frequently associated with the 
idea of immortality. He also has 
the expressions renew and deify 
c. Ar. ii 47, hallow and deify 
c. Ar. iii 39, adopt and deify c. 
Ar. i 39. In using such language, 
however, these writers carefully dis 
tinguish the Sonship of Christ from 
the adoption of Christians. See 
further on the history of the terms 
OeuffLS and Beo-Troi^ais Harnack 
Hist, of Dogni. (Fng. tr. ) vol. iii 
164 note 2 ; Inge Bampton Lectures 
p. 13 and App. C. pp. 356 ff. On 
the #e wcris of the Lord s humanity 
Origen says in c. Cels. iii 474 
(Philocal. ed. Rob. p. 124) TO de 
BvrjTOV avTov ffui/ma Kal rr\v dvdpu- 
Trivrjv iv aura; ^v~)(_riv TT) wpos eKelvov 
ov H.QVOV KOLVWvia dXXct Kal ei>J:o~i 
/cat dvaKpdfffi ret /jLeyuTTd <pa/ut.ev 
irpo<T(L\ri(f)vai, /cat TTJS txtivov deio- 


[3ep\r]Kfi>ai : and again ibid. T L 
dav/j.acrToi TT)v TrowTrjTa TOV &VTJTOV 
/caret TO TOU l7/aou criDyUa irpovoia 
Beov (3ov\T]6^i>Tos /xera/SaXefi/ eis 
aitfepiov /cat deiav TroioTrjTa; 

5. 6/u.6(pv\oi ] Cp. c. 5 ws olKelov 
e/carepou KOL 6fJ.6<f>v\oi> . . .rep fj.ev TOV 
depa, TLO de TO vdojp etfat (note). 


r\v eTTLVorjOrjvai riva rpojrov, ev oS rt9 rjv crvyyeveid re /cal 
ev rol<f ryivofjuevois Trapa rov eTro/juevov irpos rov 
*i TOIVVV iSeiv ev rio~iv o rrjs ^COTJS rjfjia)V 
eOewpijOij, u>a, /ca0a>s fyrjaiv o aTrocrroXo?, 
Kara rov dp^yov r?)? aa)rr]pias r)/j.wv /caropOwOfj rot? 5 
erro/Jievois rj JJLI^O-L^. Sarrep jap Trapd rwv rrerraibev- 
jjievcov rd rarer ircd Trpos rrjv orc\iriKr)v efLrreipiav avayovrai 
01 Si u*v /3\e7rov(7iv 7T/30? rrjv evpvO/jiOv re /cal tv6rr\iov 
Kivrjaiv TraiSeuo/jLevoi, 6 Se /Jirj rrpdrrwv ro TrpoSeiKvv/jievov 
a/u-ero^o? rrjs roiavrrjs e}jL7reLpias fju^vei, Kara rov avrov 10 
rporrov rc5 vrpo? rrjv awrr]piav rjfjiwv e^rjyov/jbevw 
o!? 60-77 Trpos ro dyaOov eornv i] aTrovor) o/^otw? 
Sia yLtt/i?; cre&)9 ejrecrOaL, ro Trap avrov rrpoSeL^Oev etV epyov 
ayovras. ov yap eari Trpos ro iaov /caravrrjaai vrepa?, 
fjirf Std rwv ofjioiwv o&evcravras. KaOdrrep ynp ol ra? rayv 15 


f* || 4 edeupydr)} eirevoydii e || 6 7ra<.devo/J.evuv g*p 


efg 1 |l 8 di uv fiXfTrovcnv OL I 1 vulg om ot l*g || 1 1 iravTO.* h || 

14 aya-yovTas l* vitl vulg || /carapricrat 1* vulg 

1. tTrii>oridr)i>a.(. \ Cp. c. 22 TOV dat. of interest. 

8 i.K.a.iQv TpoTTov iiT i.v Qt]Qr\v at. 6. wcTTrep 7p] l For as tJity 

ib. <rvyyei>ei.a] used here as little who arc trained by what they see 

more than a synonym for O^OIOTTJS. into rhythmical and orderly niove- 

2. iv r. 71^.] l in what is done merit are led on to skill in arms by 
by him who follows? The reference trained tacticians. 1 Ei/oTrAios is used 
is, of course, to the rite of baptism. of the metrical time adapted to the 
Ilp6$ rov rjy. depends on O/ULOLOTTIS. tune of a march. Cp. Ar. Nub. 651 

34. ev rlffLf ...edewprjdri] Gewpei- eiraiovd OTTCHOS ecrrt ruv pvd/nuv /car 

fftiau as usual is a mere synonym for evoirXiov. Hence it is used of a 

elvaL or ylyveaOai. For the expres- rhythmical movement. 

sion eii/at ev or yiyvecrdai ev cp. c. I rr. rw ... e^yov^ev^} i.e. Jesus 

v fafj...elvai. Christ. T e^. is governed by 

ib. OTTJS farjs...Kadiiy.] the Author e-rreadai.. They who have an equal 

of life." 1 zeal for what is good must in like 

4. 6 aTTocrroXos] Heb. ii 10. manner follow by way of careful 
Gr., like Athanasius and Gregory imitation Him who conducts us to 
of Nazianzus, includes the Epistle our salvation. 

among those of St Paul. 16. Xafivplvduv TrXdvas] the wind- 

5. Ko.TopQuQr)\ lit. may be set ings of mazes. Twv otKuv shows 
right, may be directed in accord- that Gr. has in view some such 
ance with. Cp. Aesch. Cho. 512 building as the labyrinth of Minos 
Spav KaTwpdwffai <j>pevi. ToZs fir. of Crete. 



e^ovros eTrirv^oiev, /caroTTiv rro^evoi rs TTOL/CL- 
re ical aTrarri\ds rwv OL/CCDV dvaarpotyds ^ne^ep^ovrai^ 

OVK aV Ste^eXOoVreS, /JiT) /Car 1%VOS eTTO/JievOi TtO TTpodjOVri, 

ovrw fjiOL VOTJO~OV teal rov rov fiiov rovrov \a(Bvptv6ov 

5 d&ie^irrirov elvat, rf) dv9pa>Trivrj (frvaei, el JJL^ rt? rijs avrrfs 

o8oO \d/3oiTO &i 779 o ev avro) ryevofievos e^w Kareo-rr) rou 

rou Oavarov (frpovpav, y TO ei\aiov rov dv 
7TpiO"%60 rj. rl ovv Trepl rov dpxrjyov rr}? crwrrjpias 

10 eOeao-dfjieOa ; rpii^epov vetcpwcnv /cal iraXiv (DTJV. ovtc- 
ovv %pr) n roiovrov KCLI ev ^JJLLV eTnvorjdjjvaL o/jtoLco/jia. 
T/9 ovv earlv r) eTrii oia St 179 /cal ev TJJMV 7r\r)povrai rov 
Trap Kivov yeyovoros rj /jii/jLija^ ; array ro veicpwOev 
oi/ceiov nva /cal Kara fyvcrtv e^i %Mpov, rrjv ryrjv, ev r) 

J 5 /c\iverai re /cal fcara/cpvTrrerai. rro\\rjv Se Trpos a\\ij\a 
rrjv crvyyeveiav e^ei yij re /cal vScop, p,ova rwv o-roi^eiwv 
fiapea re ovra /cal /carco^epTJ, /cal ev a\\ij\oi$ pevovra 
/cal &i* d\\r/\(iov KparovjJLeva. errei ovv rov /caOrjyovfjievov 
rrjs &>?}9 r)fAU)V o Odvaros vrroyeios /card rrjv Koivrjv yeyove 

20 (f)vcn,v, 77 rov Oavdrov /JLL/JLTJCTLS 77 Trap rjfjiwv yivo/juevrj ev rw 
<yeirovi SiarvTrovrai o-roi^eiw. /cal OK e/celvos 6 dvwOev 
avOpwrcos dva\,a/3a)v rrjv ve/cporrjra /juerd rrjv vrroyeuov 

3 /J.-TJ] ei \ l om \* |i 6 om o dhn j| 7 aSte^oSeuroj en || 8 (ppovpav] 
(ftdopav vulg || 9 om TJ/JLUV \* vulg || n om rt deg*hnp || 15 K\iverac re] /cat 
ai/aXuerai f om re 1 vulg || 19 inroyeios] + /cat ehl vulg j| 21 a-rroTvir- vulg 

6. odov] take to the same path* 17. /carw0ep?j] = /cdrw </>epo/tiej>a. 

P ar this use of the gen. with Xa^a/Sd- 18. 5t dXX. /cpar.J held by one 

veaffai cp. Thucyd. iii 24 Xa/36//evot another. 1 
ruv 6pu>v. 21. StaruTTourai] is represented 

ib. 81 ^j] l by which He who in the neighbouring element. (jr. 

entered it succeeded in passing out- has the same idea in in Bapt^ 

side His environment. Christi p. 585 (Migne) tiri de TO 

8. (ppovpdv] Cp. c. 23 ev Trj crvyyeves rrfs 7^? 0"roixeiW, ro vdwp, 

TOV Qavarov (ppovpqi. Krab. com- epxo/J.VOL,KeLi>uea.vTovs(yKpv7rTO[j.ev> 

pares Plato Phaed. 62 K <kv TLVL ws 6 cwri^p Trj yrj. 
(ppovpq. eff/> ol &vdpuTroi. ib. 6 &vu6ev &vd.] Jn iii 31, 

ib. TOV dvOpwTrov] here used of i Cor. xv 47. 
mankind as a whole. 22. dvaXa/Swi/] after He had as- 

10. vtKpwfftv] a state of death. 1 sumed a state of death? 



Oecriv rotrato? TTL TTJV farjv Tcd\iv dveftpa/juev, ovrw Tra? 
o (jvvi]i^^kvo^ Kara rrjv TOV erco/^aro? (pvcriv Ifceivw Trpos 
TO avro KaTopOwfia {3\e7rcov, TO Kara TTJV farjv \eyco 
dvrl 7^)9 TO vSwp e-m^edfjievo^ teal UTroSu? TO 

ev rpial Trepio&ois TTJV rpirj^epov T^? dva- 5 
%dptv (iTreaifjujcraTo. elp^Tat Se TO TOIOVTOV 
/cal ev TO?? (j)0dcracnv, on tcaT oi/covouiav eirij/CTat rff 
Trapd T^? Oe ia(; irpovoias o 
ev rfj &ia\va6L TOV o-waaros /cal 
Trd\iv $id TT}? dvaa Tdcrews crwov /cal 10 
TTJ? /caTa KcucLav 67Ti//,fcfwi5 
TOV avOptoTrov. aXX evrl 

ware T?? fcafcas 

/cat atcepauov /cai 

TOV /ca6rjyovfjievov Tr { 


3 /SXeTret e || 4 eTrixeofJ.evos dp || 

^. /carop^Wyua] a philosophical 
term denoting right conduct or 
duty. On the patristic use of the 
word = a right action, a good 
work, see Suicer Thesaurus. So 
Krab. (following the Paris editors) 
translates here ad idem, quod ab 
ipso recte gestum est, intuens. The 
word, however, seems here to be 
used in the simpler sense of a suc 
cessful accomplishment. Looking 
to the same successful issue." 1 So 
Oehler, in Aussicht auf das gleiche 
gluckliche Werk. Cp. c. 36 TT, 


ib. TO K. T. ^....Trepas] the goal, 
is life." 1 For this use of /card 
with the ace. as a circumlocution 
for the gen. see Blass N.T. Gramm. 
(Eng. tr.) p. 133. 

4. eVixed/zej os] having mater 
poured upon him? This is the force 
of the mid. Cp. infra TO vdwp rpis 
TTLXfdfj.voL. The wo rd suggests 
affusion, rather than immersion. 
But vTrodvs which follows implies 

5. TreptoSots] Gr. is thinking of 
the three separate times that the 


/car TOV 

6 om TO vulg || 9 ware] a>s f vulg 

convert is immersed and rises again 
from the baptismal waters. 

ib. Tpirj/JLepov] ^ attained after three 
days." 1 Cp. in Bapt. Chr. p. 585 
(Migne) TTJV rpiTj/uepov eavTois TTJS 
dvaffTdaetiJS "X.a.pi.v e^eiKQi i^o/j.ev. 

j. ev Tols fpddcr.] i.e. in c. 8. 
See also c. 16. 

ib. /car oiKovo/miav] by way of 
accommodation^ i.e. in view of the 
circumstances of man s Fall. E?r^- 
/crat, introduced. 

10. Kpveia"r}s] Cp. c. 16 TT)S 
rj (f)UffL /ca/ctas 5td r?}s 

n. dTradrj] l free from passion. 
\-epatov, pure. Cp. Rom. xvi 19. 
12. dyacTTOtxeiw^j/Gu] Cp. c. 8 
os ro e^ dijs /cdXAos dj/aoroi- 

14. i] K.T.9 ____ oi /c.] Cp. c. 32 ev 
T< /catpa? rr?s /card TOV 
oiKovo/m.ias. Gr. means that in 
Christ s death the purpose for which 
death was appointed was fully at 
tained (TO T\LOV ^crx V }- This is 
further explained in the following 
sentence 5ieo-rd\77 re yap /c.r.X. 

ib. /card, T. 18. O /COTTOI ] being 



rj rwv 

(TKOTTOV eWeXw? 7r\rjpri)0eio-a. ^LearaXij re yap Sid TOV 
OavciTov rd rjiscofieva KOI 7rd\iv av^^Or) rd 
fo>9 av Ka@ap0ei(Tr)S TT}? </>uaeo>9 dv rfj rwv 
&ia\ixrL, tyvxfjs re \eryw fcal crw/xaTo?, 7ra\iv 
5 K%a>pio iJiev(i)i eirdvooos rr}? aXXoTpta.9 eTTLfiL^ia 
pevovaa yevoiro eirl be rwv dKo\ov6ovvTWv T&> K 

fjLV(i) OV %W/3fc TY]V ClKplftr) fJiLfjLrj(TlV &l O\O)V r) (/)U( 

oaov 8u^ara)9 e%i, TOCTOVTOV vvv Tra/oaSe^a/ze^T/, TO 
TW /uera ravra ra/jLieverai %povw. TL ovv ecrnv o 
10 TO TT}? efjL/jLL^Oelo"r)^ Ara/a a? eV Tj7 TT)? veKpooaew^ el/covi rfj 
&LO. rov u^aro? TOV d^avtcrfjiov e/ATroiricrai, ov ^rjv 
a^avi(T^oi>, d\\d Tiva ^latcoirriv TT}? TOV KCLKOV 
, crvi Spa/JLOi TMV &vo vr^o? rr/y T>}? Kafcias avai- 
rtj? Te ToO TrXT/^fteX^cra-^TO? yLteTayLteXeta? /cai TT}? 
15 ToO OavaTOV fjn/jiijaeaxf, Si wv e/cXverai TTW? o 

TO KCLKOV (TVfJi(f)ViaS, rfj yLteTttyLteXeta yLte 

8 J / ui / ] -I- Si 

4 om Xe7w f || 5-6 
f || 9 ev Ttjj Mfra 1 vulg || 
13 5uotz/ f vulg 

completely ftdfilled in accordance 
with its special aim. For evreXws 
see note on evT\TJ c. 24. 

i. Sieo-rdATj] For the argument 
see c. 1 6, upon which the language 
of the present passage is largely 

3. crv[j.<pv&v] Cp. c. 16 dAATjXois 

7. ov xwpei] V//r nature does 
not admit of? 

9. Ta/JLifveTai] ruhat is lacking it 
stores up for (lit. ? ) //**? /* ;//(? /<? 
come." 1 For Ta/mi-eveiv cp. c. 8 ^i> 
Tit} //.era rat TO. /3tw Tera/xteurai r/ 

10-1 1. TO ... ffji-rroiTJaai] The ac- 
tion here described is the answer 
to the preceding question TI...GT(.V 
5 /ztyuerrcu ; The effecting of tJie 
destruction of the evil mingled in 
our nature, represented in the image 
of mortification conveyed by the 

Kadapevovcra 1 om yevoiro h 
e SI to 

water? Ata roO i 5aros goes with 
yevo/j-fvy. The passing beneath the 
water is an eiK&v of mortification, 
just as the rising again is a type 
of the resurrection. Cp. infra r^v 
/cat ...VTTO- 

12. 5ta/co7r?7i ] It is not so much 
a complete destruction of sin, as a 
kind of break in the continuity of 
sin. Ata/coTrrj is lit. a gash or 

14. y u,eTa y u.e\ei as] repentance, used 
here in the same sense as /j-erdvoia. 

1415. T. T. ^. /ai/ATjcrea;?] (jr. 
means by this expression the baptis- 
mal imitation of the death of Christ. 
The complete death unto sin is 
only ideally and not actually realized 
in baptism. 

16. <ru/u.0iaas] Cp. <rvfj.(f>iwv supra 
and c. 8 rroXXrjv yeyevr/crdai Trj ^vxiJ 
Trpbs TO Kaxov <rv^.(pvla.v. 


T6 /cal d\\oTp iW(Tiv TT)? fcaKias ^wpcov, rc5 Se Oavarw TOV 
KCIKOV rov d(^avio~fjiov epya^o/Aevos. \V el fjuev TJV OUVCLTOV 
ev T\ei(i) TO> OavaTM yeveaOai TOV fJUfJLoviJLevov, ov& av 
yLt//A7/crt9, a\\(i TauTOT?79 TO ryivofjievov r}v, KCLI et? TO irav- 
TeA.e? TO KCLKOV etc TI^ (frvo-ews TJ/JLWV rjtyaviZero, W<TT, 5 
os (f>rj(Tiv 6 avroo-ToXo?, e<a7raf (iTroOavelv Ty dfj,apTia. 
e, /caOais eiprjTai, TOCTOVTOV fJUjJiovfjieOa r-fj^ virepe- 
Swd/jiews oaov %wpel ^JJLMV rj TTTco^e/a T^? (^ucrea)?, 

TO l>Sci)p Tpis 67rL%6(l/uiVOl KOI 7T(l\iV dva{3( lVTS ttTTO TOl) 

awTr/piov Tafyrjv icai dvddTao iv TTJV eV Tpt^/xepco 10 
O> %p6i w vjroKpLvo/jLeOa, TOVTO \a{36vTe<? KCLTO, 
Sidvoiav or i, co? r;/uz; eV e^ovaia TO vScop ecrr/, :al eV 
aLTco yevecrOai Kal ef avrov 7rd\iv (ivaovvai, KCLTO, TOV 
avTov TpGTrov eV efoiWa? 771; o TOU TTCLVTOS e^wv TTJV 

ft)? rjfjieis ev TGO vSaTt, OVTQX; e/ctivos zv TO) 15 

is, Trd\iv evrt Tr}/ l&iav dva\vetv fjiaicapio- 
TrjTa. el ovv Tt9 Trpo? TO etVo? /^XeVot /cat /eara T?)^ eV 
Tti yivofjueva K pivot, ovoe/jiiav ev Tot? 

I om re f || 3 om rw h || 5 TT^S 0ucrea;s TJ/XWJ ro KO.K.OV 1 vulg || 

6 airodavrj vulg j| 9 avapaivovres f || 1 1 V7roTVTrov/j.e6a. fg 1 ! 1 OLiroK.pivoiJ.e9a. 
vulg (1* rasuram habet) || 12 TO uSwp ei/ e|oi (ria 1 vulg || 14 ra>...e7re^oj/ri f 1 || 

15-16 ei ra> ^ai arw] adaisaru e j| 16 KaraduvaL f 1 || avaXncrai f j g a |i 17 om 
ev 1 vulg || 18 ra yLV. xpivoi dvi>a/j.ii> f 

i. dXXorp. ] i putting away of tion of baptism is of course Rom. vi 

vice? 3 ii. 

3. rfXetoj] <7 death tliat was 11. rouro] refers to what follows 

completed The adj. is used as a ort K.T.\. 

predicate. z $. Xa/3. K. Sidvoiav] thus inter- 

6. 6 dTTocrroXos] Rom. vi ro. preting it with the mind? 

10. Ta<p. KO.L avd<rTa<riv] Similarly 12. ev e^oi/cri^i] It was in the 

Cyril of Jerusalem says C. M. ii 4, power of Christ to rise from the 

5 Ka.Tf5vfT TP LTOV ds ro u5wp /cat dead, just as it is in the power of 

dvedi tere 7rdXiJ>, /cat ^vravda dia man to rise out of the waters of 

(TVfJift6\ov rrjv Tptri/uicpov TOV Xptcrrou baptism. 

a.ivLTTbiJ.voi ra(f)rjv...ovK aXrjdus dire- 16. dvaXvfiv] return. Cp. c. 23 

6dvofj.ei>, oi 5 dXydus erd^Tj^te^, oi)5 TYJV re T&V redvrjKorwv etrl rbv fiiov 

d\ri6us ffraiipwdevres>, dXX dvd\vatv (note) and c. 39 Trpos eavrbv- 

ev elKOVi. TI /^jin/cris, ev d\Tjdeia 5e ij dvaXvuv. 
The basis of this exposi- 



evptjaei biafyopdv, etcarepov /card TO TT)? 
el;pryao/jLvov rd Kara Svvafjuv. &>? yap ea-nv 
dv0pa)7rqy TO vocop TT/DO? TO dtciv^vvw etriOiyrydveiv, el 
(3ov\oiTO, d7ripo7r\acric0s rfj 6eiq Swd/jbei Kar evtcoXiav 
5 o Odvaros TrpofcetTai, KOI ev avra) yeveaOai /cal /JLT) rpa- 

TTTjVai 7T/9O? TT/lOo^. Sid TOVTO TOIVVV dva^KCLlOV TjfMV 

TO eV TW vSart 7rpo/jL\Tr)crai rrjv TT)? dvavTaa-zw^ %dpLV, 

ft)? CUV i$L7]/jiV OTl TO l(TOV rj/jLLV iS VKO\iaV <TTlv vSaTl 

T6 ftdTCTicrQ^vai Kal e/c TOV Qavdiov iri iKiv dva&vvai. 

10 aXX waTrep ev Tot? Kara TOV ftiov ytvo/jievois Tivd TIVMV 

earT\v dp^yt/ccorepa, &v avev OVK av TO ^ivo^evov fcaTop- 

I dia(f>a}vi.av \* vld vulg || Kara] Trpos f || 2 eirepya^- n e^epyaaa/j.- fl 
vulg || 4-5 o K. e. f jj 5 om o vulg || 6 ro ira.Oo s en || 6-7 TO 
Trpo. ev i5art avayKanov TJ/MV f || 7 om ro e || 10 yevofj.i>ois fl vulg || 
1 1 apxiKwrepa deghnp || om OVK vulg || av] KO.V vulg 

1. 5ta0opaV] The idea of Gr. 
is that in each case the result is in 
proportion to the capacity of each. 
Christ by His Passion and Resur 
rection effected a result proportionate 
to His supernatural character. Man 
by submitting to Baptism equally 
effects that which is within his 
capacity, i.e. such a death unto sin 
as he is capable of. 

2. tanf J ^ecrriv. 

3. e7ri0t77a/>e ] A marginal 
note in e explains this as equivalent 
to \pavcLv, a.TTT(rdai, while the margin 
of -p has yyleii>. As used here 
it is a somewhat colourless term. 
Come in contact with. 


more, strengthens /car evKo\ia.i>. 

ib. /car eitKoXiav] with facility 
or ^ ease. Ei)/co\t a is used by Plato 
(Legg. 942 D) of bodily agility. 
Logically aTreipoTr-Xacrius and /car* 
i>Ko\iav are connected with yeveffdai. 
and /J.TJ TpaTriji>ai, rather than with 

5. 7rp6/cetrai] ^ is set before? The 

following infinitives yeveadai and JJ.T] 
Tpa.Triji>a.i are explanatory of TT/JO- 

ib. Tpa.Trrjva.1 irpbs wddos] to 
suffer any change involving weak 
ness. ^ Cp. the argument of c. 16. 

7. TrpofJ-eXeTrjaai] Baptism is a 
representation in act or preparatory 
rehearsal of the resurrection. 

8. TO icr ov... els ei /c.] To LVOV 
modifies els CVK. Cp. aTretpoTrXacrtws 
/car evKO\iav supra. 

9. aVaSOvai] suggested by the 
rising from the immersion of bap 

10. d/\X wffwep] Baptism, Gr. 
says, may seem a humble beginning 
of a process which finds its climax 
in a resurrection to a life of blessed 
ness. Yet it is a necessary begin 
ning, if that final state is to be 
attained, just as the humble begin 
nings of human life are a necessary 
stage in the production of a man. 

1 1 . apxyyi-KUTepa,] there are some 
things ivliich are primary in com 
parison witA others. 



@a>0Lr), KaiTot, el TT/OO? TO Trepas rj dp^rj KpivoiTo, dvr 
ovSevos eivai Sofet rov Trpdy^aro^ r) dp^rj (rvyKpivofjuevrj 
T(f> reXei ri yap icrov ai>9 poyjros KOI TO Trpos rr)v crvcrraaiv 
rov a>ov Kara/3a\\.6/j,evov ; aXX o/z&>9, el fir) eiceivo eirj, 
ov& av rovro yei Otro- ovrws /cal TO Kara rr/v fji,eyd\7]v 5 
avd(TTa<Jiv, fjiel^ov ov rfj fyvaei, r? < px a< > evrevOev KOI 
r9 alrias e^ei ov yap ean SVVCLTOV ercelvo yevecrOai, 
el yitr) TOVTO TrpofcaOTjyr/craiTo. yu,/; SvpacrOai Se (frij/jLi ofya 
r^9 Kara TO \ovrpov (ivayevvijo~w$ ev dvaardaei yevecrOai 
rov avOpwrrov, ov rrpo^ rrjv rov avy/cpi/jLaro^ f)fjiwv dvd- 10 
rr\acriv re Kal dvaaroiyziwGiv j3\eTru)V trpos rovro yap 
eel rrdvrws TropevOrjvai TTJV (frvo-w olfceiais dvdy/cais Kara 

ulg || 12 drj jravrus 5ei dgl* vld 5ei 

2 ra 7rpay/j.aTa d |j 1 1 avaj3^ 
TravTUS Set Imp 

r. irpbs TO irepas] with reference 
to (or bv comparison with } the end." 1 

ib. dvT ovdevos] as good as 
nothing, of no account. 1 

3. rl yap K.T.\.] Cp. c. 33. 
\Vhat equality is there between a 
man and etc. 

4. eneivo] refers to To.../eara- 
{Ba\\b/j.evov, TOUTO to avOpwiros. 

5. TT]v ju,yd\ifjv dv.] The words 
fj.tyd\T)v and lu-fifov contrast the 
resurrection with its symbolic be 
ginning in baptism. 

6. evTeudev] i.e. from baptism. 
9. Kara TO XovTpov] Cp. c. 32 

fin. i] KaTa TO \ovTpov 

10-11. ou...l3\TT(jt}v] By the re 
surrection Gr. does not mean the 
general resurrection of all men re 
sulting from the mere refashion 
ing and renewal of the composite 
elements of man s being, which 
were dissolved in death. He means 
the restoration to the blessed and 
divine life (TTJV eiri TO fj.aKapi.6v TC 
Kal delov ...d-jroKaTdo Taffii ). 

ib. o~uyKpifj,aTos] Cp. c. 16 ToO 
dvOpwirivov o uyKpifj.aTos. 

1 1 . dvao~TOiXL(}(nv] On the words 
and dj>a(7Totxetct><m see 

c. 8 (notes). They are used com 
monly by Gr. to denote the renewal 
of humanity through the Incarnation. 
Here, however, Gr. uses dvao-Toi- 
Xeiw<m in a more general sense of 
the recombination of the elements 
of human nature, after the dissolution 
of death. 

ib. -rrpos TOUTO] This clause, as 
far as /j.vr)o-eus, is a parenthesis, 
explaining what he means by the 
general resurrection. 

1 2. oi /c. dvdyKais] for to tJlis our 
nature must in any case attain, im 
pelled by its oivn fixed Saws, in ac 
cordance with tJie plan of Him who 
so designed it? Gr. means that the 
resurrection of mankind is due to 
the operation of natural laws, and 
distinct from the resurrection to a 
life of blessedness, which is the 
work of grace. Gr. assumes here, 
what he has already stated (cc. 5, 8), 
that man is by nature immortal. 
See esp. c. 8 T? vetcpoTr)? OIKOVO/JUK&S 
T^d-rj T?7 els ddavaffiav KTio~deio~ri 

i TO aiffdr/Tov TOU avdpuirov 

5ia\a/u,j3dvou(ra, auTrjs 5e T?}J 
Betas eiKovos ov Trpoo~aTTTO/ui.evr). 



Trjv TOV Ta^avTO? OiKOVOfJbiav avvcodov/uievnv, /cdv 7rpocr\d/3r} 
rrjv etc TOV \ovrpov ^aptv, /cdv d/jboipos fjLeivrj TT}? roiavrr]^ 
a\\a Tf)V CTTL TO fia/capiov re teal Belov /cal 
Karrj(f)La^ Ke^wpio-jjuevov dTfOKCLTaaTacnv. ov yap 
5 oaa OL dvaaraa ea)<$ TTJV ejrl TO elvai 7ra\iv eTrdvooov 
TOV avTov eTrdveicri, /3iov, d\\d TTO\V TO 
TWV re KetcaOapfjievwv /cal TMV TOV KaOapaiov 
eaTiv. e^> wv yap KCITU TOV ftiov TOVTOV 
TOV \ovTpov 7rpoKa0r) i yijcraTO KdOapcris, vrpo? TO 

10 (Tvyyeves TOVTOIS TJ 

TO diraftes TrpocrwKeiajTai, ev 
elvai OVK dfjL<>ij3d\\eTCii. o 
/cal ovoev Trpoarj^Or) TT}? 


15 /zeXe/a? Si6p0o}cri^, dvdyicri 

e&Tai TCO Se /caOapa 
TJJ diraOeia TO 

]\w <yevecr9ai. 

KdOdpcriov, ov% vowp 

/Ji(t)^, OV^ f} K /JL6TCI- 

Trdaa /cal TOVTOV^ ev TCO 
Be TC 

2 TTJV] TWO. f || 3 fJ.ifJ.rjffews d || 4 Ke%o>pt(r/ue^ov] aTr-r}\\ay fj.evr]v f j |j 
9 om TOV f i| jo (rvyyeves] + rjdr} f || om rj \* vulg || 13 Trpor)x@ r] 1* vulg || 
15 opduffis \* vulg II 1 6 TO KeKifidrjXevfj.ei oi xP V(fiOV f* 

3. /Airscrews] Cp. antea c. 33 
/j.vr)6et(ri (note). 

4. Karrifaias] Cp. James iv 9 
(with Mayor s note). 

5. ^TTt TO eiva.L\ For this use of 
flva.L cp. c. 32 fji.Tjdei e/unrodiov irpos 
TO elvai woirjaaa dai. 

6. TO fj.^aoi ] Cp. c. 6 TroXXy 
T(f ju.&ry, and c. 32 /jL-rjdevl ^ay. 

7. Kadapaiov] Cp. antea c. 27 
TOJ Kadapaiif) (note). 

9. Trpos TO ffvyyeves] explained 
in what follows as TO awadh. Those 
who have been purified by baptism 
enter upon a life congenial (ffvy- 
yeves) to their state. The appro- 
priate state (irpoffUKeiwTaC) for the 
pure is freedom from passion. In 
c. 6 Gr. speaks of man as originally 
airadris TT\V <f>v<riv. Man s nature 
first became ^u.7ra#7js through the 
Fall. Cp. de An. et Res. p. 148 

(Migne), where he also says TT/>OJ 
Be TTJV airadrj /xa/capiorT/ra iraXiv 
avadpapovffa OVKTL ro?s 
6ov<ri rrjs KaKias 

12. irpo(r<;Trupu07)] Cp. c. 8 e?rt- 
Trupourai (note). But those "whose 
natures have become crusted over with 
their passions. The idea is that the 
passions have formed a covering or 
crust upon the heart. Cp. Rom. xi 7 
(with Sanday and Headlam s note) 
and 2 Cor. iii 14. 

13. vdup /AVO-TLKOV] sacramental 
water. Cp. c. 34 TTJS /j.vffTLKr)s TauTtjs 
oli<oi>ofj.ias (note). 

15. diopduais] amendment, re- 
form of life, resulting from peni- 

ib. ev TW /caTaXX^Xw 76?*.] should 
be in their appropriate placed 

16. /caTciXXTjXor] The appropriate 
place for gold which is adulterated 



w %pvcri(i) TO ^oyvevrrjpiov^ GO? rr? 

(ITT orate eiarj^ /jia/cpols varepov alwdi KaOapav 
i TM 0w Ttjv fyvaiv. eVel ovv pvTTTifcrj rt? 
ecrri 5ui/a/u9 ev rco trvpl real TOO vSan, ol Bid TOV vSaros 


eTepov TWV Ka$apo~t(jdv e lBov^ OVK eTTiSeovTai ol Se 

TCLVT71S OfJ,V7)TOl T7?9 Ka0(ip(TWS avajKaiW^ TOJ TTVpl 

36. MJ; ryap elvai BVVCLTOV o re KOIVOS BeLfcvvai, Xo<yo? 
teal TI TWV ypa^wv ^tSacr/caX/a eVro? TOV Oeiov "yeveadai 10 

TOVS e/c Kcut ia 
o {jutcpov ov /ca0^ 





T Kai 

i ws] wore gl 1 || 2 om Kadapav d 
36. 1 1 TOV] TO n )i K TTJS Kaxias f 

8 Kadapi^ovTai] irapa.$i.oovTan f 

is the refiner s furnace. For the idea 
see c. 26 (notes). Gr. is speaking 
of a purification which follows the 
resurrection, not of a purgatory in 
some intermediate state between 
death and the resurrection. The 
Kadapais of which he speaks refers 
only to those who have not passed 
through the waters of baptism. He 
nowhere states that the baptized 
person has to enter the x wvV7 "nP LOV 
For the source of the idea see the 
passage of Origen quoted in the 
notes on c. 26. Other passages in 
Gr. dealing with the subject are de 
An. et Res. pp. roo, 152, 157, 160 
(Migne), de Mortnis p. 524 (Migne). 

1. xuvevTripiov] a smelting fur 
nace. The word is used of the 
refiner s furnace in Malachi iii 2 
(LXX), a passage which was pro 
bably in Gr. s mind. 

2. jUGi/cpcus var. at wcrt] Cp. c. 26 
rcus /J.a.Kpa is Trept65ois (note). 

3. a.Troffdodrji ai] Cp. c. 26. See 
further Or. in illnd Tune ipse filins 
(of doubtful authorship) p. 1316 

(Migne) and passages quoted supra. 

36. A complete purification from 
the stains of sin is necessary before 
man can enter the company of the 
blessed. The means of effecting this 
provided by baptism may seem in 
significant and easy of performance. 
The efficacy of baptism however de 
pends on the immanence of God, 
His special presence when invoked, 
and His activity in succouring the 
needy. The means by which baptism 
is effected is faith and water. The 
one is within the power of our wills, 
the other is an element closely con 
nected with human life. The blessing 
which results from baptism is nothing 
less than kinship with God. 

9. KOIVOS . . . \6yos] the general 
reason of mankind, common sense." 1 

Cp C ^ TlUf KOivCoV WQ(.(t)V. 

io-ii. deiov...xopov] i.e. the com 
pany of the blessed. 

13. a.p\r] T. K. UTTodecns] Cp. c. 6 
i] aTrddeia rrjs /car dpfTTjv i"a>7js d 
Kai virodecris yiveTai (note). 


Be <f>rj/jit, rfj evtcoKiq TOV tcaropOdOfjiaTos. rt? *ydp 
TTO^O? TCO TrpdyfAdTi, TTKTTevcrai Tcaviayov TOV Oebv eivai, 
ev Tracn Be OVTCL, Trapelvai /cal rot? e7riKa\ov/JLei>oi,s rrjv 
d)TiKrjv avTov Bvva/jiiv, Trapovra Be TO oiKelov iroielv ; 
5 I8iov Be rr)? Oeias evepyelas rj TWV Beo/jLevcov earl o-corrjpia. 
avrij Be 8ia TT}? eV vSari, KaOdpcrews evepyos jiverai. 6 Be 
Ka0ap0el$ ev /jierovcria TT}? /caOapoTTjro^ earai, TO Be 
d\r)0w<$ KdOapov r) OeoTrjs ecrriv. opa<^ OTTO)? /ju/tpov ii 
TO Kara Trjv dp^rjv ecrrt KOI evtcaTopOwrov, TTiVrt? /cal 
10 vBatp, r] [Jiev eVro? TTJ? Trpoaipeaecos rj/jiwv aTcoK.i^kvri, TO 
Be <TvvTpo(>ov TTJ avdpoyrrivr) ^wfj. d\\d TO etc TOVTWV 
6^evov d<ya0ov ocrov KOI olov, &>? TT^O? avro TO Oelov 
iv Tr)i> ol/ceioTrjTa. 

3 ev TOLS in. f il 7 KaQapuTdeis 1 vulg 

I. Karopdu/jiaTos] Cp. c. 35 avro TO delov ^x eiv T ^l v o/Kei6ri;ra. 

KaTop6w/j.a. (note). / call it small The process is of course only 

owing to the ease with which it is ideally complete in baptism. Hence 

successfully done." 1 Cp. evKaropduTOv Gr. uses ecrrcu, not fariv, in the next 

infra. sentence. 

ib. ris yap] There can be no g. evKaTopduTov] easily effected? 

difficulty, Gr. maintains, for the Cp. supra rrj evKo\ia TOV KCLTopdu- 

baptized person in believing that ^aros. 

God is present in the baptismal 10. TO 5 ffvvTpofiov] ^ivhile the 

rite. In what follows he sum- other is intimately associated with 

marizes the arguments of cc. 33, 34. man s life? For avi>Tpo<pos cp. c. 23 

4. TO oiKeiov] that wJiich befits Trpos TO ovvTpocfiov T KO.I ffvyyeves 

His character? explained in what auTw (3\eiruv. For the idea cp. 

follows as i] TCov deoimevuv awT^pia. in Bapt. Christi p. 581 H (Migne) 

Gr. has used the same argument avvdeTos 6 avdpwTros, ATCU oi)% aTrAous 

before. Cp. c. 27 v irpeTrov eaTi .../cat 5td TOUTO TW 5i7r\y /cat avve- 

T deq TO euepyeretV TOV debfj-evov. ^evy^evw TO, trvyyevrj /cat o/xota <pdp- 

6. auTr?] sc. 77 (TWT-rjpla. The /xa/ca irpos Oepcnreiav dTre/cX^pw^r; 

purification effected in Baptism is (rc^aTt /u.ev TOJ <t>aivo/mev(j), vdup TO 

the means \->y which the convert a.iadi]Tbv / I XT? ^ T V dopciTy, llvev/j.a 

enters upon a state of (rurrjpia. This TO d0a^ej, Trt aTft KaXov/Aevov, appr/- 

awTrjpia is defined below as irpos TWS 7rapayLv6/Li.ei>ov. 



37. A\V etreiSr) SiTrXovv TO di dpwTTivov, ^rv^rj re 
Kal (KjDfJiaTi o-vyKKpa(A6vov, t d/ji(f)OTepa)i> avdry/crj rov 
TTpo? rrjv ^wrjv Kadiyyov/jievov rou? aco^o/j^evov^ efycnrTecrOai. 
OVKOVV T) tyv%r) fjLev 8id 7r/crT6<W9 TTpo? dVTOv dvaicpaOeiaa 

37. 2-3 a.i>ayK-ri...5i a/x0orepwi rous crw^. vulg || T<j}...Ka6T]yovfjLevw 1 vulg 

3 (f)TTff9at f\* Vulg 

ii. Chap. XXXVII. On the Eucharist. 

37. In Baptism the soul is knit 
to God by faith. But the body too 
needs grace. The means by which 
the body is brought i)ito union with 
the Author of salvation is the 
Eucharist. The antidote to the 
poison which has corrupted tlie body 
must, like the poison which it 
counteracts, be distributed through 
the body. Thus it is that the Body 
of Christ which was made immortal 
by God enters into our body and 
wholly transforms it. The means 
by which t/iis is effected is eating 
and drinking. But hoiv can the 
one body be given whole to thousands 
of believers ? A study of the nature 
of the body supplies an answer. The 
human body retains its bulk by the 
continual influx of nourishment. 
food and drink become tJie body 
and blood 1 of man. The Word of 
God Himself, when on earth, re 
ceived nourishment from bread and 
wine, while His Body also by its 
union with the Word was raised to 
the dignity of Godhead. In like 
manner the bread ivhic/i is con 
secrated by the Word of God is 
transformed, no longer by eating, 
but immediately, into His Body by 
the Word. In the same way we may 
explain how the wine becomes the 
Blood of Christ. Thus He plants 
Himself in the bodies of the faithfztl 
that they may partake of incorrnp- 
tion. Gr. s treatment of the Eu 
charist should be compared with 

the contemporary language of Am 
brose de Myst. cc. viii ix, and 
with the later teaching of John of 
Damascus de Fid. Orth. iv 13, 
which shews clear traces of the in 
fluence of this chapter. For a dis 
cussion of the language of the 
present chapter see Harnack Hist. 
of Dogma (Eng. tr.) vol. iv pp. 
294 ff. Cp. also Schwane Dog- 
mengesch.\o\. ii pp. 780 ff., Neander 
Ch. Hist. (Bohn) iv 438 ff. Other 
passages in which Gr. refers to the 
Eucharist are in Bapt. Christi 
p. 581 (Migne), /// Chr. resurr. 
Or. i p. 612 (Migne), de Vita Moysis 
p. 368 (Migne), de perf. Christi 
p. 268 (Migne). 

I. d\X eireidT] <5t7rA.] In the 
preceding chapters Gr. has shewn 
the efficacy of baptism as a cleansing 
of the soul from sin. He now pro 
ceeds to discuss the provision made 
for the redemption of the body. 

3. e0d,7rrecr^at] lay hold of. 
This reading is preferable to the 
reading ry . . . /ca #77701^^ . efitire- 
adan which is found in f. Fronto 
Ducaeus cites Chrys. Horn. 82 (83) 
in Matt. T. vii p. 787 n (ed. Mont- 
faucon) et /JL^V yap dcrw/xaros el, yv/uLva. 
&i> aura, trot ra curw/xara TrapeSw/ce 
eirel 5e crayian cru/xTreTrXe/crat 
ra voyrd <roi 

4. dvaKpadelaa] Cp. c. 1 1 Kara- 
Ktpi>a.Ta.i and ibid. O.VO.K pd<r ^ws (notes). 


evrevOev T/)? awrrjpias e^et* rj yap Trpo? rrjv 
rr}v TT)? &>?}9 KoivwvLav e%ei TO 
erepov rpoTrov eV yueroucrta re /cat avaKpdaei, TOV 
>yiveraL waTrep yap ol Si^rjrrjpiov &i emfiovXris 
5 d\\(D (^ap/jLCLKW Trjv (frOoporroiov Svvajjiiv ea/Beaav, %prj oe 
KCL& ofjLOLorrjra TOV o\edpiov tcai TO a\e^rjrrj p LOV eWo? rwv 

CLTTCLV KCLTa/jLepio-Oeiri TO aw/jia 77 TOV /3o7j6ovvTo<? 
OVTW TOV &ia\voi>TOS TTJV (frvcriv rip,wv 
10 rrd\ii dvayfcaicos KCIL TOV avvdyovTOs TO 

67roer]0riijLv, &>9 av ev rjfjilv yevofjievov TO TOIOVTOV 
Trjpiov TT)V TrpoevreOelo-av T<M crwyLtart TOV O7]\r)rr/piov 
^\(i^f]V bid TT}? oliceias dvTiTraOeias d~rra)<TOLTo. TL ovv 
TOVTO ; ovbev erepov rj Ifcelvo TO crco/^a o TOV re 

i evuffi.?] 7i wcris f |, 4 wcrwep] exstant seqq in euth 3457 |i 6 om /cat f |j 
a\ei;iTr)pioi euth 7 vulg aX^iT-rjpiov e || 67 ei rots rwv avdpwtrwv yfvfcrda.1 
crir\a.yx i OL s f li 8 ftepifden) d j| 10 avayKaiov ws P vi(l vulg |j 1 1 
hi euth 7 vulg aAi0a/yxa\ OJ e 

2. TO 5e a-w^a] The antithesis 5. Zfffieaav} a gnomic aorist. 

suggests that the Eucharist is re- 7. <7irXct7x i/WI/ ] the vital organs 

garded mainly as a principle of life of the body of man. 

for the body. For the view held as ib. di eKeivwv] i.e. TWI> aTrXdyxvuv. 

to the effects of the Eucharist on The antidote is distributed by means 

the body see Iren. adv. Hacr. iv of the vital organs throughout the 

1 8. 4, Cyril of Jer. C. M. iv i, 3, whole body. 

v 9, 15. A similar view may possibly Q. TOV 5ia\i >ot>Tos TTJV (pvai.v] i.e. 

be implied in Ign. Rph. 20 eva rov 6a.v6.TOv. Cp. de Honi. Opif. 

&PTOV K\iiovTs, 6 tffTLv (f)dpfj.o.Kov c. 20 TI 5e /Spoicrtj eKeivr] 

ddavaaias, ct^rtSoros TOV [AT) CLTTO- fJ-rjTTjp rot? di>8p<JoTrot.s yeyovev. The 

dav-elv K.T.\. The starting point of ref. in d-n-oyeoadfMei OL is to the story 

such language is Jn vi 54, 58. in Genesis iii. On the dissolution 

4. wo-rrep yap] The remainder of human nature resulting from the 

of the chapter is reproduced in Eall see c. 8. 

Euthym. Zig. Pan. Dogtn. Tit. xxv 11-13. ws...a7ra)croiTo] Eor this 

pp. 1 262 ft . (Migne), and in Theo- use of the////, opt. in a final clause 

riant disputatio cum A ersete (Mai see Goodwin Greek Moods p. 39. 

Script. Vett. vi 366 sq.). 12. TrpocvTedclffa.*} the mischief 

ib. d7]\T]Tr]piov] Gr. has used already introduced into the body by 

the same illustration in a different the deadly drug." 

connexion in c. 26. 13. aj/riTra^etas] the reaction of 

ib. 81 Trif3ov\rjs] Cp. 6 eVt- the antidote upon the poison. 
c. 26. 


Oavdrov Kpelrrov eSefyBrj KOL r?)? fan}? riyCiv /carr/p^aro. 
KaOdnrep yap fjuicpa ^vfjiri, /ca6a)S fyrjaiv o aTrocrroXo?, o\ov 
TO (^vpafjia Trpo? eavrrjv e^o/jLOtot, ovrcos TO dOavancrOev 
VTTO TOV deov (rw/jia ev T&> rj/AerepM yevo^evov o\ov TT/OO? 
eavro /jLeraTTOiel KOI /j,TaTL@r)criv. co? yap TM (pOopojroio) 5 
Trpo? TO vyiaivov avayn^QkvTi airav TO dvaicpaOev avvrj- 
Xpict)Tai,, OVTWS KOI TO dOdvarov crw/jia ev rw dvaX 
avro yevofjievov Trpo? rr]v eavrov fyvcriv KCLI TO TTCLV 
d\\d iv ov/c ecrnv a\\ws ez^To? TL 

.UV ehl euth 457 vulg [! Trpo/carTj/^aro euth 345 
ioL eghlp [j davarLffOev 1* vulg a.iroda.varLCf6ev f | 

5-6 TOV (fidopOTToiov. a/u.ix^efros 1 vulg j| 6 avvr)xpe<-<*)d n 

euth i! 9 yiveadai fl 717^- vulg 

| 3 avTtjv e || 
4 om TOV f || 
1 I! 8 om /ecu 

l became the source 




1. K 
of life: 

2. 6 aTTocrroXos] i Cor. v 6. 
Gr. substitutes TT/)OS c 

assimilates to itself. 

3. adavaTLffOtv] For the 
cp. infra 6 8e (fravtpudeis deos 
TOVTO Karju.ii;v eavTOV 

<pu<rei, iva. -rr\ rrjs OeorrjTos KOivuvlq. 
ffvvairoOewQri TO avOpuTUvov. Prob. 
in both passages the main benefit 
which Gr. connects with the Eu 
charist is that of immortality. 
Ign. Eph. 20 (quoted above). 
further note on 

c- 35- 

5. fceraTrotel] (rans/mttes 
translates: On Gr. s use in 
present chapter of the words 
Troieu , fiera.Ti0&>cu, yuetficrraj/cu, and 
IJ.eTa.aToixeiovv see Pusey Doctr. of 
Real Presence from the Fathers 
p. 162 ff. MeTaTroieiv is used (i) in 
the present passage and in the 
following sentence of the trans 
formation of our bodies by union 
with the immortal Body of Christ : 
(2) of the transformation of the 
Lord s human Body to a Divine 
dignity by the indwelling of the 
Word. See infra TO 5^ o-wua Trj 

^VOiKr/<TL TOV 6eOV \6*yOV 7T/30S TT/V 

6fiKr)v d^iav fj.eTTroir]6r) : (3) of the 

assimilation of bread by our Lord 
to His human Body, infra 6 


apros : (4) of the sacramental change 
of the elements, infra TOV ry 
\byip TOV deov ay ia.^6 IACVOV O.OTOV els 
ffuifj.a TOU deov \6yov /j.eTa.iroi.e iada.i. 
Trio~Tvofj.ei> , and again 6 apTos...evdvs 
Trpos TO ffijofjia. 8ia TOV \oyov yuera- 
jroLOv^ev o? : (5) of the transmutation 
of the wine in our bodies into heat, 
infra: (6) of the change effected 
by baptism in the regenerate. Cp. 
c. 40. This variety of usage for 
bids us to attach to the word any 
particular idea of the kind of change 
denoted. The context alone must 
decide its force in each case. 

ib. /j.fTa.Ti6r/(rii>] used here as 
practically a synonym of fj-eTairoiflv. 

ib. ws yap] for as when a deadly 
drug is mixed with a Jiealthy body, 
t/ie whole of what is mingled with it 
becomes as worthless as the drug? 
Gr. returns to his illustration. The 
dat. is governed by the avv in 
ai vrjxp- To avaxp. is the body which 
has assimilated the drug. Gr. s point 
is that as the deadly drug affects the 
whole body into which it is infused, 
so the immortal Body affects the 
whole body of him who receives it. 

9. a\\a fj-r/v] The remedy for 



r) Bid ftpaxreGjs KOI TToaew? TO?? 

OVKOVV errdvay/ce^ Kara TOV BVVCLTOV rf) 

(j)vo~i TpoTcov Trjv ^cooTTOLOV Bvva/uLtv Tc5 O~(*)/JL(ITI Be^aaOdL. 
fjiovov Be TOV OeoBo^ov crw/xaro? e/ceivov TCLVTTJV Be^a/jLevov 
5 TI J l> X^P LV aAAct)? Be Bei^OevTos /jirj eivai BvvaTov ev 
dOavacria <yeveo-0aL TO r)/j,eTpov crwyLta, //-r) Bid T?}? TT/SO? TO 
Qivwvias ev [JieTovaiq TT}? d<f)6apcrias <ytv6fievov, 
Trpocnifcei,, TTW? eyevero Bvvarov TO ev e/ceivo 
rat? TOoavTais TWV TCIGTU>V i^vpu icn KCLTII TCCKJCLV 
10 Trjv ol/cov/AevTjv et? del /caTajuuepi^o/jievov o\ov e/cdaTov Bid 
TOV /Aepovs yLveaOai real avTo fjueveiv erf) eavTOv o\ov. 
OVKOVV Co? av TTjOO? TO d/coXovOov rj/jilv r) TTLCTTIS /3\Trovaa 

I /cat] f] deghnp euth 35 || 3 TU> o-w^caTt] TOV wvevfjiaros 1 vulg ;| 4 
vulg |! 6 L firj \ vulg || 7 yevofjievov eg 1 ! || 8 ef e/cet^w g 1 || ro oi/cou/ 
desunt seqq in f |; /AW ov g* || er e/cacrraj g 1 ! vulg |l 11 yevecdai 1 euth 
5 vulg || eai TW euth eavro g*p 

the body can only be applied to it, 
Gr. argues, through the processes of 

Gr. argues, through . 
eating and drinking. 

2. /card T. 5 rpoTroy] i.e. 5t 

rw (rco/xart] dependent on 
y/ces, necessary for the body. 
4. TavTrji>...T. X^-P^l i- e - 7 " ? J/ f- Cp. supra txelvo TO crcu/ua, 
8 TOU KpflTTov 

8. TTWS e7eVero] Gr. asks how 
it was possible for the one Body of 
Christ to become in its entirety the 
possession of multitudes of believers 
through the portion received by each, 
and yet remain nn undivided whole. 
His subsequent treatment of the 
Eucharist is intended as an answer 
to this question, and is accordingly 
limited in its scope. 

10. (KdffTov] The MSS are divided 
between ev e/cctarw and e/cctcrrof. The 
former is probably a correction. With 
ev eKdffTit) translate enters whole 
into each recipient through the part 
given. For the phrase 

ev cp. antea c. i p. 9 (note). With 
e/cdcrrou translate becomes in its en 
tirety the possession of each recipient 
through the portion received." 1 Simi 
larly Zinus, the Latin interpreter of 
Euthymius (ed. 1555), translates 
totum cuiusque per partem evadat. 
Gr. s idea appears to be that, as the 
Body of Christ is one and undivided, 
the recipient, although he receives 
only a portion, becomes through that 
portion possessor of the whole. 
There is no idea, as in some later 
discussions, that totus Christus is 
present under each species, and 
under each particle of the species 
of bread and wine. See Franzelin 
de SS. Rucharistia pp. 155 sq. 

11. /meveiv e0 eavTov] For the 
constr. ^.tvetv tiri TWOS cp. c. 39 
eTri TTJS TeXeioTT^ros TOV dya.8ou fj.evov 

12. Trpos r6 di<6\ov6ov] with a 
view to logical consistency? The 
question which Gr. has just been 
propounding seems to involve a 
contradiction in terms. 



Trep TOV rrpoKi,fj,evov VOI/JLO.TOS 
rrapao-^o\7)o-aL TOV \oyov et9 rrjv 
<f>vo-io\oyiav TOV aco/jLaro^. T/? yap OVK olBev on rj rov 
croo/LtttTo? Y)IJLWV <u<Tt? avTrj tcaO* eavTrjv ev l$[a Tivl VTTO- 
o~T(icreL ^(Drjv OVK ^L, d\\a &i,a TT}? 7rippova"r)$ avrfj 5 
Sw/i/JieMS Gvvkyjci T eavTrjv /cal ev TOJ elvau fjuevei, aTravo-Ta) 
Kivrjcrei TO re \el-rrov ?rpo? eavrrjv e(j)6\rco^evr] KCLI TO 
7TpiTTVov cLTTwOovfjievrj ; KOI wGTrep rt? d<rtcb<; vypov 

TT\r)pr)S (t)V, 1 KCLTa TOV 7TV0/JiVa TO yKi/jLVOV 

toi, OVK av (>v\ficrcroi TO Trepl TOV oytcuv eavTOV 10 
tj dvreLcriovTOs avwOev eTepov TT/OO? TO Kevov- 


7Tpio)r)v elSevai jjurj ISiav elvai TOV (fraivofjievov, a\\a TO 
elo-peov ev avTW yivofjuevov o"%r]/jLaTieiv TO Trepie^ov TOV 
oy/cov OVTO) KOI TI TOV crcoyLtaTO? rf/jiwv Karao~K6vr) iSiov 15 

6 avr-rji e euth 3 || 8 airudov/j.evTi] desunt seqq in euth 3457 
10 0i \acrcr6t dp 0i \acrcroiTo h 

i. rov Trp. vorj/j-aTos] tJie subject 
proposed for our thought. 

i. 7rapa(rxo\7?crai] lit. to busy 
oneself by the way. // is Jilting 
that our argument should turn 
aside for a moment to discuss the 
physiology of tJic body. 

ib. TT)v <j>v<rio\oylav] Cp. Arist. 
de Sens. c. 4 ev rrj (f>v(no\oyia rrj 
TTfpl T&V (frvrCov. For Aristotle s 
doctrine of nutrition and growth see 
de Anima ii 4, de Gen. ct Corr. i 5, 
dc Part. Animalium ii 3. The 
importance of the following illustra 
tion for Gr. s argument consists in 
the idea that bread and wine are 
potentially flesh and blood, and 
become so actually by the processes 
of eating and drinking and digestion. 

4. vTroardaeL] Cp. c. I ovde tv 
v-rrocrrdaei TTO.VTWS ecrriv (note). 

5. Tri.ppeov(njs] Cp. antea c. 16 

T7JS TpO<prjS TOV V 


itself. Cp. c. 5 p. 22 

8. wcTTrep] just as a leathern bottle 
full of some liquid, if its contents 
were to leak out at the bottom, woiild 
not preserve its own shape around 
the mass, unless there entered into it 
other liquid from above to fill up the 
void, so (hat he who sees the rounded 
circumference of this vessel knows 
that it does not belong to what he 
sees, but that it is the liqidd flowing 
into it and occupying it which gives 
shape to the thing containing the 
mass." 1 

15. idiov] is a tertiary predicate. 
Has nothing that we can recognize 
of its own to maintain itself byS 
That which maintains the body, 
coming as it does from without, 
cannot be said to belong to (ioiov) 
the body. Tvupi[j.oi> refers to that 
which the senses perceive. He is 
thinking specially of the shape and 
bulk referred to in his illustration. 



/jiv 7T/309 rrjv eavrfjs avcrTacriv ovBev IJ/ 
Bt,a Be TT}? eTreicrayofiev^s Bvva /jiea)^ ev TCO eivau 
TI Be Bvva/jiis avTij Tpo<f)r) /cal eon KCLI Xeyerai. ecrTi Be 
ov% 77 avrr) TTCLO-L rot? Tpe(f)o/jievois croo/jLao-w, aXXa rt? 
5 efcdcrTW Kara\\rj\os Trapa TOV TTJV (frvcriv OLKOVOIJLOVVTOS 

a7TOK6fC\^p(OTat. TCI /JieV jap TMV %U)(OV p 

Tpe(f)TaL, erepot? earlv r) Troa rpo^t/zo?, nvwv Be r) 

crap/ccs elcrlv, dvOpcoTrcp Be Kara TO Trpoijyov/uievov a 

KOI et? Tr)v TOV vypov Bia/jiovrjv /cal avvTY)pi r ]O Lv TTOTOV 

10 <yivTai ov/c aitTo JJLOVOV TO vBcop, aXX? olvw 
etyrjBvvo/Aevov^pos Tr/v TOV Oepfjiov TOV ei> rj 
OVKOVV 6 Trpos TavTa /SXeTTcov ovvajj,i Trpo? TOV OJKOV TOV 
rjfjieTepov acofiaTO^ /3\e7rei ev e/jiol y(ip eKelva ryevop.eva 
al/jia teal crw/jia yiveTai, KaTa\~\,tj\a)s Bid rr)? d\\oia)- 

15 Ti/crjs Bvvd/juews TT^O? TO TOV crw/xaro? 

3 77 5e dvv.] rursus incipit euth || cort 5e] en 8e vulg || 6 
dg*lp pifaopvxovvTa g 1 [| 12 OVKOVV] OVK o.v dgp || 14 ai/j.a /cat crw/ia] eyw 1 

5. KarciXXT/Xos] Cp. c. 5 /car- food. Cp. Theodoret in lonatn 

eKaffTov r^> rijs fw^s et Sei c. i /ca/ 17 ciXXoiwriKTj TTJS 

c. yaarpos evepyeiv e/cwXuero. AXXot aj- 

6. ptfwp^xoOj/ra] /y digging up ens freq. denotes change of quality 
roots? or affection. See Arist. de Gen. ct 

7. TLVUIV 5t] The fragment of Corr. i 4, where it is denned in the 
this chapter preserved in Mai words orav vTro/^evovros TOV viro- 
Script. Vdt. vi 366 reads KVVOS for xei/mevov, aia8rjTov OVTOS, fj.Taj3d\\r) 
TLvGov. fv rots O.VTOV iradeffLv. 

g. TOV vypov] i.e. the element 15. Trpbs r. r. cr. etSos] the food 

of moisture in the human body. being changed into the form of the 

n. T. 6tp/j.ov] Wine is a means of body? In using eidos here Gr. 

supplementing the natural heat of appears to have in mind the dis- 

the body. See injra. tinction between the form of 

12. 5vvd/u.i] virtually. Used matter and its substance. There 

here in its Aristotelian sense as is a passage in the de Horn. Opif. 

opposed to evepyeia. Similarly be- c. 27, which throws light upon the 

low Gr. says of the human Body ideas which lie in the background 

of Christ ^Kflvo TO crw^ia dpros Ty of this passage. In that chapter 

dvvdfj-ei rfv. Gr. is discussing the resurrection of 

14. KaraXXTjXws] respectively, the body. In spite of the continual 

i.e. solid food becoming flesh, while flux going on in the body, its eldos 

liquid passes into blood. remains unchanged, TUIV aira^ eTrt- 

il>. d\\oiti>TiKr)s 5.] the body s pXrjdevTwv CLVTU> Trapa. TTJS tpvaews 

power of assimilating or digesting ffrjfjiduv OVK e^tcrrd/uei o^, dXXa ird- 


TOVTWV r^v TOVTOV ievKpivrievTwv TOV 
TpoTrov eTravafcreov TraXiv Trpos rd TrpoKei^eva TYJV ^iavolav. 
yup TTW? TO ev eiceivo (TWfia TOV Xpiarov Traaav 

TTJV TWV (ivOpWTTWV (f)V(Tll>, V OCTOt? T) TTLO Ti^ <TTL, 

vrpo? TravTas jjLepi^ofJLevov KOI avro ov jjieiovfjievov. Tayjn, 5 
Tolvvv eyyvs rov eitcoTos \oyov yivofjieOa. el yap TTCLVTOS 
1} VTroaraa^ etc TT}? rpoffrr/s yiverai,, avrrj Se 

I Kadi(rTa./u.evT]s l* vi(l vulg || 3 tv CKCLVU I 1 vulg 

crats rcus Kara TO crcD/xa rpoira.l S /u.era 

In the same chapter Gr. discusses 
the relation of the eiSos to the 
ffTOLXfio., and after stating that rds 
/card TO eldos 5ta0opds at Trotat TTJS 
/cpacrews irapa\\ayal fj.eTafj.opfiovcni , 
he proceeds : 17 5^ Kpa<ns OUK &\\t] 
rts Trapd TTji rwv crrotxf twv yUi^t^ ecrri, 
crrot%eta 5e 0a / ue rd TT; /caraa"/ceu^ 

TOU TTttt TOS V7TOKi/Ul.fl>a, 5t Wf /Cat TO 

crcyCta, ct^ay- 
TOV e tdovs olov e/c/xayetw ff<ppa- 

rd efaTTOjLta^d^te^a TT; ffippayWi TOV 
TVTTOV VTT avTTJs dyvoeiTCU, a\\ e? 
TO; /cat/ex^ T?7s draaTotxetuxrews CKHVO. 
dextTai TrdXiv ?rp6s eavTr/v, direp &v 
6i>apu.6ar) T< TVirtg TOV eldovs t>a.p[j.6- 
aeie 5e TTO.VTWS enelva, 6Va /caT* dp^^s 
eveTvirudr] TW ei Set. The whole 
passage is important as throwing 
light upon Gr. s language through 
out the present chapter. In the 
parallel passage below (rrjs Tpofirjs... 
irpbs Trjv T. ff. (pvaiv /adi(TTafj,tvr)s) 
Gr. describes the change of the 
elements of food as a change of 
<f>v<ns, where 0wns denotes the sum 
of the qualities, which are the yvw- 
plffp-o.Ta of the etSos. Ambrose, in 
his discussion of the change of 
the Eucharistic elements uses both 
species and natura. See de 
Myst. \\ 52 non valebit Christi 
sermo ut species mutet elemento- 
rum?...non enim minus est novas 
rebus dare quam mutare naturas. 

Thus the idea of the whole clause 
is that the ffToixeta of the food have 
a new form imposed upon them 
so that they become the body. 

i. /jt-edio-Ta^v-r]^} Like the pre 
ceding word /AfTairoie iv, /medicrTdvai 
is used by Gr. in a variety of senses, 
(i) Here and infra p. 148 it is used 
of the transformation of food into 
body. (2) In the words infra 
6 tv eKeivuj Ty <rb)fj.a.Ti /jLeTawoiridels 
&pTOS et s deiav fjt-eTeaTr) di va/uiv it is 
used of the change of bread in the 
Lord s human body to Divine power. 
(3) In cc. 39, 40 /xeTacTTacrts is used 
of the moral change effected in the 

// . dievKptv.] l after this thorough 
analysis. 1 Td TrpoK. the subject of 
our enquiry, which he re-states in 
the next sentence. 

3-4. wciffav ...T.T. dvd. (fivcriv] i.e. 
all mankind, rather than the 
whole nature of man, body as well 
as soul, since ace. to Gr. the Eu 
charist is specially intended for the 
body, and he would scarcely intro 
duce a further thought at this point. 

6. T. et/c. \6yov] the probable 
account of the matter? Gr. is con 
scious of the tentative character of 
his explanation (Taxa). 

/ /;. et yap] The protasis is con 
tinued through the following series 
of clauses, and again taken up by 
uxT-rrep TOIVVV. The apodosis begins 


10 2 


fipcoo-tf /cal TTocrfc? eo-Tiv, eaTL 8e ev rfj 
ev Se rfj Trocret TO vScop e^^va^evov TOO oiva), 6 Se rov 
Oeov \6<yos, Ka0a)$ ev rot? TrpwTois ^irjpr]raL, o #at #eo? wz/ 
/tal Xd^yo?, TT? dvOp(D7rivr/ crvvaveKpdO rj (frvaeL /cat e^ T&> 
5 crwfjiaTi TOJ rifjieTepu) ryevofjievos OVK d\\rjv riva Trape/caLvo- 
rofjurjae rfj (frvcrei rrjv avaracriv, d\\d Bid ra)V Gvvr/Otov 

T6 Kdi KCLTd\Xrf\rOV &C0/C TO) KdO* koLVTOV (TWfjLaTl T1]V 

Sia/jiovr/v, ftpwcrei teal vroaet irepiKparwv rrjv VTroaracrtv, 
TI Se fipwcris apros r]v wajrep Toivvv e^) rjfjiwv, KaOcos 

10 77877 7ro\\dfCLs elpriTai, o TOV aprov ISoov rpoirov rivd TO 
arw^a TO dvOpwirivov ySXeVet, on ev TOVTW eicelvo yivopevov 
rovro ylverai, ovra) Kaicel TO 0eoS6%ov aw/Jia Trjv TpofyrjV 
TOV apTOv Trapaoe^d/jievov Xo<yft) Tivl TCLVTOV rjv eKeivw, TTJS 
Tpo^ijs, KaOoos eiprjTai, TTpo? rrjv TOV (TfJO/JiaTos (f)vaLV 

15 [Jie6io-Tap,evris TO yap irdvTwv LOLOV teal 67r e/eeivr)? TT}? 
crap/cos w/jLoXoyrfOr), OTL apTO) tcdicelvo TO awfjua SiercpaTetTo, 

I ev~\ + /j.ev euth || 2 (f>r)8vvof J iei>oi g 1 ! 1 || 4 (rvveKpadr/ 1 euth 5 vulg 
euth 4 || 6 avdpuirwr] (pvaei 1 vulg || 9 om TQIWV euth || 10 om 
euth || 1 1 avOpuirivov j3\ewL crw/aa 1 : rursus incipit f || CKCIVOS euth 
345 || yevofJLevos euth 345 yevo/m-evov dghnp euth 7 

i. iv rrj /3.] lit. included n. eV roi ry] refers, as also does 

under the head of food is bread. the following roOro, to (rw/cia. E/cei- 

4. ffvvaveKpadr]] Cp. c. II vo = 6 apros. 

dra/cpda-ews (note). 13. \6yoj TLV L] l in a manner. 

5. Trape/ccui OTOyUTjcre] The idea ib. TTJS rpotprjs K.T.\. ] Cp. supra + 
of KaivoTOfj.e iv is that of opening up where, however, Gr. uses etSos in- 
fresh ground, e.g. the cutting into stead of 0ucrti>, which here refers to 
fres-h veins in a mine. Thus it the natural qualities or properties of 
comes to be used of any innovation. body. The change effected by the 
Did not invent some different com- rearrangement of the cn-o^ela of the 

position for human nature. food, so as to form body, resulted 

6. GVV. T. K. /caraXX. ] by the in the acquisition of new properties 
usual and appropriate means" The or qualities. Cf. supra, notes on 
thought and much of the language aXXoiwrt/c^s and etSos. 

of the following passage is repro- 15. TO yap TTO.VTUV] for that 

duced in John Damasc. F. O.iv 13. which is characteristic of all men 

X. TrepiKpa.Twi> r. VTT.] main- was admitted in the case of that flesh 

taining* (or holding fast ) its siib- also, that that body too was main- 

stance. llepiKpaTwv is used like tained by bread? 
Sie/cparetro below. 



TO 8e crw/jia rfj evoiKijaei, TOV Oeov \6yov TT^O? TTJV OeiKrjv 
d^iav /J,T7roLr ]0r]. raXco? ovv Kal vvv TOP TO) \6yw TOV 
Oeov dyia^o/jievov apTov et? crw/za TOV Oeov \6yov fj,era- 
7rLO-Tevo/jL.ev. Kal yap eKelvo TO aw/ia apTos rfj 

)}v, ri^fidcrQri Se rfi eTTLo-K^vaiaei TOV \oyov TOV 5 
ev rfj o~ap/ci. OVKOVV o6ev o ev eiceivw TOO 

/jLeTaTroir/Oels apros et? Oeiav /jLerearTj Svpa/mLv, 
&ia rov avrov Kal vvv TO laov yiveTai. eKel re yap 77 
TOV \6yov %/3t? ayiov eVotet TO crw^a a> eK TOV apTov 
T) crucTTacrt? rjv, Kal TpoTrov Tiva Kal avTO dpTO? rjv ev- 10 
TavOd T6 cocrauTco? o apTO<$, Ka6a)$ fyricriv o 

3 ayiao/ui,e!>oi>] yu,era7roioi ^e^ov f || om 
KTjv we ei. d |i 6 om oQev df || 9 e?roietro 

f || 4 Tn<TTvofj.aL vulg || 
l* vi(l vulg || 10 ai^ros f 


1. TO 5 (rc3/Aa] A further step 
in the argument. Not only did 
bread become the Lord s Body, but 
that Body itself was transmuted by 
the indwelling of the Word to the 
dignity of Godhead. This additional 
thought is further developed below 
in the words OVKOVV odev 6 ev 


//;. OCLK^V d.J Cp. c. 35\r)(}>dei(Tris Trap avrou Kal ffvva- 
TrodeudfLa-rjs crapKos (note). 

2. TU> Xoyu] Gr. has in mind 
the passage i Tim. iv 5, which he 
quotes below. In ru> \o-yu r. d. 
here, as also in 5ta Xjyoi deov in 
the quotation from St Paul, Gr. in 
tends his readers to see a reference 
to the personal Word, to which he 
also refers below in the words 
Sia TOV \byov J uera7rotoi ;/xej os. This 
is shown by the parallel which he 
draws with the action of the Word 
in the Incarnation. In the present 
passage Gr. is referring to Christ s 
institution of the luicharist, when 
He consecrated bread and wine to 
the purposes of the Sacrament. It 
is in virtue of that original conse 
cration by Christ that each succeed 
ing particular consecration is ef 

fected. Cp. Ambrose <ie Myst. ix 
52, 54; Chrys. de Prod. Judae 
horn. \ 6 (ed. Montf. ii 384) ; Jo. 
Damasc. F. O. iv [3. Cp. also 
Justin Martyr s reference (Apol. i 66) 
to rrjv di evxrjs \6yov TOV Trap avTov 
evxo.pi.crTrjde iO av Tpo<f>r)v. See Scu- 
damore Notit. Eucharist. (2nd ed.) 
pp. jj^sq. 

4. TTJ dvvafj,ei] Cp. supra TOLVTOL 
(3\eTrtiJV 8vvdfj.ei -rrpbs TOV oyKov TOV 
7)/u.T^pov crw^aTos p\ewi (note). In 
that passage bread is said to be 
virtually the body, because it was 
capable of being converted into it. 
Here Christ s Body is spoken of as 
virtually bread, because bread had 
been converted into it. 

5. eTacr/c^axm] indwelling. 
ZKTJV. Jn i 14. 

6. odev] i.e. through the in 
dwelling or operation of the Logos. 

ii. Katius (fi-rjffLv] The words 
are similarly applied to the Eu 
charist by Origen Conini. in Matt. 
torn, xi (Migne p. 948). On their 
application in this sense see Scuda- 
more I.e. p. 578. In evTevews 
there is a reference to the prayer 
of consecration. 



Sid \6yov Oeov KCLL evrev^ews, ov Sid /3pw crews 
els TO crco/xa yeveaOai rov Xo<yoi;, d\)C evdvs Trpos 
TO crw/jLa Sid rov \6yov fieraTroiov/jLevos, /cada)s eiprjrai 

I /Spwcrews] + /ecu 7ro<rews 1 vulg || 2 om yeveadai vulg || 3 om c)ta 1 vulg 

r. ov 5ia /3pu>0-ews] Gr. is think 
ing of the analogy of the Lord s 
earthly life. Then bread and wine 
became His Body and Blood medi 
ately through the natural processes 
of eating and drinking. Now they 
become such immediately (evdvs) 
through the power of the Word and 
by means of the prayer of conse 

2-3. vdus.../JLeraTroioviu.ei os] Cp. 
infra rrj TTJS evXoyias dvvd/j.ti Trpos>wv rrjv (pvcrLv. Gr. s language 
in these passages has been generally 
regarded as teaching a doctrine of 
the transformation of the elements, 
resembling in idea, though not in 
form, the later Western doctrine of 
transubstantiation. His language 
is interpreted in this sense by Fronto 
Ducaeus, and in more modern times 
by Franzelin de SS. Euch. Sacr. 
p. 232 f., Hilt Des hi. Greg, von 
Nyssa Lehre voni Menscheu pp. 
207 f. , and Schwane Dogmengesch. 
(2 e Aufl.) ii p. 780 f. Neander (C/t. 
Hist, iv p. 438, Bohn) thinks that 
some such view underlies the pre 
sent chapter, but he qualifies it by 
reference to Gr. s language in in 
Baptismum Christi p. 581 (Migne), 
where Gr. compares the effects of 
consecration in the case of the 
baptismal water, the anointing oil, 
ordination, and the bread and wine, 
as though they were changes of the 
same class. Pusey Real Presence 
from the Fathers pp. 180 ff. , by an 
examination of the terms employed 
by Gr., contests the view that any 
transubstantiation is implied. His 
argument is conclusive so far as 
the terms go. but he scarcely does 
justice to Gr. s treatment as a whole. 
For a discussion of the whole ques 

tion see Introd. pp. xxxvi foil. In 
the present passage no argument can 
be drawn from the word /meTairoiov- 
/>oi> alone. The crucial point of 
the passage is the statement that 
bread and wine become actually and 
immediately (in contrast with 5ia 
/Spojtrews K.T.A.) the Body and Blood 
of the Lord in the Eucharist. Gr. s 
language certainly implies much 
more than a change of use, such as 
takes place in the water of baptism. 
The illustration which he employs 
points to a change of properties or 
qualities due to the new relation 
into which the elements of bread 
and wine have been brought. It 
suggests, however, a change of 
form only, not a change of 
substance. See notes supra on d\- 
Aoiom/CTjs and elSos, and o 

infra. Hence Harnack Hist, of 
Dogma (Eng. tr. ) iv p. 296 rightly 
says that Gr. teaches a qualita 
tive unity between the bread and 
the Body of Christ, rather than a 
complete identity, such as is stated 
by John of Damascus F. 0. iv 13. 

3. Kadws etp.] Mk xiv 22 
[Mt. xxvi 26; Lk. xxii. 19]. The 
change of the elements, following 
upon the act of consecration, de 
pends upon the original institution 
of Christ, and the promise implied 
in the words TOVTO ecrrt TO (rdJ/ud 
IJLOV. Franzelin (de SS. Eitck. 
Sacr. p. 76) sees in Gr. s reference 
to these words a proof that he re 
garded the consecration as effected 
by the recital of the words of insti 
tution. But such a deduction is 
not justified, as Gr. merely quotes 
the words to show that the bread is 
Christ s Body. 


VTTO TOV \6yov OTL TOVTO eVrt TO crco/xa fjiov. Tracrrjs 
crap/cos Kol Bid TOV vypov Tpe^ofjuevrf^ ov yap CLV t%<x 
o? TOVTO av^vyias TO ev TJJJLLV <yewSe? ev rco f^i/ St,a/j,evoi 
&ia T?}? aTeppas re /cal dvTiTVTrov Tpoffis TO 


/cal TO) vypw Trjv TrpoaOtj/crfv etc rr}? 6/j,oyevov$ Troiov/JieOa 
(ucre&>9, oTrep ev TJ/JLLV yevo/jievov $La rr}? aXXotcort^?}? 
Svvd/jieo)^ e^aijjiaTOVTat /cal /xaXtcrra 76 et 5t TOV oivov 

\d/3oi TtJV SvVa/JiLV 7T/30? T7JV t? TO OepfJLOV /jLTa7TOl,rjO-LV. 

7rel ovv KCII TOVTO TO fjbepos r) ^eoSo^o? e/CLvrj crdp TT^O? 10 
T^ crvo-Tao-iv eavTrjs TrapeBe^aTO, 6 8e (pavepwQels 
$ia TOVTO KaTe/jiL^ev eavTov Ty eTTi/crjpO) (pvcrei, iva Trj 

3 irpos TO fav euth 7 || 4 wa-Trep] + yap g 1 || om re 1 vulg || 5 om 
rpoirov e |i 6 rw i;7pw] TO vdup dg*np || 8 76] 5e f |[ om ei p || 10 om TO 1 vulg || 
vulg I! II $eos] \07os 1* vulg || 12 eTri/cT/pw] + TWI ai/^pa;7rwi 1 vulg 

2. 5ta T. i/7pou] For the need of 
TO vypbv in nutrition cp. Arist. </<e 
Gen. Anim, iii 2. 753 b 25 Set 7<xp 
TTjf Tpo<pT]v crwfj.a.Tuod r] OVGOLV vypav 
elvaL KaOdirep TO?S <f>vTOis. The 
clause 01) yap av 5i%a . . . StttjU^ot is 
a parenthesis. The main clause is 
resumed with wcrTrep /C.T.X., and com 
pleted in the sentence beginning TOV 
avTOv Tpbirov. 

4. CLVTLTVTTOV} solidj jinn. 
Cp. di TtTi Trtas, c. 23. 

7. d\X. Sui .J Cp. supra p. 146 

8. e cu/u.aToi>Tcu] * is changed into 
blood. The word is similarly used 
in Arist. de Somn. et Vigil, c. 3. 

9. Suj/a/AU ] *" the power of being 
changed into heatS The addition 
of wine enables the water to become 
heat in the body. 

10. TOUTO TO /xepos] this part also? 
i.e. wine for the nourishment of the 

12. TTJ TTLKr)pi{) 0.] Cp. C. I 

TI Tj/xeTe pa 0u<rts eTTLK-rjpos ovaa. 

ib. iva... ffvvaTrodewdri} Cp.sitflra 

TO 5e crcD/xa Trj e^ot/c?)cret ToO 0eoD 
\67ou ?rp6s Trjv deiKrji a^lav /meTe- 
iroLrjOrj. According to Gr. the object 
of the Incarnation was to effect the 
6a)o~i.s of humanity. This was ef 
fected in the case of the Lord s 
human nature by the indwelling of 
the Word. It is continuously being 
effected in mankind as a whole by 
the dissemination (evcnreipei) in be 
lievers of that Body which was 
exalted to Divine dignity. The 
Eucharist is the extension of the 
process of the Incarnation. For 
the idea compare the language of 
Hilary de Trin. viii 13 Si enim 
vere Verbum caro factum est, et vere 
nos Verbum carnem cibo dominico 
sumimus ; quomodo non naturaliter 
manere in nobis existimandus est, 
qui et naturam carnis nostrae iam 
inseparabilem sibi homo natus as- 
sumpsit, et naturam carnis suae ad 
naturam aeternitatis sub sacramen- 
to nobis communicandae carnis ad- 
miscuit ? See further ibid. 14. 



KOLVCOVia crvvaTToOewOfj TO dvOpajTrivov, rovrov 
Trdcri, rot? nreiricrTevKoo-L rfj ol/covoftia TT}? %dpt,TOS 
eavrov evaTreipei $td rfjs aap/co<>, //? r; a v a T dais e oivov 
T Kal dprov (TTL, rot? crwyLtacrt TO)V TreTTiCTTevKOTWV /cara- 
5 Kipvd/jievos, ft)? dv Try Trpo? TO dOdvarov evdxrei /cal 6 
d(f)6apaias /XSTO^O? <yevoiTO. ravra Be 
rfi TT}? v\o<yias Svvd/jiei 7ry>09 etcelvo fjueracrTOi,- 
rrjv fyvaiv. 

5 om o vulg || 6 yevtjTaL f 

l* vltl vulg |i 3 T?S] ots vulg 
euth 7 || 8 <pvcrii>] desinit euth 

3. ej/cTTrei /oet] sows or plants 
Himself in? as a seed or principle 
of life. 

ib. 5ia TTJS aapKos] by means of 
that Flesh, composed of wine and 
bread, The Paris edd. read ofs, 
thus introducing a fresh and irrele 
vant thought. 

5. 6 avOp. ] man, correspond 
ing to TO avOpuTrivov above. 

7. TT)S evXoyias] i.e. the prayer 
of consecration, the /HUCTTI/CTJ evx n, 
on which see Suicer sub vocc. 
Ei^x 7 ? Si/va^is. The use of the word 
in this connexion is derived from 
Mk xiv 22; Mt. xxvi 26; r Cor. 
x 1 6. On its relation to the v.ord 
ei^xapto-ria compare with the pas 
sages just cited Mk xiv 23; Mt. 
xxvi 27; Lk. xxii 19; i Cor. xi 24, 
and see Scudamore I.e. p. 573 sq. 
From its use in this sense evXoyia 
came to denote the elements, whether 
before or after consecration. See 
Brightman Liturgies E. and IV., 

il>. /neracrrotxetcicras] transform 
ing the nature of the visible objects 
to that thing? E/cetVo refers to 
rb i.e. the Lord s Body. 
MeTa<7Toix et L J/ i- s used by Philo 
de Somnris p. 674 (Mangey) of 
the change ol earth into water by 
Xerxes; also in de Migr. Abrah. 
i 449 (Mangey) of the change of 
rods into serpents. But more usu 

ally it appears to be used not so 
much of the substitution of one ele 
ment for another, as of the rear 
rangement of the same elements, 
and the imposition upon them of a 
new form. Cp. the similar words 
dvacrTOixfi-^>fffi c. 8 (note), and ava- 
(TTOLxeiwaLv c. 35. Gr. uses the 
word elsewhere: (i) of the change 
of the body after the Resurrection. 
Cp. Horn, i in Cant. p. 777 (Migne) 
r6 /LLI> (TcD/ua /xeracTTot^f luBfv wpbs 
TO ti(pdapToi>, (2) of the Lord s Body 
being made impassible after the 
Resurrection. Cp. tie Vit. j\loysis\>. 
336 (Migne) TO TpeiTTOv re /ecu e/^wa- 
6es eis a.wa0ei.av / ueTfo Toixei w(7ei . But 
he also uses it in a much more general 
sense of moral and spiritual changes. 
Cp. Ep. ad Eiistathiam p. 1021 
(Migne) 6 oftv TTJV (f>vo~iv r/fjiCov irpos rrjv 
deiav duva/mif /.leTacrTotxetaxras, and 
Ep. Can. ad Lctoium p. 22 (Migne) 
TOVS K Tra\iyyve(rias /j-eraffTOLXfiov- 
/m.ei ovs. For further reff. to the 
patristic use of the word see Pusey 
Real Presence pp. 198 ff. Thus the 
word does not alter the conclusion 
already drawn that Gr. indicates in 
this chapter a change of form 
rather than a change of substance. 
For the latter idea see I lilt op. cit. 
p. 208. For (f /cris see notes supra 
on doos and on the words Trpos TTJV 



38. OvSev ol/j,ai rot? elpij/Jievois evbelv r&v 

v fyrov/jtevwv, 7r\rjv rov Kara rrjv rricmv \oyov, 
ov 81 o\iyov fjLev Kal errl rrjs rrapovarjs eKd^ao/uieOa 
Trpayi^areia^. rot? e rov re\ea)repov em^rovaL \oyov 
77877 TTpoe^eOefjieda ev erepois TTOVOLS, Sea rrjs Swards rj/jilv 5 
o-Trov&rjs ev dfcpifteia rov \6yov drr\a)o-avre^^ ev ol? Trpo? 
re TOU? evavriovs dycovicrriKws o~vv67r\dK7]/jLev Kal Ka9* 
TWV 7Tpoo-(pepo/jLva)v i]fjuv ^rrjfj,dra)v eire- 
TU> 8e Trapovri \6yw roaovrov elirelv Trepl 
Ka\ws e%eiv MTJOrj/juev oaov rj rov evayye^tov 10 

TO rov yevvto/jievov /card rr/v Trvev/juariKrjv 
eiSevai, rrapd rivos yevvdrai Kal rrolov yiverat 


38. I rou [JLVffT-qpiov 1 vulg || 4 reXetwrepoi f reXeiorepov 1 vulg Jl 5 TTOI OIS] 

\oyois d 

de || 8 

g 1 |j ir /cat rov yew. vulg 

iii. Chaps. XXXVIII XL. On Faith and Repentance. 

38. Our remaining task is to 
speak of tJie importance of faith. 
This has been dealt ivith more fully 
in other treatises. Here it suffices 
to show t/ie importance for him ivJio 
is regenerate of a right knowledge 
of the Author of his new birth, and 
of tJie nature of the life into w/iii/i 
he is admitted. 

The three remaining chapters of 
the treatise are intended to deal 
with the moral conditions required 
for a right use of Sacraments. Gr. 
refers only to Baptism, because that 
is the initiation of the new life, and 
the moral conditions of which he 
speaks begin with Baptism. More 
over this is a catechetical oration 
designed to help in the preparation 
of candidates for baptism. Hence 
there is no need to assume, as has 
been done by Aubertin de Sacr. 
Eiicli. ii 487 (emoted by Rupp 
p. 147), that c. 40 is an interpola 
tion, because it returns to the dis 
cussion of Baptism. 

i. TO /J.VCTT.] here, as elsewhere, 

means the Christian religion. 

4. Trpayfjiareias] Cp. note c. 6 

P- 33- t 

5. erepois TTOVOLS] Cr. s larger 
work, contra Eunomium, and also 
the de Deitate Filii et Spiritus 
Sancti, both written before this 
time, deal with this question. See 
In trod. p. xiv. 

ib. 5ia rrjs S. TJ. o"7ror5?7s] Unfold 
ing the subject with as great pains 
as lay in our power? 

6. irpos re T. ev. ] The purpose 
of these works was twofold (i) con 
troversial, (2) critical and construc 
tive. Gr. claims not only to have 
replied to opponents, but to have 
given an independent (nad* eavrovs) 
consideration of the questions in 

10. 6<roi>] Gr. is prob. thinking 
of such passages as Jn i 13, iii 6, 
7, the latter of which he quotes in 

c. 39. The clause TO rbv yew 

$(pov is in apposition to TOGOVTOV, 
viz. that he who is begotten with 
the spiritual generation knows etc. 



IJLOVOV yap TOVTO TO r?^ yevvijcrecos eZSo? Kar J~ovcrlav 
e%i, o n 7Tp av eX.tjTai, TOVTO yevecrOai. 

39. Ta n*tv jap \onra TWV TLKTOfjLevwv TT) op/jufj TWV 
d7royevva)VTCi)i> v(pi(7TaTai, 6 Se Trvev/jbariKos TOKOS TJJS 
5 e^ovcricLS ijprrjTai TOV TLKTO^VOV. eTrei&rj TOLVVV ev TOVTCO 
earlv 6 KIV&VVOS, ev rco /jbrj ^lafjuaprelv TOV orv/ji(f)epoi>TOs, 
/car 1 e^ovauav TrpoKei/juevr]? vravn r?}? aipecrews, 
<prj/jLi rov Trpos rrjv yevvrjcriv rr/v i&iav o 

TO) Xoyiafiq), ris avrco XfcrireX^cret Trarrjp 
10 teal e/c TLVOS a/jueivov avra) avcrrr^vaL rrjv fyvcriv eipr^Tai 
yap OTL tear e^ovaiav rou? yevvi iropas o TOIOVTOS alpelrai, 


v dp 

l TOVTO... TO etSos 1 vulg TOVTO... eidos f 39. 4 ai>ro yevvuv 

aura yew. ehn || om ro/cos vulg || 8 yevecnv ehnp j| 10 om /ecu f 
afj-eivov e O.VTOV a/j,. vulg || 1 1 TOU yevvrjTopos f 

r. fjiovov yap] for this form, of 
generation alone has it in its power 
to become -whatsoever it chooses. By 
yew. eldos Gr. of course means 
more exactly the person who is re 
generated. Cp. infra c. 39 6 <5e 
jrvev[ TO/COS r^s e^ovaias f/pTr/- 
TO.L TOU TiKTo/j-evov. For the special 
form of expression cp. ibid, /car 
e^ovo iai TOVS yewr/Topa? atpetrat 6 
TOKOS. Gr. s statement is not of 
course exact. A man cannot really 
choose to be born again of a created 
Son and Spirit. But as the moral 
condition of the recipient affects 
the value of baptism, his imperfect 
faith may deprive him of the full 
benefits of the rite. Gr. is here 
asserting the moral value of a right 
faith. See Introd. pp. xxxv fol. 

39. The spiritual birth, tinlike 
natural birth, depends upon the will 
of Jiitn who is being born. It is 
important that suc/i an one should 
knorv what kind of parent he needs 
for the development of his nature, 
seeing that it is in his power to 
choose his parents. It is possible for 

him to be the child of a nature which 
is uncreated and so unchanging, 
or of a nature which is created 
and subject to change. The Gospel 
sets before, us a Trinity of Persons by 
Whom regeneration is effected. "To 
believe that the Holy Trinity belongs 
to the uncreated world is to enter 
itpon a stedfast, unchangeable life. 
To believe in a created Son and 
Spirit is to trust to an imperfect 
nature, which itself needs redemp 
tion. This is to be born, not from 
above, but from below. 

3-4. T. 6p[j.rj...v(f).] attain exist 
ence by the impulse of] i.e. as con 
trasted with TTJS eovo~[as rjpT-rjTai 

TOV TLKTO/JLfVOV, which follOWS. 

6. 6 Kivdvvos] The fact that the 
spiritual birth depends upon the will 
of him who is born involves the 
danger of his failing to choose that 
which is advantageous to him. 

12. Six^j TOLVVV] Gr. now ex 
plains the nature of the choice which 
he has indicated as belonging to the 
catechumen. It is the choice be 
tween a spiritual birth into an 



Kal rb aKriarov, Kal -7-779 fjiev aKriarov fyvcrews ro drperrrov 
re KOI d/juerdOerov ev eavrrj KeKrrjfjLevrjs, TT}? &e Kriaea)^ 
rporrrjv d\\oiov[jLevr)s, o Kara XoytcrfAov ro \vcnre\ovv 
rivos aiprjaerai p,a\\ov yeveaOai reKvov, 
ev rporrf] Oewpov/jLevrjs r) TT}? dfjuerdararov re Kal 5 
rrayiav KOI del oocrauTox, e^ovaav ev ra) dya6<M KeKrrj/jLevrjs 
rrfv fyvcriv ; errel ovv ev ru> evayye\iw rd rp[a rrapaSe- 
Sorai 7rp6cr(t)7rd re Kal ovofjiara St wv rj yevvrjais rot? 
TncrTevovcri yiverat, yevvdrai Be Kara ro laov o ev ry 
rptdo i, yevvu>iJLevos rrapd rrarpos re Kal viov Kal Trvevfjiaros 10 
dyiov ovray ydp (frycrc rrepl rov Trvev^iaro^ ro evayye\,i,ov 
on To yeyevvTjfjievov t/c rov rrvev^aro^ rrvevfjud eVrt, Kal 
o riaOXo? ev Xpiarfi yevva, Kal O Trarrjp rrdvrwv earl 
rrari]p evravOd /JLOL vrj^era) rov aKpoarov r) Sidvoia, 

8 yeveais deghnp || 9 om rrj df || 10 irapa re irarpos KOLL viov d TOU 
Trarpos egp vulg rov VI.OV...TOV irveu/maTos vulg j| 1 1 om TO vulg 

eternal and uncreated nature or into 
a nature which is created and sub 
ject to change. 

i. TO arpeTTTOv] For the un- 
changeableness of the Divine Nature 
cp. Mai. iii 6, where the LXX has 
OVK i7\\otu/icu : and for a discussion 
of the word drpeTrros see W. R. 
Churton Theological Papers pp. 
22 ft . For Greek thought cp. Plato 
Rep. ii ^8 1 C O.OVVO.TOV &pa, <$>T]V, 
Kal Qe<2 ede\ew avrbv a\\oiovv : Arist. 
de Caelo (p. 279 a) TroXAci/cts irpo<pa.l- 
verai. Tots \o70is 6 rt TO delov d/nerd- 
fi\T]Tov &vayKCUOv elvai -rrdv TO irpu- 

TOV Kal OLKpOTOLTOV. Cp. Pllllo de 

Norn. Afut. (p. 582, ed. Mangey) 
ydp /ecu d/m.Tdfi\riToi>, 
TO irapdirav ov5ei>6s. 

3. irpbs TpoirrjV d\X.] subject to 
alteration and change] lit. in the 
direction of change. Cp. c. 21 77 
ydp eK TOV IJ.TI OVTOS eis TO elvai. 
wdpodos dXAotwcm TLS CCTTI. 

5. ev Tp. dfwp.] For this use 
of #eu>pe?cr#cu cp. prol. ev Tols CLVTOIS 

eird ovv] The sentence 

finally resumed in the words evTavdd 
fjLoi K.T.X. Ej/ r. ev.] i.e. Mt. xxviii 

8. irpoffwrra] On the history of 
this word see Bethune- Baker Texts 
and Studies vii i pp. 72 ff. Of6- 
yitaTa seems to refer to the words 
et j TO 8vofj.a in Mt. xxviii 19. The 
phrase ev Trj Tp. yevvu/j,evos is 
probably due to the influence of 
the passage i Cor. iv 15 which Gr. 
subsequently quotes. 

1 1 . ourw ydp] Gr. gives three 
quotations to prove his contention 
that the grace of baptism proceeds 
equally from all three Persons of 
the Trinity. 

ib. TO evayy.] Jn iii 6. 

13. 6 IlaOXos] i Cor. iv 15. 

ib. O TraTTjp] The source of this 
third quotation is possibly Kph. iv 
6, where the words ets debs Kal TraTrjp 
irdvTuv follow immediately upon 
the mention of the ev fidirTLffp.a. 

14. vri<j>eTu} used here, as often 
in the N.T., of a mental state free 
from all perturbations or stupefac 
tions (Hort on i Pet. i 13). 


[jur) rr)9 aararovcrrj^ (frvcreMS eavrrjv eicyovov TTOLTJO-T}, efoi> 
TTJV aTpeTCTOv re teal dva\\oiwTOv dp^Tfyov TroirjcracrOai 
T7J9 ZSi a? fo>>79. Kara yap rrjv SidOecriv TrJ9 /capSias TOV 
TrpoaiovTOs rrj olKovofJbia KOI TO yivofjievov TTJV Sttva/Aiv 
5 e%et, ware TOP p,ev a/cna-rov op,o\oyovvTa TY)V dyiav rpidBa 
e/9 rrjv arpeTrrov re teal avcfiO^oiwrov eicre\0elv fcwijv, TOI> 
Se Trjv KTiG"rr}V fyvcriv ev rf) rpidbi Sia r?)? rjirarrj/jLevr)? 
VTroXij^reo)^ {BXeTrovra, eVetra ev avry /3a7m^6/jiepov, 7ra\iv 
TO) rpeirrw re KOI d\\oiov/jL6va) eyyevvr)0rivai ftiw Ty yap 
10 TWV yevvwvTwv (frvcrei rear avayKTjv o/jboyeves eVrt teal TO 

TLKTO/JLeVOV. Ti OVV CLV eiTj \V(TlT\CrTpOV, 6/9 TT)V T/36- 

TTTOV %(0r)V el(Te\Oelv i] TrdXiv rco dcrTarovvTi, teal d\\oiov- 
/Aeva) ey/cv/jLarovaOai /3ico ; 67T6t ovv 7ravT\ $f)\6v eari 
TO) fcal OTTCOO-OVV Biavoia<s pere^ovri, em TO eo-rco? roO 
15 fjirj eo"Teoro9 Trapa TTO\V TijJbiWTepov, KOL TOV eXXtTroO? TO 
, /cal TOV Beojjievov TO //r/ Seo/xei oz , /cal TOV $ia 

S dviOVTOS TO /JiT] %OV 6/9 O Ti 7TpO6\dlJ, aXX 
TOV CiyaOoV [JLVOV tt6t, eTrdvayfCCS CiV 6L7J 

I eavrov eh || 2 TTJJ/] TOV f || 3 om <fa?7$ vulg || 6 TOV 5e TTJV } TTJI> 8e vulg || 
9-12 eyyei>vr)d r)vai...a\\oiov/j.fv(i) om 1 j| 16 TOV fir) deo/aevov TO 5. d*ehn || 
17 irpoK. a.v.] rpoTnjs avievTOS f || 18 eTrcu crxKes a^ et??] om d om av eitj 1* 

2. apx^yov] Cp. antea c. 33 variation and change* Gr. will 
dp-%r)y6s (note). not call such a life ^77. It is merely 

3. T. 5id6. T. Kapd.] may possibly /St os, existence. Cp. c. 8 TO TOV 
contain a reference to Ps. Ixxii fiiov TJ/J.UJV Trj veKpoT-rjTi ajBewvaBat. 
(Ixxiii) 7 (LXX). 12-13. ird\iv...^yKVfj..] The new 

4. oLKovo/}] Cp. c. 34 r^s birth into a created Son and Spirit 
/jLVffTiKr/s TavTTjs oiKovo/mias. carries a man no higher than he was 

ib. TO yii>6fj.ei>ov] that -which before. It still leaves him in an 

takes place : i.e. the birth which existence which is unstable. 7*1 - 

results from Baptism. Two of the /xar. * to be tossed about inS 
MSS used by Fronto Ducaeus read 16. dia TrpoKOTrr/s] by a gradual 

TO yei>v<joij.evov. advance. So Athanasius dc Syn. 

6. TOV ot T. KTIO-TT/V] sc. the Ano- 4 represents Paul of Samosata as 

mcean, to whose teaching he refers teaching concerning Christ vffTcpov 

more fully below in the clause be- O.VTOV /m-era TT/V iva.vQpd^irr^aiv e/c 

ginning ij, ei ^w r?7S TOV irp&TOv K.T.\. TrpoKOTrrj i Te6eoiroirjo~dai. 
frjv is used in a generic sense. 18. eiri T. T /m.evoi>] Cp. c. 37 

9. eyyevv7)0T)vai] is again born /meveiv e0 eavTov (note). 
into an existence which is subject to 


ev 6% d/ui(poT6pOL)v aipelaOai TTCLVTMS TOV ye vovv e%ovra, 
r) T?}9 aKTicTTOv <f)V(7a)<; eivai TriaTeveiv TTJV dyiav rpidSa 
Kal OVTWS dp^Tjyov Bid TT)? 7rvevfj,aTiKr)<i yevvrjcretos 
TroieiaOai TT}? I8ia<; 0)779, ^7, el efa> TTJS rou Trpcorov 
/cal d\r)6ivov Kal dya0ov Oeov <^>uo~e&>9, TTJS TOV Trarpos 5 
eivai TOV viov rj TO Trvev/jia TO dyiov, /JLTJ 
dveiv TTJV 6t9 TavTa TTLCTTLV ev TO) tcaipw 
T?}9 yevvrj(r6a>s, /JL^TTOTC \dOrj Trj eXXtTret fyvaei Kal Seo/juevrj 
TOV d<ya6vvovTos eavTov eicrTroiwv Kal TpOTrov TLVO, 7rd\iv 
e/9 TO o/jio<yi>s eavTov eicrayayy, rr/9 vTrepe^ovcri)^ (f)v<Tu>s 10 
Trjv Trio-Tii 1 - o ydp TLVL TWV KTLCTTWV eavTov 
\e\rjdev 6t9 avro Kal OVK 6/9 TO Oelov TTJV 

I om Tra^rwj hn vulg || 2 TriaTeveiv ecvai 1 || 3 ap%. 7roiet(r$cu 5ta r. TTV. 
7. fl I! yevevews deghnp vulg || 4 om 6t fl || 6 \eyuv h || 7 <rv/j.7repi\a.fji- 
fiaveLv f ffv/j.Trapa\ajJ.[3av(jji vulg || rai ra] ro.vrt]v rt]v l* vld || (pvaiv rjroi 
TTLVTIV f || 8 -yeyecretos deghnp vulg || 9 a,7a#uj>aj To$ f ayafiov ovros (OVTWS d) 
gp || om KOLL p || 10 eLcrayrj f || 12 6ts ai;ro] om et? deghnp vulg eavrov 
defghlnp vulg: txt e conject Krab restitui || om KCU ehn vulg om OVK h 

4. -rrpwrov] For a summary of adduces the perfection of the Divine 

Eunomius teaching see c. Eiinom. Nature as an argument for the unity 

Or. i pp. 297, 324 (Migne). In of God. 

the latter passage Or. speaks of 9. ayaOvvovro^] someone to make 

Eunomius definitions -jrepi r^s Trpw- it good. \yaQvv eiv, to make good 

TT/S re /ecu Sevrepas /cat rptr^s oucrtas. or do good to, occurs frequently in 

6. /XTJ o-i /iTT.] dependent like the LXX. Cp. 3 Reg. i 47 ; Pss. 1 

iriffTeveiv and 7roie?<r#cu upon aipela- (li) 20, cxxiv (cxxv) 4; Jer. li (xliv) 

6a.L. *" A T ot to include the belief in 27. 

these Persons in the faith which ib. elo-n-oiuv] cause himself to be 

he adopts at the time of his birth? adopted into? The exact phrase 

(jr. argues that, in order to be con- ela"iroieli> TLVO. TLVL occurs in Plato 

sistent, the Anomoeans should not -Leg^. ix 878. 

include the Son and the Holy Spirit 11. dTroaT^cras r. TT.] withdraw- 

in their baptismal confession. For ing his faith from the transcendent 

on their own principles baptism into natiirej i.e. by resting it in a created 

the Son and the Spirit involves birth Son and Spirit who are, according 

into a created life of the same kind to the Anomcean view, external to 

(6/j.oyeves) as their own. For the the Supreme Being, 

use of the neuter raura cp. Greg. 12. \\-r)dei> /c.r.X.j The MSS are 

Naz. Or. xxxi 5 o? rpia fj.ev elvaL here corrupt. Krabinger s conjecture 

KO.6 i]/jLas 6/m.o\oyovcrL TO. voovfieva ets auro for eavrbv or ei s eavrbir has 

with Dr Mason s note. been adopted, as it explains the cor- 

8. eXXtTret] i.e. imperfect, because ruption and supplies the necessary 

belonging to the created order. Cp. sense. AI^TO^TO Knarbv referred to 

the argument in prol., where Gr. in rwl TWV KTLOTUV. 


\7TiSa TJ?9 (TWTrjpias e^wv. iraaa jap rj KTIO-IS TU> Kara 

TO iO~OV K TOV fJLTj OVTO<$ 6/9 TO eivdl, 7TpO1]KlV OLKLO)^ 

7T/309 eavTTjv e^et* /cat, wcnrep evrl TT}? TWV 
KaraaKevi}^ irdvTa rd /j,e\rj vr/ao? eavrd <rt//i< 
5 /eaz T /j,V VTrofie/BiyKOTa, rd Se vrrepavecrTwra 

oimo9 r) KTicrTr) (pvcns rjvwrai Tcpos eavrr/v Kara TOV \6yov 
rr)9 TtcrG)9 ^at ov&ev rj /caTa TO vTrepe^ov tcai evoeov eV 
JIIMV $ta(fiopd $d(JTr)<ji,v avrr/v TTJS 7rpo$ eavTrjv crv/jityvias 
wv yap eV icrr)s TrpoeirivoelTai rj dvvjrapgia, Kav ev rot9 
10 a\\oi$ TO $>id<$)Opov ry, ovSefAiav KCLTCL TO /juepos TOVTO r?}9 
(f)vo-6(0$ 7rapa\\ayrjv e^evpia-KOfjuev. el ovv 
o av dp WIT os, K.TKJTOV Se /col TO TTvev/jia /cal TOV 
6eov elvai i/o/ufot, /iarat09 av CLTJ ev eX7r/8t T?}? evrl TO 
KpelTTOv /ATacrTacrect>9, 77^09 eavTov dvakvwv. O/JLOIOV yap 

15 TU9 TOl) NlKO$ )j[jLOV VTTO\^"^TO LV (7Tl, TO yiVO JJLVOV , O9 

Trepl TOV Seiv avwOev yevvrfOrjvai jrapd TOV Kvpiov /jiada)v 
Bid TO fjLiJTray %wpr)<jai TOV fAVorTrjpiov TOV \oyov eVi TO^ 

I rw] TO efli || 2 irpo<rr]KLv f || 5 VTrepafecrrrjKora fg 1 || 9 fwivoeiTai f || 
1 1 KTICTTOS M 6I/ ] + wv vulg || 13 deov] viov 1 || om etvat 1 || CTT e\in5i 1 aveXiridi vulg 

i. Tw...7r/)077KeiJ ] The c/ir?/. is With the former ecmv must be 

causal, because it proceeds in an supplied. 

equal degree from non-existence into \i. /movoyevT) debv] Cp. prol. p. 2 

existence. (note). 

3. r. r. cr. /carctcr/cei T^s] Cp. c. 28 13. r. e?rt r. /f. /xeraardcrews] Cp. 

?ra(ra Trpos ea.\>TT]v r\ /caracr/ceuTj TOU c. 40 fTri dva.KaiviO /j.w /cat /j.eTaj3o\rj 

<rc6/xaros 6/xort/xws ^Xf-- For crv/j.(pv&s TTJS (pvfffws rj/j.Loi TTJV ffwrripiov irapa.- 

cp. c. 32 ffv/m.<f>vr)s and //^V. eri /x,- \a^6.v<rda.L "yevvtjffLv. 

<fivo/ . 14, Trpoi eavTov dvaXvuv] seeing 

5. uTTo/Se^. . . . VTrepav. ] i.e. the ///c?/ /^ returns to himself, i.e. to 

lower and upper parts of the one who is like himself a created 

body. being, and cannot bring him to 

7. /cat ovdev^ ^ and the difference perfection. For this sense of dvaXveiv 

between ivJiat is superior and in- cp. c. 23 rr\v re rCjv re$i/77/c6rwi> eiri 

ferior in tis makes no division in the rbv filov dvd\v<nv, and c. 35 dvaXveiv. 

cohesion of all its parts. 1 15. r. Xt/coo^/xof] Jn iii 4. 

9. uv yap] ^for if things alike ib. TO yiv.] i.e. that which happens 

are thought of as coming out of a when a man is baptized into that 

previotis nothingness. 1 faith. 

11. irapa\\ayr]v] variation? Cp. 17. TOV yui/trr.] used here of the 

James i 17 (Mayor s note). revelation made by Christ about 

ib. KTKTTOS iJ.ev...KTi.(TTbv de] The the new birth, 
two clauses are logically correlative. 



KoKirov rot? XoyicrfAOis KaTeaupero. wcrre el fir) 


Sov\ov KTidiv eavTov djrdyoi, TT}? Karwdev, ov rrjs avwOev 

e TO va\tov dvwOev elvcu 


40. AXX 1 ov IJLOL &OKI fJ ^pt, rcov eiprnjievwv avrdp/crj 
rrjv Si&ao-fcaXiav r; Kari i^yo-is e%6iv. Set 7/3, oZyu-at, KOL 
TO f^erd TOVTO cr/coTrelv, b TroXXot TWV TrpocnovTayv rfj rov 
ri Trapopwcn, 8t aTrdrr)^ eavrovs jrapd- 
fcal TCO So/cells [JLOVOV, ov^l TO) OVTI ryevvwfjievoi, 10 
<ydp bid TT}? dvaryevvrjcretos ytvo/Aewr] TT}? ^coij^ rj/jiwv 
OVK dp elr) /xeTaTro/T/crt?, el Iv w ecrj^ev Sta- 
rbv yap ev rot? avrols ovra OVK olSa TTW? eariv 
d\\ov rivd yeyevfjo-Oai vo^leou, efi ov {irjSev rwv yvcopia/jLd- 

TO yap evrt dvafcaivicr/jia) /cal yu-era/3oX^ 15 
TTJV awrr)Qiov Trapa\ap J f^dve<j6ai 
&rj\ov ecmv. d\\d /JLTJV r/ dv9 pwTTOTr)? avrr) 

^ om rt]v ante a/crtcrroi vulg || 3 e-jrayoi 1* a7ra7a70t g 1 ! 1 4O. 7 
1 || 10 TO 8oKfii> Inp rou 5. h || 15 TTJ 

1. /carecri/pero] whose thoughts 
drew him back to." 1 

2. 6/x65ouXoi>] l which shares his 
oum bondage. 1 Cp. Rom. viiisi. 

3. TTJS di>tt}0i>] Jn iii 3. The 
contrast with the preceding Karudev 
is decisive as to Gr. s interpretation 
of that passage. 

4O. 7/^t regeneration ivhicli 
comes through Baptism only becomes 
effectual in those who exhibit a 
change of life and wholly abandon 
evil. Otherwise the water is but 
water, and the gift of the Holv 
Spirit in no wise appears in wJiat 
takes place. God rewards godliness 
and punishes sin in ways that siir- 
pass anything of which we have 
experience in this life. This being 
so, it is our duty to lay the founda- 
tions of blessedness in this fleeting 
life and put away evil from us. 

6. ^XP L T et> P-l ^ so far as our 

remarks have gone (or with these 
remarks ) our instruction does not 
seem to ftie to be complete in its 
teaching} On this inclusive sense 
of ^XP 1 - see ^ re g- Naz. Or. xxviii 9 
ovde f/ce? oTTjo-erat ^XP 1 T v ftTrei^ 
(with Dr Mason s note). On KO.TTI- 
X 7 ? " * see / ^ o r^s Karrjxriffeus 
\6yos (note). 

9. 5t aTrar^s] Cp. c. 7 5t 
d?rar^s irapaavpevTes. 

IT.. /iera7rot?;crts] See note on 
^eraTrotet, c. 37. 

14. yvupiff/jiaruv] characteristic 
features, "* i.e. the traits of character 
by which a man is recognized. Gr. 
has of course in view the bad 
traits of character. Cp. infra ruv 
Trovrfpuv yvi>}pi.ap.a.T(joi>. 

15. eiri O.VO.K. ] For this use of iri 
cp. c. 5 eiri rfj...a.Tro\av<rL. 

17. r? a.vQp<jjTTOTr}i\ humanity in 
itself, i.e. the abstract conception 


eavTrjv /j,6Ta{3o\r)V e/c TOV /SaTTT/cr/u-aTo? ov Trpocrierai, 
ovre TO \OJIKOV ovre TO iavor)TiKov OVTC TO eiriGTrm,^ 

&KTIKOV Ov8e d\\O TL TWV %apCLKT71pL^OVTWV toYo)? TTfV 

dv0pw7TLvrjv V<JLV ev /jLeTaTroMjaei, yiveTdL. T) yap dv Trpo? 
5 TO yelpov r) yLteraTrot^crt? eiy, el TL TOVTWV vira/jLeKpOeirj 
l&L(di> TT)? (pvaecos. el ovv ^ avwOev <yi>vr)0 i,s 
ort? Ti9 TOV dv6p(07rov ylveTcti,, TavTa Be Trjv /u.eTa/3oXr)z/ 
ov TrpoaieTdi, a/ceTTTeov TLVOS jJieTaTroiTjOevTOs eVreX?)? TT}? 
ava^evvr]0-ew<^ / %pt? e crrt. r)\ov OTL T 

10 yvcoptcr/jidTwv e^a\ei(j)OevTa)i> TT}? 0ucre&)9 rjfjiwv rj 
TO KpelTTov fjLeTaorTacris ryiveTai. OVKOVV el, /ca0a>s 
6 7rpO(j)r)Tr)$, \ovcr d/Jievoi TO) fjuvcrTLKU) TOVTW \ovTpu) 
icaOapol T,? Trpoaipecreis ^evoifjieOa, Ta? Trovripias TWV 
tyv^wv d7roK\vo-avTes, /cpeiTTOvs >yey6va/J,i> KOI Trpo? TO 

15 KpeiTTov fjLeTe7rot,r)67]fj,ev. el 8e TO /jiev \ovTpov e-rra^Oeiri 
TW cra)fjiaTL, TI Se tyw%r) TO,? e/jiTrqOeis /c^AtSa? jjurj aTroppv- 
^jraLTO, aXX o yu-eTa TTJV fJLV^auv /3/o? (jv^aivoi TCO d/juviJTco 
/3/w, KCLV TO\/jLr)pov eiTTelv fj, Xe^-ft) KOI OVK d7roTpa7njao/j,aL ) 
OTL eirl TOVTCOV TO vSwp vSwp ecrTiv, ovoa{j,ov TYJS ocoped? 

3 oi Se] ovre f || -)^apa.KrripL^o^ev(j}v T/rot rwv^ovTUv f || 
1 rts] re vulg || 10 yvdopicr/uLaTUi ] (3ov\V/M3.Tiov f || 13 yfvw/J-eda d yivofj,e6a 
f yivoifjieda vulg || 15 TO \ovrpof ytiei/ e vulg |1 16 a.Troppi\}/oiTo e vulg cnropv- 
\IJOLTO f |j 17 <TVfj.(3aivei el vulg avfj-ficuvri f 

of man. Grace does not alter any 13. Ka.6a.poi r. TT.] l clean in our 

of the essential properties of human wills. 1 

nature. 15. /iereTrot^^^yUet 1 ] For this use 

2. cure TO Xo7.] For this de- of the aorist cp. Zafieffav c. 37 

scr,iption of man s faculties see c. 15 p. 142 (note). 

sub fat. and c. 33 (note). 16. ^Tra^ets /c?7X.] //z<? stains 

6. i] &v. yevv.~\ Cp. c. 39 sub fin. caused by its passions? For e/j-Tradels 

(note). cp. e^Tratfe s c. 5. 

z$. d^a(TTOixetwo-ts] Cp. c. 8 ai>a- 17. ^17770-^] Cp. c. 35 T??S TotauTT/s 

(TTOtxftaxrei (note). /JLvrjaeus. 

8. e^TeXTjs] Cp. / c. 24 z /$. 0-vfj.^aLvoi] accord with, be 

p. 93 (note). of the same character as. 

n. [jLeraffTaffis] See note on 19. e-rrl TOI^TWJ ] in their case the 

fj.6iaTa/j.^vr]s c. 37. -ivater is wafer, and the gift of the 

12. 6 7rpo(pr]T-rjs] Isaiah i i6(LXX) Holy Spirit is nowhere manifested 

\ovffaade, xadapoi ytvecrde, a 0^\eTe in what takes place. The margin of 

Tas Trov-rjpias O.TTO rQ>v -fyvyjjjv VP.WV. c has yepj/oj/x.eVy, which is a con- 


TOV yiov TTvevfJLdTOS 7TL()aveicr r}S TU> <yi f yvoiJLvw, rav 
jjiovov TO /cara TOP OV/JLOV alcr^o? v/Bpi^rj Trjv Oeiav 
T) TO Kara TrXeove^iav TrdOos Kal r) a/coXacrro? Kal a<ryj) fj,ci)v 
Sidvoia Kal TL^O? Kal <j)06vos Kal VTreprjfyavLa, d\\d Kal 
Ta ef aStieias Kep&ri Trapafjievrj avTO) Kal 97 eV /xo^e/a? 5 
KTTjOelo-a yvvrj rat? 7?8omt? avTov Kal fjLtTa TOVTO 
eav TavTa Kai Ta TOiavTa o/xotaj? rrpoTepov re 
Kal fATa TavTa Tcepl TOV ftLov TOV (3aTTTi<j6evTos 17, ri 
fjieTaTreTroiiiTai ISelv OVK e%(0, TOV avTov f$\Trwv ovirep 
Kal TrpoTepov. 6 r)$iKr]/jLevos, 6 crcrvKO<f)avT7}/ji6vo$, 6 TWV IO 
iSitov (iTTwaOei^ ov^e^iav opwcnv efi eavTcov Trjv TOV 
\e\ovfjievov /Ltera/3o\r;i/. OVK rjKOVcrav Kal Trapa TOVTOV 
Trjv TOV ^iaK^aiou (frwvrjv OTL Et Tivd TL 
aTToSiSoy/jLi, T6Tpa7r\ao-tova. a Trpo TOV 
e\<yov, Ta avTa Kal vvv Trepl avTov Bie^epxovTai, CK TU>V 15 
avT&v ovofJLaTwv KaTovofjid^ovai 7T\Ove?cTijv, TWV d\\o- 
Tpiwv 7rt0v/j,riT)jv, ajro crvfjiffropwv dvOpwTTivwv Tpv(f)O)VTa. 
o Toivvv ev rot? avTols cov, eVeira 7Ti9pv\wv eavTM oia 

i ytvo/Aej wef vulg ; 3 r\ aaxTI/u-wv el vulg |j 4 5iaj>oia] rjoovrj f 5 irapa/j.ei>et. 
f j; 6 om KCU 1 7 I Tr^peretrat vulg I Tr^pen? fl j| cm ra vulg j] 9 ^X^l 
ert vulg . 10 cr\ KO<p- e || 12 XeXoi /Aevov] \eyofj.evov eh vulg e\ovcr/j.fvov f || 
13 om rou deghn vulg [| rti/os en vulg || 14 a] a\X a g a\\ a-rrcp I 1 || 
15 Trept roi atTOi vulg || 17 OLvdpwirLvuv] aXXorptwi f 

jecture of Maximus Margunius. But (0.5). 

no alteration is necessary. Gr. 10. 6 aecru\ .] Cp. crvKo^avriav 

means that the grace of Baptism is c. 9. 

not given when men do not fulfil its n. ^0 eavruv] in their own 

conditions. In TTJS 5up. r. a. TT. case, to take themselves as an 

Gr. appears to be thinking of instance. 

unction, which would be included 12. /cat Trapa TOVTOV] i.e. from him 

by him in baptism. as well as from Zacchaeus. 

2. rd K. T. 6. alffxos] ( tJic de- 13. (f>wi>r)v\ Lk. xix 8. 

fortuity of angvr Aicrxos is used of 15. OL^px ovraL \ recount in full, 

a deformity of mind or body. Cp. because such sins remain undi- 

Plat. Synip. 201 \ a\\o TI 6 "Epws minished. 
nd\\ovs d.v d-q ^pwy, atffxovs 5 ov ; 17. airb ffv/j-tp.] l who /ires liucuri- 

ib. fj.optpr]v] rightly used here of ously on other men s misfortunes? 
that which is a permanent charac- 18. 6Tn6pv\wi>] Cp. c. 28 dia- 

teristic of man in virtue of his 0pi>\oiVi. 
having been made /car eiKova Oeov 

S. II 


TOV /3a7TT/<7yLiaT09 TT)V TTpO? TO KpeiTTOV fieTa{3o\TJV, dfCOV- 

crdra) rfjs \\av\ov (frwvrjs OTI Et rt? So/eel elvai TI, fjL rjBev 
oov, <f)pva7rara eavTOv. o jap fjirj yeyovas, OVK el. "Ocrot 
\a/3ov avTov, (f)r}o~i -rrepi TWV dvayevvijOevTcov TO evayye\iov, 
5 eSwKev avTois e^ovcriav re/cva Oeov yevecrOat. TO TeKvov 
yevo/jievov TWOS ofjioyeves TTOLVTW^ eVrl rco yevv^cravTi. el 
ovv e\a/3es TOV Oeov KOL Te/cvov eyevov Oeov, &eiv Sta r?}? 
TTpoaipeo-eco? KOI TOV ev crol ovTa Oeov, Sel^ov ev aeavTO) 
TOV yevvriaavTa. ef wv TOV Oeov yvMpi^o/jiev, Si e/ceivcov 

10 7rpoo-rf>cei Sei%0rjvai TOV yevojjbevov VLOV Oeov TIJV TT^O? TOV 
Oeov ol/ceioTijTa. efceivos avoiyei TTJV X 6 W a Kai [nrnr\a 
Trdv %q)ov evSofcias, vTrepjBaLvei dvo/jiias, ^eravoel eTrl 
KCLKIW %/o^<7T09 tcvpLo? rot? crvfJiTracTi, fir) opyrjv eTrdycov 
/caO* eKdo-TTjv rffAepav evOrjs Kvpios o Oeos, /cal ov/c O~TIV 

15 dSi/cia ev avTw, real oaa TotavTa (TTropdSrjv Trapa T/}? 
ypa(j)i)s Si&ao-KOfjieOa. eav ev rourot? 179, d\7jOcos eyevov 
Tefcvov Oeov el Be rot9 Trjs Ka/clas 7ri/JLVi<s 
^aTrjv eTTiOpvXei*; o~eavTM Trjv avcoOev yevvrjcriv. epel 
ere TI irpo^Teia OTL T/09 dvOpwjrov el, ov\l vios V 

20 dyaTras fj.aTaioT7]Ta, f^re^ tyevSos. OVK eyvws 7ra>9 
dvOpwTros, OTI OVK aXX&>9, el /ar) 

2 rou Hav\ov 1 || om rt vulg || 3\ ou gp |j 5 TO] + 5e egh 
n || 6 yivo/j,evov f || 13 om /cuptos 1* || 14 evdvs vulg |: 15 Trapa r. y. 
ff7ropa87]i> f || 1 8 eaurw f || pi] + yap f || 19 om on d |j 20 /uarcuor^ra] + /cat 1 |j 
20-1 TTWJ 9av/j.a(rTovTai...a\\ws] OTI ai> 6 purr of OVK aXXws utos deov yu erat. vulg 

2. ITauXou] Gal. vi 3. pwv avo/mias /cat VTrepfiaivwv dcre/Set as. 

3. yu,7j 7^70^05] i.e. which you //;. ^era^oet] Joel ii 13 (LXX). 
have not really become. It is 13. xP y l ffT s ] ^ >s - cxliv (cxlv) 9 
explained by TKVO. 6. yevecrdaL. (LXX). 

ib. "Ocrot /c.T.X.] Jn i 12. il>. /mrj opyrfv /c.r.X.J Ps. vii 12 

6. 6/xo7eres] Gr. seems to draw (LXX). 

no distinction here between simi- 14. fvd-rjs] Ps. xci (xcii) 16. 

larity of moral character and identity 19. T? Trpo^rjTeia] The passage 

of nature. which follows is an adaptation of 

8. Trpoatpetrews] The purpose Ps. iv 3, 4 (LXX). The words o^xt 

or aim of the life. i tos v\js. are a comment of Gr., with 

n. 0^01761] Ps. cxliv (cxlv) 16. perhaps a reminiscence of Ps. Ixxxi 

12. iiTrep/SatVet av.~\ passes over (Ixxxii) 6, 7. 
iniquities. 1 Mic. vii 18 (LXX) e |at- 21. dav/maffTovrai] how man is 


dvayKalov dv eiij TOVTOIS irpoadelvai Kai TO 
\ei7rofjitvov, on ovre rd dyadd rd ev e7rayye\iai$ rot? 
ev /BeffiwKoai TTpoKeifAeva roiavrd e<mv <w? et? V7roypa(f)r]v 
\6yov eXOeiv. 7T&)? ydp a ovTe o(p0d\./jLos elbev, ovTe ovs 
ijKOvcrev, ovre eVt Kapoiav dv6pu>Trov dvefirj ; ovre JJLTJV 5 
77 d\yeu>r) T&V TreTrXvjfjifAeXrjKOTCOv far} Trpos TI rwv ry&e 
\VTTOVVTWV TTJV aicrOvjaiv O/IOT//UCO? ^X i " d\\d Kav eTrovo- 
fjiacrOr) TL TWV eKL KO\aaTr]pia)i> rot? wSe yvwpi^ojjL 
ovofjuacriv, OVK eV o\iy(t) rtjv TrapdXXayrjv e^ei- Trvp 
dtcovwv dX\o TL Trapd TOVTO voelv eBiSd^OT)^ IK rov TO 
TrpocTKelcrOai, TL rep Trvpl eiceivw o ev TOVTW OVK ecrri 
TO jJLev ydp ov a/SevvvTat, TOVTOV Be 7ro\\d Trapd TT}? 
e^evprjTat, Ta o-^ecrTtjpia, 7ro\\ij oe TOV af3evvvfJLevov 
TO fjLi] 7rapa8e^0yu,e^o^ crfteGiv 7} Siafiopd. OVKOVV 
aXXo rt, Kal OV%L TOVTO daTi. Trd\iv crK(t)\r)Ka ri? aKOvaas 15 
fjir) Bid r^9 o^ww/Jiia^ TTpo? TO ejrlyeiov TOVTO Orjpiov 
aTroffrepeo Oa) Trj biavoia" i] ydp TrpocrOtjKT] TOV dTe\ei>T?]TOi> 
elvai d\\rjv Tiva fyvcriv Trapa Tt^v yLva)(7KO/jievr)V voelv 

VTTOTideTai. 7Tl OVV TaVTa TTpOKeiTai Trj 6\TTiBt TOV 

a TavTa ffiov, KaTa\\r/\cos eK T?}? exdcrTOv Trpoaipeo-ews 20 

f ,! 2 XeurofJlcvov] tiro^evov f , om OTL 1 4-6 oi S...un; irpos 
desunt in 1* ;| 7 fi*vni ^ ovofj.a(n.i>] vo-rj/ Lv 1 ;! 1 1 TrpoKeiffdcu. l" vil1 
vvilg ;! 16 eyyiov f \ TOV dripiovh / 1 8 yLvofj.evrjv g 1 

magnified. The LXX of Ps. iv 4 sliif/it variation in meaning, 

has KCU yvureoTL e^ai /xdcrrwcret Kvpios ib. Trvp yap a/coi wr] Cp. Isaiah 

TO? offiov avrov. Ixvi 24 (LXX), Mk ix 48, Mt. iii 10, 

i. dvayKalois] Clr. now passes on Lk. iii 9. 

to speak of the rewards and punish- 10. ev roO irpovK. ] because sonu- 

ments with which God visits men. thing is added to that fire ivhich is 

3. vTroypa.(p"qv~\ outline sketch. not in tJiis. 

Sue ~/i as cannot be indicated in any 20. /caraXX. ] being tJie natural 

account. and suitable outcome in t/ie life of 

4. a oure K.r.X.] i Cor. ii 9. each man s bent of character, and 
Cp. Is. Ixiv 4 (3) (LXX). expressing the righteous judgment of 

7. o^ortjtiws e xet] has no equal God. God s rewards accompany 

in any of tJie things which in this and are the natural result of a 

life give pain to the sense. For man s character. There is nothing 

.ofiort/xcos cp. antea c. 28 p. 106. arbitrary about them. 

9. OVK ev dXiyy] // exhibits no 

II - 2 


Kara rrjv Sitcaiav rov 6eov Kpicriv dvatyvoueva rc5 
aa)(ppovovvTC6v av elrf /u?) TT/OO? TO rrapov d\\d vr/ao? TO 
fjuera rovro (3\erreiv, teal rijs a^pacrrov uaKapLoryros ev 
rfj oKi yrj ravry KOL rrpoaKaipw on; Ta? d(f)Opf^d<; Kara/3a\- 
5 \eo~dai Kal TT)? rwv KaKwv Treipas Si dya9f)s Trpoaipeaews 
d\\orpiovcr6ai, vvv uev Kara rov /3iov, uera ravra Se Kara 
rr)v alwvlav avTiSoo iv. 

i om TOV 0fov 1 || 7 T. a. avTidocriv] Desinunt in haec verba codcl 
pier. In /n et edd. Paris, haec quoque exstant: o Xptcrros /Soi Xerat Oeupeiv 
dvo 0i creiS oi crtwSws ^^w^fvas o/j.o\oyovffa KO.K rorror Traptarwcra r<-> /j.ya\iov 
TOV eXeoi S /ecu rwt OLKri.pp.wv rov deov wepi r] KaraOf^a/mevov 5ta TT;I/ irpos 
yfjias aropyrfv ffvveivon. re /ecu o-vvapLdfj.eio 6ai rrj carrot; (pvaei rrjv rj/j.erepav 
KO.L X a P ts rw ^ ew e?rt T? ? aveKdirjyrjra} arrov dwpea KO.L rarra yu.c^ ets 
rocrouroi e-rreid-rj de o Sei Tjpos ^iXats TrpoKade^ eraL 0wvats CP re 
/-ovots /cat r;%ots rTyv Vfff3eiav virort,9era.i KOUTOL ye ror aTrocrroXoi Xe70J ros- 
ou 70/3 ci* Xo^w TJ j3a.ffi\ia TOV deov aXX ei> Si i/a^cet /ecu aXfjOeia oi ros 5e Trap 
ai rw Sei^pw /cpartaros 6eo\oyos yvupifeTai os af ras KaTyyopias AptcrroreXoi ? 
vat ra XotTra rwi^ e^w <pi\offO(puv Ko/m^a ria Krifj.evos rt 7x ai l o-vayKa(.ov r;/ 
ra ff-rjfj.aLVOfJ.eva ettao-Tys Xe^ews rwc ets ra ?rpo? auroi/ ^.ev-rjpov \eyofj.eva 
vpetcoSws \a/Jij3avofJ.ei uv c?rt /catpot cra0^i tcrat KOLTO. rov vow TWV e/c/cXT^crtacrrt/cajj 
5t5acr/eaXw^ /ea^ o^ rat ra e^eiXfjcpaffLV Lva e^oLev OL evrvyxa-vovTes rot? 
inroyeypafj,/j.evoLS \oyoLS eK Trpojrrjs evTev^eus voeiv rwv \eyo/J.eviov 5vvafj.iv 
/cat ^77 5ta r^v 07^010^ roi o"r]fj,aLi>ofjL(vov ruv Xe^ewv irpos rrjv 
TUV ev afrots 

j. rrjv aluviav avrtdoffiv] i.e. the derailed at the Council of Constan- 

future life, conceived of as the re- tinople in A.D. 536. The whole 

ward of a man s conduct in this life. section forms the conclusion of a 

Here the treatise ends according work on the Incarnation, in reply 

to the bulk of the MSS. But in m to the Manichaean, Paulianist, Apol- 

and in the Codex Vulcobianus, used linarian, Nestorian, and Eutychian 

by-Fronto Ducaeus, there follows a heresies, by Theodore, a priest and 

long additional section beginning 6 monk of Rhaithu or Raythu circa 

Xptcrros /3oi <Xerat and ending ru> ev A. 0.650. Theodore s work is printed 

avrots dewp-qp.a.rwv TrapaTroStfwi/rat. in Migne P. G. xci p. 1479 sq., and 

The section appears in the Latin in Galland Vet. Pair. Bibl. xiii. 

translation of I lervetus and in the The passage has crept into the text 

Paris editions. It deals with the of Gr. owing to some scribe s blunder 

heresy of Severus, the head of the in transcription. 
sect of the Acephali, who was con- 



Ambrose, on the Atonement, xxxiii, 
89 ; on the Eucharist, xli, 147, 

Angel of the Earth, 32 

Anomoeans, attacked by Gregory, 
xiv ; their teaching, 2 ; referred 
to, 153, 156 foil. 

Anselm, his Cnr Deus ho/no, xxxiii, 

Apollinaris, his teaching on the 
Lord s human body, 102 

Aristotle, use made of, by Gregory, 
xxx ; his doctrine of form and 
matter, 125; quoted or referred 
to, 21, 23, 67, 106, 145, 146, 151 

Assyrians, 109 

Athanasius, his teaching compared 
with that of Gregory, xxviii foil., 
xxxiv ; quoted or referred to, xxii, 
i, 2, 3, 1 6, 22, 27, 29, 64, 75 (/ />), 
9^, 108, 115, 119, MO (Ms), i3r, 

Atheism, 3 

Atonement, sec Ransom, Redemp 

Aubertin, referred to, xvi, 153 

Augustine, on the Trinity, 9 ; 
quoted or referred to, 27, 89, 120 


Baptism, Gregory s teaching on, 
xxxiv, 123 foil.; its purpose dis 
tinguished from that of the Eu 
charist, xxxvii, 141 foil.; analogy 
of human birth to, 124 foil.; 
grounds of the efficacy of, 126 

foil., 139; inner significance of, 
129 foil.; necessity of, 137 ; effects 
of, 138, 140 ; moral conditions 
of, 153 foil., 159 foil. 
Bardenhewer, Dr, referred to, xxx, 


Basil, referred to, xxii, 7, 12, 27, 32 
Basilides, 2 

Bentley, referred to, xlv 
Bergades, I. C., referred to, xxiv 
Bernard, quoted, 17 
Bethune-Baker, J. F., referred to, 

7, 12, 155 
Bigg, I)r C., referred to, xi, xxiii, 

42, 118 
Butler, his Analogy, referred to, 

xxix, 1 1 1 


Cain, 109 

Cappadocian Fathers, their import 
ance, x 

Catechetical instruction, i 

Christ, union of Godhead and man 
hood in, 54 foil., 57 foil.; Yirgin- 
Birth of, 60 foil., 86; why a 
human birth was necessary, 101 
foil.; His humanity complete, lot 
foil. ; His Godhead veiled from 
Satan by the screen of the, 
human nature, 89, 93, 98 ; why 
I lis death was necessary, 114 foil. ; 
His resurrection and its effects, 
60 foil., 70 foil. ; representative 
character of His death and resur 
rection, 130; altars in the name 
of, 75. See also Incarnation, 

1 66 


Chrysostom, his teaching on the 

Eucharist, xli, 149 ; on the sacra 

mental principle, 141 
Churton, W. R., referred to, 155 
Clement of Alexandria, referred to, 

42, 122, 130 
Coats of Skin, Gregory s interpreta 

tion of, 42 foil. 
Constantinople, Council of, ix ; sy 

nod at, in 383, xiv 
Cross, reasons for death upon, 114 

foil.; symbolism of, 119 foil. 
Cyril of Jerusalem, on baptism, 

xxxvi, 135 ; referred to, 76, 142 


de Principiis, of Origen, compared 

with the Or. Cat., xi 
Deification of man, through Christ, 

45, 130, 151 
Demons, connexion of, with idolatry, 

, referred to, i 
Diekamp, F., referred to, xiii (bis), 

xiv (bis), xxiv, xxx, 1 
Dionysius the Areopagite, quoted, 



Election, unscriptural form of, de 
nied by Gregory, 1 1 1 

Eparchus, Antonius, xiv 

Epicureans, 3 

Eucharist, Gregory s doctrine of, 
xxxvi foil.; 141 foil., 150; a 
principle of life for the body, 
xxxvii, 142 foil.; how Christ s 
Body and Blood are given in, 
144 foil. ; an extension of the In 
carnation, xxxiv foil., 151 ; insti 
tution of, by Christ, 150; the 
prayer of consecration in, 152 

Eunomius, orations of Gregory 
against, x, xiii foil.; his reply to 
Basil s Refutation, xiii ; teaching 
of, 2, 4, 157 

Euthymius Zigabenus, his quota 
tions of the Or. Cat., xv, xlvii, 3, 
25, 49, 51, 102, 121, 142 

Eutychianism, Gregory accused of, 

Evil, negative character of, xxii, 
27 foil., 83 ; its seat in the will, 40 

Eatalism, of heathen world, xii 

P>anzelin, Cardinal, on the Eu 
charist, referred to, 144, 150 (bis) 

Free-will, of man, insisted on by 
Gregory, xxii foil., 111 foil., 113 

Fronto Ducaeus, quoted or referred 
to, xxxviii, xliii, 56, 150, 164 


Gelasian Sacramentary, quoted, 91 

Generation, human, Gregory s vindi 
cation of, xii (note), 105 foil. 

Germanus, bp of Constantinople, re 
ferred to, xv, 100 

GOD, His existence, 3 ; perfection, 
5 ; unity, 5 ; unchangeableness, 
155 ; transcendence, xxiv ; im 
manence, xxviii, xxxiv, 95, 104; 
attributes, xxxii, 78 foil. ; good 
ness, 22 foil., 79 foil. ; wisdom, 
80 foil. ; justice, 81 foil.; power r 
90 foil. 

Godet, referred to, 32 

Gregory the Great, quoted or re 
ferred to, 89, 93 

Gregory of Nazianzus,his Origenism, 
x ; his relations with Gregory of 
Nyssa, xvii (note) ; on the IMOV- 
a/>x i a, 16; his rejection of the 
theory of a ransom to Satan, 89 

Gregory of Nyssa, his banishment, 
ix ; summoned to Council of Con 
stantinople, ix ; his books against 
Eunomius, xiii foil. ; his journey 
to Armenia, xiii ; present at synod 
at Constantinople in 383, xiv ; his 
de Deitatt Filii ct Sp. Sancti, xiv ; 
his style, xvii ; his rhetorical 
studies, xvii 


Harnack, Dr, referred to, x, xi, 
xxvii. xl, 24, 37, 95, 130, 141, 

Hebrews, Epistle to, attributed to 
St Paul by Gregory, 131 

Hell, harrowing of, allusion to, 89 

Herod, 109 


I6 7 

I lervetus, Gentianus, his Latin ver 
sion of the Or. Cat., xliii, 87 

Heyns, S. P., referred to, xiii 

Hilary of Poitiers, resemblance of 
his teaching on the Sacraments to 
that of Gregory, xxxv, 151 

I lilt, F., referred to, xl, 24, 150, 

Hoeschel, I)., referred to, xliv 

Holy Spirit, existence of in the God 
head, illustrated from the analogy 
of human nature, 13; inseparable 
from God and the Word of God, 
15 ; self-subsist ent, possessing will, 
activity, and power, 15 ; not a 
creature, 156 foil. 

Hort, Dr F. J. A., referred to, 2 

Ignatius, quoted or referred to, 89, 

120, 130, 142, 143 
Image of God, in Man, 24 
Incarnation, Gr. s teaching on, 
xxviii foil.; delay of, xxix, 107 
foil.; a stumbling-block to non- 
believers, 52 ; proved by miracles, 
58 foil. ; involved no degradation 
or weakness on God s part, 65 
foil. ; beneficent purpose of, 73 ; 
effects of, 74 foil. ; exhibits God s 
goodness, 79 foil. ; wisdom, 80 
foil.; justice, Si foil. ; power, 91 
foil.; Satan deceived by, 89, 95, 

Inge, \V. R., referred to, 130 
Irenaeus, relation of his teaching to 
that of Methodius and Gregory, 
xxvii ; quoted or referred to, 29, 
42, 1 02, 130, 142 


Jerome, his acquaintance with 
Gregory at Constantinople, x 

Jerusalem, destruction of, 77 foil. 

Jews, disappearance of their worship 
and temple, 76 foil. 

John of Damascus, his indebtedness 
to the Or. Cat., xv, xxxvii, xli 
foil., xlviii, 8, 13, 17 ; his Ku- 
charistic doctrine, xli foil. ; his 
rejection of the theory of a ransom 

to Satan, 89 ; quoted or referred 
to, 32, 93, 149, i;o 
fustin Martyr, quoted or referred to, 

I, 15, 29, III, 122, 123, 124, 149 

Krabinger, his edition of the Or. 
Caf., xliv. 

Labyrinth, of Minos, 131 
Lactantius, on the Cross, quoted, 

Leontius of Byzantium, quotation 

of Or. Cat. in, xv, xlvii, 54 
Lightfoot, Bp, referred to, 20, 51, 

75. I2 5 

Logos, see Word 
Loofs, Dr, referred to, xliii 
Love of God, conjoined with power, 



Man, his creation due to God s 
goodness, 22 ; his possession of 
reason, 23; immortality, 23 ; free 
will, 26 ; his nature the meeting- 
point of the worlds of sense and 
spirit, xxiv, 30 foil. ; envied by 
Satan, 32 foil .; his fall, 36 foil.; 
originally free from passion, 25, 

3r> I3 8 

Manichaeans, xii, 2, 27, 37 
Marcion, 2 
Mason, Dr A. J., referred to, xxiii, 

22, 55 57.72, 89 
Maximus, his comment on Ps.- 

Dionys. de Eccl. /Her., xiv, 85 
Maximus Margunius, xlv 
Mayor, Dr J. B., referred to, 30, 


Methodius, indebtedness of Gregory 
to, xxv foil., xxx ; referred to, 32, 
42, 44, 119, 124 
Metrophanes Critopulus, xlvi 
Mind and matter, relations of, ac 
cording to Gregory, 31 
Minucius Felix, quoted, 76 
Miracles of Christ, ^8 foil., 86 foil., 

127 foil. 
Moberly, Dr, referred to, 7 

1 68 


Moeller, E. G., quoted, 30 
Moore, \Y., referred to, 87 
Morel, P., his Latin version of the 

Or. Cat., xliii, 21 
Moses, 43, 88 

Xeander, referred to, xl, 141, 150 

Neoplatonism, influence of, on hea 
then world, xi ; points of contact 
with, in Gregory s teaching, xxiv, 
xxx, 27, 31, 95 

Nestorianism, tendency towards in 
Gr. s language, 72, 103, 116 

Noah, 109 


Oehler, Fr., quoted, 133 

Oratio Catechetica, purpose of, xii ; 
date of, xiii foil. ; teaching of, 
xvii foil. 

Origen, his allegorical interpretation 
of Scripture, xix, 13, 24, 118; on 
the union of philosophy and re 
ligion, xix ; on the free-will of 
man, xxii ; on the negative charac 
ter of evil, xxii, 27 ; on the purifi 
cation of souls, xxiii, 46, 99 (bis] ; 
on the universal restoration of 
spirits, xxiii, 98 ; his threefold 
division of human nature, xxiv, 
29 ; on the ransom to Satan, 
xxxiv, 89 ; on the deification of 
the Lord s humanity, 130 ; quoted 
or referred to, 29, 32, 42, 47 (bis], 
64, 76, in, 130, 149 

Origenism, of Basil and Gregory 
Nazianzen, x ; of Gregory of 
Nyssa, x, xv, xix foil., 100 

Oxenham, II. N., referred to, 93 

Pantheism, Christian, 95 

Persons in the Trinity, 7, 155 ; illus 
trations of, from human conscious 
ness, 9 ; individual existence of, 

Petavius, referred to, 57 

Philo, Logos doctrine of, 7, i i ; 
quoted, 155 

Philocalia, of Origen, x 

Philosophy and religion, xix 

Photius, quoted, xv foil., xvii 

Plato, indebtedness of Gregory and 
Origen to, xxii, xxiii, xxx; psy 
chology of, xxxi ; on negative 
character of evil, xxii, 27; on 
purification of souls, xxiii, 46 ; 
his division of the Universe, xxiv; 
referred to or quoted, 2}, 27, }i, 
55, 82, 95, [i 7, !55 

Plotinus, on the Divine Being, xi ; 
Trinity of, xi ; Gregory s points 
of contact with, xxiv; referred to, 
27, 54, 117 

Polytheism, 2, 4 foil. 

Prayer, its place in the baptismal 
rite, xxxiv, 123, 127 foil.; prayer 
of consecration in the Kucharist, 

Priesthood, Christian, referred to, 

/ T 

Providence, the Divine, Gregory s 
treatment of, xxi 

Pseudo-Cyril, his indebtedness to 
the Or. Cat., xv, xlviii, S, 13 

Punishment, remedial character of, 
xxiii, 47, 99; future, character of, 

Purification of souls, Gregory s doc 
trine of, xxiii, xxxvi, 46, 99, 138 
foil. ; contrasted with Western 
doctrine of Purgatory, xxiii. 47, 

Pusey, Dr, referred to, xli, 143, 150, 

Ransom, to Satan, Gregorv s idea of, 
xxxiii, 84 foil. 

Redemption, Gregory s teaching 
upon, xxvii foil.; relation of, to 
attributes of God, xxxii foil. 

Refining fire, xxxvi, 139 

Restoration, final, of all created 
spirits, xv, xxiii, 100 

Resurrection, two kinds of, distin 
guished, 137 ; see Christ 

Ritter and Preller, referred to, 117 

Robertson, Dr A., referred to, 3 

Robinson, Dr J. A., referred to, 27, 

Rufinus, referred to, ^2, 120 

Rupp, J., referred to, xiv, xvi, xviii, 
xix, xxx, I, i 2 



Sabellius, teaching of, 3 

Sacraments, Gregory s teaching 
upon, xxxiv foil. ; continuation of 
process of Incarnation in, xxxiv ; 
moral conditions of right use of, 
153 foil. 

Sacrifices, cessation of heathen and 
Jewish, 75, 77 

Sanday and Ileadlam, referred to, 

Satan, envy of, 34 foil. ; his love of 
rule, 86 ; deceived by Incarnation, 
89 foil., 97 ; ransom paid to, 
xxxiii, 84 foil.; purgation and 
future salvation of, 99 foil., 101 

Schwane, Dr J., referred to, 32, 86, 
100, 141, 150 

Scripture, Gregory s interpretation 
of, xix foil., 42, 1 18 

Scudamore, W. E., referred to, 149 
(bis], 152, 

Severus, bishop of Antioch, 164 

Sextus, quoted, 16 

Sight, Gr. s theory of, 23 

Similes in the Or. Cat., xvii 

Sin, continuance of, since Incarna 
tion, 109 foil. 

Sodom, 109 

Soul, relations of, with body, 54 

Spirit, see Holy Spirit 

Stoicism, referred to, 95, 117 

Synesius, quoted, 117 

Tertullian, materialism of, xi ; re 
ferred to, 7, 42 

Theodore of Rhaithu, 1311 the In 
carnation, xvi, 164 
Theodoret, his quotations from the 
Or. Cat., xv, xlvii, 54, 72, 1 16, 1 18; 
his language on the Eucharist, 

Theophanes, quoted, 47 
Theophrastus, referred to, 23 
Theorianus, his Dixpiitatio oiun Ner- 
scie, xv, xlvii, 142 

Transubstantiation, Gregory s teach 
ing on the Eucharist distinguished 
from, xxxviii foil., 150 

Trinity, illustration of, from psy 
chology, xxxi, 9 ; doctrine of, 
mysterious, 15; mediates between 
opposing doctrines of Judaism and 
Hellenism, 1 6 foil. ; importance of 
right belief in, 155 foil.; baptism 
into, 155 foil.; uncreated, 157 

Tritheism, Gr. s doctrine of the 
Trinity guarded against, 16 

Ueberweg,his judgment on Gregory, 


Universalism, of Gregory, xv, xxiii 
Universality, want of, in the spread 

of Christianity, no foil. 

Valentinus, 2 

Venantius, Eortvmatus, his hymn 

Pange lingua, 97 
Vincent of Lerins, quoted, 102 
Vincenzi, A., referred to, 100 
Virgin-Birth of Christ, 60 foil., S6 
Vulcobius, Dn J., referred to, xliii 


Westcott. Bp. referred to, 35, 75 
Wilson, H. A., referred to, 4 
Word of God, existence of, illustrated 
from human word, 7 ; possesses 
life absolutely, 9 ; possesses will 
and jiower to do what He wills, 
9 ; one with God in nature, 1 2 
foil.; inseparable from the Holy 
Spirit, 15 

Xahn, I)r, referred to, 3 
Zeller, referred to, 1 1 7 
Xeno, Apostolo, xlvi 
Zinus, his Latin version of Euthy- 
mius Zig., 56, 144 







i- 27 

.. 24, 4 

ix. 2, 3 

95, 5 


-- 3^.4 

ii- 7 

... 31.6 



vii. 1 8 

.. 162, 16 

iii. 8 

-. 64, i 

f 4 95> 6 

; n6, i 


iv. 31 

... 6 4 , i 

ii. 4. 5 

... 109, 5 


iv. 3, 4 162, 23 

; 163, 2 


vii. 12 

162, 17 

iii. 2 

r ? M i 

xv. (xvi.) ro 

. .. 60, 9 


... 139, l 
I ^ Z I 

xxx. (xxxi.) 20 

73. i? 

xxxii. (xxxiii.) 6 

.. 18,8 

xxxviii. (xxxix.) 12 

.. 48, 12 


Ixxii. (Ixxiii.) 7 

- 156, 3 

Ixxxi. (Ixxxii.) 6, 7 
Ixxxix. (xc.) 2 

162, 19 
. 1 16, i 

! 7 

vii. i 

1 8, 5 
43. 5 

xci. (xcii.) 16 

162, 14 

ciii. (civ.) i, 2 

95. 5 


cv. (cvi.) 4, 5 
cxviii. (cxix.) 65, 66, 6,s ... 


7 - - 
79 - 

ii. 16-18 
iii. 10 

... 109, 7 
^M. 9 

cxxxviii. (cxxxix.) 7 

... 95, 

vii. 7 
xviii. 20 

.... 1 27, 5 

8 10 .... 
cxliv. (cxlv.) 9 

. I 20, 

.62, I 

xxiii. 34, 35 
xxvii. 49 

.... 109, 6 

f 1 J [7 


162, I 

. . I - 1 , 1 ^ 

xxviii. 20 122, 

3 5 I2 7> 6 


i. 16 

1 60, 1 


xxxvii. 23 

.. 109, 

vi. 48-9 

87, 8 

xl. --2 

f\ ~ 

ix. 48 

i f) -y r\ 

Ixiv. 4 (3) 


xiv. 22 

1 "3 9 

... 151, 1 

Ixvi. 24 

.. 163, 9 



xxiii. 4 

- 95. 5 

iii. 9 
v. 3 1 

... 163, 9 
4, 3 


xix. 8 

.. 161, 13 
...94, 6 

ii- 13 

162, 12 

xxiv. 36 

.. [21, l6 




i. i 2 162, 3 

14 49 5 

iS 2, 13 

iii. _> 159, 3 

v. io 
viii. 2 i 



97- 20 

:> I 

158, I 
I ^2, 2 

i. io .. 
iii. 1 8 . 

20, 3 

120, U 

xiv. i ^ 

iv. 6 .. 

i^;, i^ 

xv. 4 sq 


v. 26 .. 

122, II 

xvi. 23 

.. . .127, 


xix. 34 

121, I 

ii. io 


\\ IO 




T TTAT/^VT-T r \ 



2, 5 

11. cS-i i 112,4 

io 60, 9 

41 1 12, 16 

47 i, 3 

iii. 16 
iv. 4 



135, 6 

". ii 

iii. 4 


ii. S .......................... 89, 3 sq. 

9 .............................. 163, 4 

14-15 ........................ 38, 18 

iv. 15 ........................... i5r X 3 

v. fi .............................. 143 2 

xii. 14-24 .................. 107, 5 sq. 

xv. 47 ........................... 132, 21 


; 58, <y 

31, r 

no, r 

63, 8 

122, II 

64. 12 
131, 4 
ii, 17 






d/3aroj 77, 16 

d!3ov\r)TOS ill, 4 

dfiov\ia 28, 10; 37, 12 

dfivffffos 55, 4 

dyaOtiveiv 157, 9 

d776toj 54, ii 

dyid^Lv 149, 35; 150, I 

dyLa.ffp.os 126, 7 

dyKiffrpov 84, 5 

dryyw/uocnVTj 125, 13 

d7umo"riKcDs 153, 7 

dde\(f)OKTOvia 109, I 

d<5eo-7roros 26, 8; 27, 2; 28, 9 

d<5ieo5os 132, 7 
ado^os 102, 14; 104, 2 10, 10 

dtjdia 35, 4 

a0aaTtfi> 143, 3 

ddearos 22, 9 

ddeos 3, 12 

ddepd-rrevTos 46, I I 

ddpows 112, 6 

cuStoTTjs 6, 6; 23, 16; 24, 2, ii 

aiW 7 /za 43, i, 2; 77, 2 

atpeffis 2, 8, 14; 17, I 

38, 12 

t, rd 117, 2 
alffdrjTLKOs 45, 7; 107, 2 
aiffdrjTos 29, 3, 7, 8, 10, 12; 30, 6, 

U; 3 . 4; 70, ii ; 7 2 > i 
dKaTavo-qTos 62, n 
aKepaios 133, 1 1 
d/cti Suj/oj 114, 3 

I3 6 . 3 
114, i 
d/c6Xao"ros 161, 7 
o-Kparos 92, 17 

M, 3 

if 47, 10 

35 IT 

33. 5 

34, i; 155, i (/;/>); 15^, 
55 57 2 

0X7775^1 49, 3; 50, 2; 103, 3 
dXe7?T??ptoi> 98, 4; 142, 6, 10 
dXXoioui 82, 8; 155, 3; 156, 9, 12 
dXXoi wcrts 34, 2, 3, 4; 51, 5, 7; 

81,9 foil. 

aXXoiWTi/cos 146, 14; 151, 7 
dXXotwros 8^, 6 
aXXorptoPf 164, 6 
d\\oTpiuffis 50, 10 ; 135, : 
dXo7i a 21, 4; 54, 6 
0X070? 7, 5 foil.; 43, 10, 15 

37, 3 

d/meTd(3\riTOS 79, 20 
d^eratferos 155, 2 
d/xerdo-raros 155, 5 
d/JLerpia 50, 16 
d;iu7??s 45, 9 

du.oLpe iv iii, 10; 112, 7 
a.jj.o(.pos 138, 2 
d/JLVijTos 139, /; 1 60, 17 
d/x0i/yoXoj 62, 10 
di>afio\rj 1 08, 7 
dvayevvav 129, 2; 162, 4 
dva.yi>vr](TLS 124, i; 125, 7; 137, 
9; 153, 12; 159, ii; 1 60, 9 
;s 113, 8 
13, 5 
di>a.deiKi>vi>a.L 31, 5; 32, ii; 35, 8 

40, i i 

dvadveiv 135, 13 
dvai/jia.KTOS f(), i 
dva.KO.Li> iff /ji6s 159, 15 
dvaKepavvvvai 141, 4; 143, 6 
dva.K.ipvao da.L 101, ii 

49, 17; 85, 17 
30, 7; 57, 16 ; 142, 3 
os 156, 3, 7 
135, 1 6 



99, 10 

. ,.t,rfoXos 76, 7 
dydTrXacris 137, 10 

j 22, IO 
dvdppvffis 87, 6 

45, li; 133, 12 

di a<rr(HX e Ct (r s 37 [I I ^ )O ^ 

dva<TTpo<t)ri 132, 2 

di arpe xf * 133, i 

dva.(f)-r]S 29, 10 

dva.(pi fii> 140, 12; 164, i 

29, 10 
dpe/eXdA?7Tos 62, i i 
dvK(f>pa.(rTos 49, 3 
dvfi>tpyr)Tos 10, 17; 19, 6; 35, 3 

57, 13; 125, ii 
dveirideKTOs 13, I ; 6l, IO 
dvep/bnqvevTos 58, 8 
dVeros 28, 10 
dvrjvvros 107, 13 
dvOpwTTOTroua, 39* 12; 128, 3 
df6i>77TOS 128, 7 
dvTd\\ay/u.a 86, 10; 93, i 
dvTaTravTciv 97, 16 
dj rapttf/xeZi 51, 1 6 
di retcrd^/eti 107, 4, 14 
o.vTei(neva.L 145, 11 
dvTpuTai> 124, 8 
di/TtStatpera-^ai 3^, ;, 7, 11; 66, ? 

, 8 ^ ^ 
d^rt5tatecrts 65, 9 

33, 6 

33, 4; 83, 4 
avridoffis 97, 16; 164, 7 
d^TtTrci^fta 142, 13 
avTiTTOLeladai 45, l 
di>Tippr]<n$ 74, i 
dvTiTvrria 88, 4 

124, 6 

8, 16; 15, 5; 28, 5 
dvi 7rap|ta 81, it; 83, 5; 158, 9 
d^i TTOcrraros 8, 10; 9, 7 ; 14, 9 

I9> 7. 9 

d^a 87, i 

d^tw/xa 36, 4 

dira.~yr)S 8, 1 1 

dTrd^eta 35, 6; 64, 4; 138, n 

dTradrjs 36, 6, 7; 42, 9; 138, ii 

a7ra#c2>s 39, 15 

dirapid/u.ricris 24, 6 

aTrarewi 97, 16 

3- - 
direiK6vi(Tfj.a 32, 6 ; 36, 5 

aTretpOTrXacriws 136, 4 
cnrfj.Tro\di> 85? 10, 15 
dTTiJ.(po.iveLv 10, 6; 65, 17 
aTrXoPi 153, 6 

31, i 5 99 ^ 

!54< 4 
dTriryeuea^cu 142, 9 

39 i? 

100, 7; 138, 4 

^3- 17; 3 . 3 

a.iroK\ripQvv 111, 8; 146, 6 
d-rroK\veii> 139, 5; 160, 14 

104, 12 

IV 4 8, 1 2 

Or. 7 

dTToXvTrpay/J.oi rjTos 58, 6 
dTro/jLLfj.elo Oai 133, 6 
dTro^W 47, ii ; 48, 2 
dTroppaV 63, 13; 83, 16 
diropptjros 115, 4 
diroppvirTeiv 101, 14; 139, 12; 

1 60, 1 6 

diroppi TOS 68, 2 
dirocrapKovv 48, I 
i39 5 3 
139- 2 
d-rro(pepeLv 163, 17 
; diro(f>oiTa.v 113, 4 

7. 3 
cros 19, 8; 107, 12; 113, 17; 

aTrpocupero? 10, I 
ctTrpocrtTos 104, 6, II 
dTrpocTTreXacrTOS 104, 7 

66^7; 68, 6; 1 1 6, 7 
145, 8 ; 161, ii 

J 5 15 

dp/dovia 30, I 

39, 9; 47, 4; 69, 5, 10; 

26, n ; 36, 6; 82, 5 
6s 136, ii 
124, 5; 131, 5; 132, 9; 

i57 3 
aadfj.a 14, 17; 18, ri; 19, i 

156, I, 12 

86, 14 
161, 3 
103, 10 
dreXei TT^ros 163, 17 



*9 4 
114, 2 
a.T6\/jL7)TOS 109, 13 
&TO[J.OS 54, 10 
drovetV 125, 14 

drpeTTTos 82, 6; 155, i; 156, 2, 6 
avdfvria 85, i 
aufoi Ti/iOS 64, 7 
.ai Tei;o( crioj 26, 8; 34, 7; 42, 6; 

Si, 6; 112, 12; 113, 10 
cu re^oua iOTTjs 28, 7 
cu ToSwctjUis 50, 22 
avro fwf] 9, 1 5 
avTOKpaTrjS 27, I 
aiVo/udrcos 35, 14 
aurOjUoXetV 85, 9 
avTO(ro<t>ia 65, 18 
avroxei-p 36, 2 

d(f)Bapffia 6, 6; 144, 7; 152, 6 
a<p6ovos 34, 8 
atpQopos 86, 15 
d(f>idpv(j.a 75, 14 
d(popfj.ri 26, 5; 37 IO; 85, 3; 

124, io; 142, i ; 164, 4 
d(ppaaTOS 49, 4 
vv 44? 1 5 

62, 11; (JO, 14 
d\fevdr]S 129, i 
9, 3 

fiaTTTifcLv 156, 8 

^O.TTTLffp.0. 122, 12; J6O, i; l6l, 14 

fiaaiXfiov 76, 12 

/Sia 36, 10, 13 

^St os 41, 6; no, 9; 114, 2; 156, 

y. 13 

/3ioO 163, 3 
p\a(rTdi>et.v 109, II 
P\i<t>apov 34, 9; 41, I 

ppiefiv 35, 14 

yeiTvidv 104, 19 
yeviKOS 71, 16 
yfrvrjo-is and 7e^ecris 61, io 
yevvriTWp 154, II 
7770/0!, 31, 9; 32, 6; 44, 11 
yvupicr/j.a 12, 13; 159, 14; 160, IO; 
162, 17 

49, 14 
20, i 


deXeap 93, 3 
5e\eao-/xa 98, 13 
SfyetJ 43, 8 
5^p/xa 43, 6, 9; 46, 6 
5e/3 / u.ariJ os 43, 5 
5ei cro7roi6s 38, i I 

42, 7; 98, 4 (to) ; 142, 

drj/niovpyla 38, 8 

5r)[Jt.iovpy6s 40, 7 (to); 49, 9; 106, 2 

8id6e<ris 39, 15; 156, 3 

diaipelv 72, 13; 77, 2 ; 115, 11 

Sta/cocr^o-is 92, io 

5ia/v paretV 148, 16 

8i.a.Kpii>Lv 1 34, 2 

5ia.Xafj.j3dvei.v 78, 4; 102, io; 121, 7 

StdXe^tj 3, 7, 9 

SiaXveiv 41, 5; 142, 9, 10 

diaXvfj.aii>fadai 98, 6 

5tdXi <rts 39, 10 ; 46, 5; 133, 9; 

! 34. 4 

dia/^apria 44, 14 
s 16, 7 

?? 119, 3; 146, 9; 148, 8 
TiKos 35, 16; 66, 9; 125, :; 
160, 2 

5tcu>oia 5, 3; 6, 7; 39, 14; 43, 7 
BiaTrXdff(Tfii> 128, 6 
SiaTrrt etf 102, i^ 

iXiys 88, 6 
iWi 61, 13 

jjfLKTLKOS 21, 20 

59. io 

iit 15, 13 
dicta Kevr] 106, 17 
otaa reXXett 134, i 
diacrroXr) 7, 3 
Starei^t^et^ 122, 4 
Stari TroOi 132, 21 
8i.a.<pepeiv 21, 20 
dia<p6opd 61, 6 
44, 7 

? 1 87, 8 
i deti/ 84, i 
didayfj.a 18, 2 

i, 4 

i> 107, 9; i 18, 6 
cHe^tevcu 68, io 
Ste^ooet eti/ 82, 12 
5ieo5t/ccDs 67, 9 
dt.VKpii>ii> 50, 19; 147, i 
<5iT)777Ata 59, 15; 6 1, 2; 77, ii 
8ir)>(i}S 1 6, i 
diKaioXoyia 85, 3 
SiKa.ffTripi.ov 52, 13 


CiopariKOS 38, 14 

87. 35 i3, 3; r 3 8 IT 
:6s 102, 8 
no, 9 
diirXorj 9, 10 

Sbyfjia 2, 15; 3, 12; 6, 10; 7, 5; 
1 6, 9; 24, 8; 37, 15; 39, 6; 

124 7 

8oyfj.aTi^ei.v 18, 14 
doKL/j.affia 44, 1 3 
8pifj,vffffeiv 48, 7; IOI, i 
dvffapeffTeli> 106, 12 
8vffKXr)pia I i 3, 5 
5i (rvo\os 1 8, i ; 46, 14 
Si crwTretV 64, i 

eyyewpyeiv 88, 1 1 
eyyiyveffdac 39, 7; 156, 9 

95, 5 
-88, 15 
94, 16 

94> IJ 

lj/ 156, 13 
f"5efffj.a. 98, 2 
146, 15 

75, 3 

flduXov 83, 19; 103, 2 
etW 24, 4, 5; 26, 13; 125, 17 
eip/j.6s 30, 5; 67, 9; 80, 12 
eiffoiKifciv 93, 4; IO2, 12 
elffpew 145, 14 

101, 15 
KK\Tjaia 112, 17 
eK\a/j.j3di ii 77, 8 

K\VLV 134, 15 

fKTrXrjpwffiS 125, 15 
Kir\vi>ei.v 1 02, 4 
fKpelv 133, 10 

CKTClfflS 121, 2 

fKTT)Kfll> 48, 13; 99, II 

e\ey/j.6<> 48, 13 
e\f\ t)epuT-/)s 63, 1 6 
fXXtji li eLi 3, 9; i/, 4 
eXX-rjviff/j.6s 2,5; 1 7, 8 
/j.Tradr]S 25, 7 
/JiTT(8dv 114, i 


ejj.TrepiKpa.Teli> 49, 14 
/j.TTpiXafji.^di>eiv 50, 2 1 
e/JLTrnrXdv 162, 11 
^fj.TTi evffLS 31, 7 
fj.(f>aiveii> 1 1 8, 4 

flj.<pvei.v 27, 8; 48, 8 
e/jL<pvrei en> 31, 8 

evaepios 23, 6 
ivavd PUTT-TIG ts 101, 2 
ej/Sicuracr^cu 104, 10 
evdofj-vxetf 108, 12 
evdvei.i> 95, 5 

4 95 I2 5, 3 

122, 2 

eWoicu, Koivai 20, i 
e^OTrXtos 131, 8 
evffKr)TTTiv 1 08, 14 
evffireipfiv 152, 3 
evTfXrjS 93, 9 
evreXuis \ 34, i 
^rei iis 150, i 

j-vvdpos 23, 6 

s 50, 20 

151, 8 

85, 12, 1 6 
e^aiperos 43, 1 1 


21, 14; 56, 10; 95, 6 
15, 15 
e^eraaty 96, 1 1 
e ^eraffTtKuis 65, 2 
e^yelffdac 131, 1 1 
e^is 2i^ 8; 33, 13; 44, 15 
e^ofj.oioui 143, 3 
e7ra77e\Xe<j#cu 127, 6; 128, 9; 129, 

i, 5 
eirdyei.i> 133, 7 

113, 5 
iiravdi^LV 83, 1 1 
eiravopOovv 7, 4 

47, 5 
146, 2 

-mfia.Tvei.v 55, 4 
85, 8 
r) 46, 6 

vXeveLv 97, 4; 98, 3 (/;/.$) 
i Xi) 44, 18; 142, 4 
dfaffdai 27, 7 
ewtdeiffdaL 139, 6; 142, 11 

136, 3 
elv 161, 18; 162, 18 

7, i r 
Xeiv 127, 6; 140, 3 


wiKr)pos 8, 17 (bis); 25, 7; 57, 16; 

I^I, 12 

iriK\rj(ri.s 12}, 11; 124, 5; 127, 3; 
i.? H 

TTLKl TTTI.V I I 6, 6 

eTrt/^ta 62, 14; 96, 5; 103, 5 

ewt/uLveLv 34, 8 ; 86, 5 

eiTLvoelv 21, 15; 43, 8; 85, 17; 131, 

i ; 132, ii 

eirivoia 4, 12 ; 37, I ; 98, 17 ; 132, 12 
Triirvoia 112, 5 
eTrtTroXcuos 38, 13 
eirLTTitjpovi 48, 2 
tirippdv 14, 7; 88, 7; 145, 5 
eirippeTTWs 38, IO 
eirippvros 68, 2 
tiriffKeif/is 64, I ; 1 06, 2 
eTrtcr/v Tyi wcrts 149? r 
fTTLcnrdv 42, 7 
eTricrrareti 30, 2 ; 59, 8 
e7ri<7T?)/x,77 21, 8; 125, 2; 1 60, 6 
eTTiTe\rjS 128, 13 
eir(.< 48, 7 ; 88, 3 ; 108, 9 
firt.(paueLV 128, 14 
135, 9 
ai 102, 16 

113, 7 
ecrriacrts 88, 6 

6s 88, 16 

evayrjs 9, 4 

euaXwros 36, 14 

f.vdoKia 162, [2 

eveKTew 35, 2 

euep yfO ia 58, 14; 63, 4 

evri/mepovv 86, 5 

ei tfijs 162, 1 8 

evKar6p6wTos 140, 9 

ei>Kivr)TO > 30, IO 

evKO\ia 136, 8; 140, I 

euX^TTTOS 104, 19 

ei)Xo7ia 36, 3, 12; 37, 4; 152, 7 

eufftyxaj ws 36, i; 97, 12 

eiooui 72, 2 
euTraTpldrjS 85, 8 
einrepiypairTOS 54, 8 
evpvtffj-os 131, 8 
euwxaV 88, 7 
e (f>air\ovv 55, 3 

#ai 68, 11 ; 94, 18 ; 103, 8; 

104, ii ; 105, 15 ; 141, 3 

ecm 23, 5 

rjdvveu 146, ii; 148, 2 

58, i 
(po\Ki.oi> 55, 8 

fryUTJ 143, 2 

faotivcria 75, 6 

!/ 59, 3; 63, 12; 147, 4 

144, 3 
^ WTLKOS i 10, 6; 140, 4 

77X05 47, 10 

1, 12 

^af ,ua 57, 19; 59, i; 88, 16; 90, 
2 ; 91, 8 ; 127, i, 10 ; 129, 6 

dav/j-aaTovv 162, 21 

6av/jia,Tovpyla 88, 2 

OeiKOS 90, 8 ; 149, i 

flaoi , TO 3, ii ; 4, 6, ii; 5, 15; 
7, 6; 10, 5; 19, 10 ; 93, 2; 125, 
15 ; 126, 6 ; 128, 5 ; 129, 7 

15, 12 

16, 10; 144, 4; 148, 12; 
51, 10 

32, 7 
51, i 

109, 5 

OeoTrvevo To^ 18, 5 
6eo7rpeTrr}s 4, 14; 14, 8; 23, 13; 
r2, 95 53 5; 57 35 63, i; 93, 
14; 105, 10 ; 121, ii 
deorrjs 4, 9; 6, i, 3; 16, 8; 89, 7; 
90, 15 ; 92, 15 ; 95, i; 117, i ; 
1 18, 1 1 ; i 20, 5, 13 ; 129, 6 ; 
140, 8 ; 152, i 
6o<pdi>eia 76, 1 1 
6epa.TrevTr)<; 99, 6 
Bewpia 4, 14 
drj\r) 86, 15 
drjpn^drjs 79, 7 
6prjffKfia 2, i; 77, 4, ii 
6pva\\is 36, 1 6 
1 10, 6 

75, 19 

IdLafciv 15, 3 ; 30, ii 

idia^ovTws 5, 9 ; 103, 6 

i 5t6rr?s 6, i 

i 5/w/xa 61, 7; 101, 3, ii; 104, i; 

115, 10, 13 
lepwffvvri 76, I 
LK6T eveii> 128, 1 8 
toi Satfeti 2, 4 
Ioi 5cu/cos 1 6, 9 ; 17, 7 

57, 18; 59, 2; 61, 16; 86, 


la. 59, 13; 109, 9; 122, 6 
24, 7 ; 42, 13 



Kadalpetv 134, 3; 138, 7; 140, 7 
KaOapevew 134, 5 
KadapLftiv 139, 8 
Kadaporrjs [40, 7 

KQ.d6.pffl.QV IO2, 5; 138, 7, 13; 13 

Ktittapcris 100, 9; ror, 8 

140, 6 

KadeipyeLv 63, 15; 89, 3 
KaOriyelffOat. 21, 3 ; 131, 4 

18; 133, 13; 141, 3 
Kadodos 91, 15 
Ka0v(3piciv 115, 5 
Kaipios 1 10, 4 

KarafiaXXei.!/ 97, 21; 98, ir; 124, 
ii ; 137, 4 ; 164, 4 
87, 6 
135, 16 

28, 8; 41, ro 6 O.L 57, 6; 152, 4 
KctTaKpi TTTeiv 132, 15 
KaTa\afJL^aveiv 53, 14; 82, 12 

123, 5 
13, 3 
/caraXX^Xos 23, 5; ^o, 9; 138, 16 

(Ms); 146, 5; 148, 7 
/caraXX^Xws 23, 7; 146, [5; 163, 20 
/cardXo70s 2, 7 

KaTafJ.avda.VeLV 115, 14 

KCLTa/Jieplfcii> 142, 8; 144, 10 
KaTafj.LyvvvaL 62, 13; 101, 2; 102, 

17; 107, 15 ; 144, 2 ; 151, 12 
KaTavaXlffKeLV 99, 7 
KO.Ta.vof.1v 34, 1 1 

KaTav6tjffis 15, 12; 29, 3; 120, 13 
KaTavTav 131, 14 37, 7 
KaTa.px.eiv 143, i 
KaracrKeudfei; 10, 4 ; 19, 9 
KaTaffKevf] 2, 3 
/cardoTacris 38, 19 
KaTaffvpeiv 159, 4 
\ araTp^x etI/ 25, 9; 65, 16 
KaTa(pap/m.aKViv 108, 10 
121, 6 

67, 6 
/car?70eta 138, 4 
Ka.TrjX rjcr^ J ) J , 2, 2 ; 159, 7 
KaTopdovv 76, 2 ; 113, n; 131, 5 

133, 3; 140, i 

122, 17 
100, 2, 3 
46, 15 
Kepaia ill, 6 


45, 2 
K7]defJ.oi>ia 41, 10 

KT/Xt s 46, 9; ioi, 15; 138, [3; 160, 
1 6 

Kr]pvy/jt.a 61, r, 6 

veiv 138, 16 

69, 18; 82, 9 foil.; i 10, 6 

K\r/<TlS III, 10 

KO\aaT7)pi.ov 163, 8 
/c6pos 88, 12 

24, 3; 31, 5 

83, 12 

117, ii ; 118, 6 

KVTTTCIV 117, 8 

\afivpLv6os 131, 16; 133, 4, 7 
\a/J.Trr)5wi> 99, 8 
\L\//avov no, 8 
XeTrros, 30, 10 
X^ts 30 , ii 
93, 2 

66, 9; 125, i; 160, 2 
\ovTp6v 122, n ; 137, 9; 138, 2; 

160, 12, 15 

\v0pos or \v6pov 62, 13 
\vffLT\eiv 154, 9; 1^5, 3 

\UTpOV 85, 19 

\VTpwats 90, 12 
Aurpamfc 63, 15 
A^XJ/OS 36, 15 

42, 9; 135, 16 
88, 7 
a 75, n 

163, I 

fj.ya\e1ov 8, 12; 14, 18 
fj.ediffTa.vai. 147, i; 148, 15; 149, 7 
/u-edodeveiv 108, 1 1 
/j.t dodos 96, 13 
fj.ed6piov 72, 12 
fj.ei.ovv 147, 5 
147, 5 

r} 34, 2; 160, 5; 161, 12; 
162, i 

fj,eTafj.e\eta 138, 14, 16 
fj.eTa.voLa 50, i 

fj-era-n-oieiv 125, 13; 143, 5, 8; 149, 
2, 3 7! i?o, 3; 159, 15; 160, 8, 
15; 161, 9 
/j.eTairoi.e iffdai 79, 18 
fj,Tairoi7)ffis 151, 9; 159, 12 (for); 

160, 4, 5 

[jieTaffKcvaei.v 126, 4 
60, ii 




152, 7 
143, 5 
99, 3 

fj.Tovaia 9, n, 15 
/j.iai(pov ia log, 7 
fj.iyfj.a 31, 4 

yiu/vpoi/a Xt a 49, 9 ; 50, 6 
fUKp6\f/vxos 53) 3 
fjMcpo^txM 95> 2; 103, 13 
/uis 30, 7 
fjLoipa. 53, 14 ; 89, 5 
fj.6\LJ35os 44, 19 (/w); 45, 3 
fji.ova.p xia. 16, 7 
tj.oi>a.s 1 6, i 

ris 2, 13; 158, 12 

161, 2 
fj.vLV 124, 6 

LS 138, 3J 1 6O, 17 

TToda 2, 15; 39, 6 

15; 39, 
29, I 
48, 7 

120, 15 

/jt,v<TT7)pLov i, 2 ; ii, 14; 15, 10; 52, 
10 ; 53, 2; 65, 3; 115, 14; rr7, 
8; 124, 2; 129, 10; 153, 2 
jUi o-Ti/cos 122, 10; 129, 2; 138, 14; 

139, 5; 1 60, 12 

/J.V<TTIKUS 77, 2 

oTrjs 41, 6; 43, 16; 116, 7; 

132, 22 

veKpovv 43, 10; 132, 13 

V^KphifflS 134, IO 
Vr)(peil> 156, 1 

yoepos 9, 4 ; 44, 12 ; 54, 13 ; 70, 12 ; 

29, 3, 7, 9; 30, 6, 10, 12; 
31, i, 3, ii ; 32, 8 
^oflos 99, 10 

6 7/cos 145, 10, 15; 146, 12 

07KW77S 145, 12 

ooeveiv 131, 15 

oiKovofj.e iv 4, 2 ; 32, 5 ; 70, 14; 107* 

3; J 4 6 5 
olKoi>o/j.ia 20, 3; 32, 10 ; 56, i; 58, 

13; 72, 8; 78, 14; 79, 15; 80, 

13; 92, ii ; 94, 5; 95,9; 119, 7; 

128, n 129, 2; 133, 7, 14; 138, i 
oiKovofj.u<&s 43, 1 6 
oX^ptos 142, 6 
6X/C7J 13, 10 
6X*6s no, 5 

ofJ-oyevrjs 157, 10; 162, 10 

6/u.6y\(i)O (Tos ir2, 4 

6[j.65ov\os 159, 5 

6/u.otoTpo7rws 2, 3 ; 59, 8 

OLioiiixris 24, 5; 81, 7 

6fj.oTLfj.os 31, 9; 101, 16 

o/xoTi /zws 104, 5 ; ro6, 14 

6yu60fXos 23, 8 

6/uL6(f)tovos 100, 8 

ofj-iovv/jiLa 8, 6 

6(j.(jjvvfj.(j}s 7, 10 

ovoLiaaia 122, 13 

OTrXm/cos 131, 7 

opyaviKos 106, 17 

opyavov 106, 19 

op/cny 10, 14 

6>os 124, 13 

dffrpaKLVos 42, n 

offrpaKov 45, 3 

ovpalov 1 10, 5 

ovaia 19, 14; 21, 9; 30, 10; 66, n 

; 72, i; 92, 2 
oiVtow 91, 14 
ovffLLodrjs 15, 2; 50, 2O 
oi cT(Co5cDs 1 8, 4 
o-^ts, 34, 9 
o^ocpayia 88, 13 

25, 8 
LKOS 69, I 
67, i foil.; 87, 7 

a 109, 7 
TraXiyyeveaia 122, 12 
TravTodwa/uios 14, 15 ; 91, 5 
Trapaypd(peii> I/, 6; 59, 14 
TrapciSetcros 24, 9 
TrapdSo^os 126, I 
7rapd5o<ns 118, I 
Trapa.KaLvorofj.e1v 1 48, 5 
7ra/>aXo7ta7/,6s 97, 3 
irapa/J.vOe io dai 104, I 
Trapa.vofj.ia 109, 4 
irapaprveLV 42, 8 
irapacrvptiv 37, 16 

eLV 59, 6; 97, 9 

ri 49, 16 
Trapdevia 62, I 
jrapo/j-apretv 15, 4 
Trapp-rjaia 36, 8; 37, 7 
Trax^s 44, n 

Tretpa 54, i; 115, i; 163, 13 
Trepryetos 32, 3, 9 
irfpi.ypd(pii> 55, I 

54, 10; 57 
TrepiSpdcrcreii 36, 16 

TTeplCKTlKOS l8, 5 

365 I 

122, 6; 132, 7 



I, 2 


45, 3; 71, 8 

3?, 3; 148, 8 
TrpL\TjTTTLK6s 24, 2 
jrepivoia 55, 7 

Trept oSos 64, 10, 15; 73, 6; 133, 5 
irepiovcria 91, 15; 115, 2; 128, i 
Trepioxi? 145, 13 
irepnrXda crei.i 84, 6 

103, I 

71, 10 
Trept rrw/xa 48, I 
wepL(pvcrdaL 99, 14 
7rept%dcr/ceiJ 83, 16 
TrTjpuxris 27, ii ; 33, 11, 12; 40, 10 
TrXcrytos 119, 12; 120, 11; 121, 2 
Tr\dcr/j.a 32, 6 
irXrjdvvTiKos 17, 6 
ir\tj/ui/Ji\ ii> 109, r8; 134, 14; 163,6 

TTOl/dXoS 132, I 

7rot6s, 6 23, 9 
7roi6r?7s 125, I 
Tro\vdvdp<jjiros 112, 17 
TroXvdeia 2, 12 
Tro\v9eos 17, 5 
Tro\vTrpay/j.ove?v 118, 10 
woXvTrpay/jt.oa vvr] 55, 6 

TToXurpOTTWS 109, 10 
TTO^TTT? 75, II 

irpefffieveiv 11, 15; 65, 15 

Trpodyeiv 132, 3 

Trpoaipe icrdai. 113, 16 

Trpoatpecrts 10, 13; 27, 9; 37, 2; 

40, 5, it ; 113, 17 ; 114, i, 8; 

128, ii ; 140, 10; 162, 8; 163, 

20; 164, 5 
Trpoa.ipeTi.K6s 9, 1 6 ; 14, 14; 15, 7; 

21, 10 

Trpoa.Tro.vrav 120, 3 
7rp6j3X?7/ia 98, 12 
Trpo(3o\r) 119, 6; 120, 18 
TrpodeiKvvvai 131, 9, 13 
Trpo8iayLyvu}ffKiv 154, 9 
TTpoeKTiOtvai 153, 5 

TTpOEKTlKOS 21, 12 

jrpoevTi.deva.1. 142, 12 
TrpoTjye ia dat 127, 13 
7rp60ecrts 10, 8, ii, 17; 15, 8; 115, 
i : 

dat. 137, 8; 138, 9 
93, i 
TrpoKa.Taj3d\\eii> 97, 20 

TTpO/COTTT? 156, 17 

i eti 2, 5, 9 

3, 4 

Trpoopart/cos 22, 4 
TrpoTTuXcua 75, 14 
Trpocrdyeiv [38, 13 
115, 12 

99, i 

Trpocreyyi(r/j.6s 57, 2, 4; 


Trpoffriyopia 5, 15 
7rpO(Tie<70cu 53, 6 

TrpoQ-i(rx eLV 48, 9 
Trpocr/catpos 164, 4 
TrpoaKela daL 163, i I 
irpoa~p,a,pTvpelv 125, 14 

138, II 

138, 12 
7rp6(T0aro? 5, 15 

122, 2 

114, 6; 125 
TTpbawirov 155, 8 
7rp6Tacm 3, 6 
TrpwroTrXacrros 43, 5 
TTToe ii 89, 8 
TTTcD^a 1 1 6, 6 
TrvOfji,rjv 88, i ; 145, 9 




H5, 3 

50, 3 

p?}/xa 1 8, ii ; 19, i foil.; 21, 8 
pt^wpi/xetV 146, 6 
POTT?) 10, 13; 35, 8, io,- 86, 7 
pv-jrapia 42, 12 
POTTOS 139, 5 

pUTTTt/COS 139, 3 

<radp6s 38, 14 
crap/cci>5?7S 38, 1 8 
o~fle<?Tripi.QV 163, 13 
creQda/uiios 77, 15 
ff6/j,vos 75, 19 
(rrjfj.acria 1 1 , 4 , 12 
o-iTOTToieiv 88, 8 

0~KT]VOVV 149, 6 

aKvdptijTros 41, 7; 47, 5 
<7K<x>X?7 163, 15 

(TTTt XoS I3Q, I I 



(Twovda^eLv 128, 12, 14 

avvdpo/j.os 15, 8; 50, 24 

ffTCLfflS 82, 12 

crwSi aoTios or, 5 

aTepeovv 1 8, 9 ; 19, 1 1 

(Ti^etfai 127, 8; 129, 4 

CTTOLX^OV 132, 16, 21; 133, 5 

avveK8i86vai 117, 7 49 6; 55, 12; 86, I 


ffvyyeveia 131, i; 132, 6 

(rvveira.ipeiv 31, 8; 117, I 

(ru77ei/T7S 89, 8; 130, 5; 138, 10 ; 

(rweureXtfetJ/ 62, 15 

1 59 2 

crw^x eta 34 r 3 

c7i 7/card/3a(Tis 92, 12 

crwex etl/ 3 2 5 3 ; 9^, 3; 107, i ; 

cri>7/caTd$e<Jts 26, 3 ; 112,15; 124,8 

145, 6 

ffvyKepavvvvai. 141, 2 

O Ufe^iys 117, 6 

crvyKipvaadai. 31, ii 

ffvvrjyopia 126, 10 

ffvyKpi/uia 70, 12; 137, 10 

avvriyopos 38, 16 

ffvyKpivew 125, i; 137, 2 

(TVvdecrLS 9, IT, 13 

ffvyKpLffis 105, 2 

avvdeTos 39, 10; 104, 16 

cri f??! 2, 5 

<ivvd\ifieLV 6, ^ 

crufiryta 151, 3 

ffwi/expovv 110, 4 

ffVKo^avTelv 161, 10, 13 

crvvTa.irei.vovv 8, 8 

ffVKO(f)avTia 52, 13 

crvvTe\elv 106, 15 

(TVfJ.fJ.lKT uS 4, 1O 

(rvvTTjpeiv 59, 4 

ffVfj.Trddeia 48, 8 

(rVVTripTfTLKOS 58, l6 

ffv/j.Trapa\a/j.[3dveLv 128, 12; 157, 7 

crvvTpexti-v 134, 13 

ffvp.TrapeKTeiveiv 118, 12 

ffvvTpofftos 1 8, 2 ; 89, 7 5 40? 

ffv/j.Trapo/j.apTeiv 14, 16 

avvwdeiv 138, i\eKei.v 92, 15; 153, 7 

(ru(7ra(Tts 13, ii ; 19, 13; 21, 3; 37, 

ffv/JLirXoK-r) 105, 5 

16; 120, 2; 124, 10; 151, ii; 

ffvfj.7rvoia 30, 4; 119, ro 

1 5 2 , 3 

ffv/j.(f>veiv 71, 5; 100, 6; 120, 12 

(rucrxT/jUari^etf 104, 2 

ffvfj.(f)vrjs 120, 10; 134, 3 


ffi>fj.<pvia 35, 13; 48, 6; 57, 8; 134, 

<T^77 J uaTi^"eit 145, 14 

16; 158, 8 

cr%i"eti 1 6, 8 

ffv/ncpvuis 158, 4 

(J U/X0 CtJZ I Gt ^O ^ 

TdKTiKa, rd 131, 7 

(ruj cryeii 119, 10; 142, 10 

TaiAelov 88, 9 

crui crywj KrT?}? 63, 16 

-rafjutveiv 46, 12; 134, 9 

ffwaiaOr/ffis 117, 3 

Tfj.evos 75, 14 

ffvvd\\ayfj.a 89, i 

TexvLKos 7, 4; 80, 13 

ffvva\\a.y/j.aTLKOs 90, 1 1 

TexvLK&s 4, i ; 10, 19 

ffvvavaKepavvvvaL 148, 4 

TO/XT? 46, 15; 48, 7 

ffwavaxpaffis 31, i; 48, 10; 70, 13; 

TpewTos 83, 6 

101, 12 ; 102, l8 

Tpi.rifj.epos 132, 10; 133, 5; 135, 10 

ffVVdvLffTdvaL II 6, 8 

rpoTTT? 34, i; 51, 5; 66, 12; 8l, 12 

ffwairapTL^eiv 60, 6 

TpowiKws 132, 7 

a-waTroSei/cj uj cu 127, 2 

Tpvcpdv 161, 17 

avvviTroOeovv i ,o, 4; 152, i 

TU7TOS 1 2O, 8 

cri i aTroAXurai 113, 15 

TvpawiKos 79, 8; 84, 16; 85, 16 

cri i dTrTet^ 97, i I ; I 19, 6 

TvpavvLKCos 85, 12 

<rvvap/j.<jfeii> i i 9, 8 

TV pawls 96, 7 

avvapTOLV 94, 2 

r00os 86, 1 1 ; 161, 4 

avvd(peia. 69, 18 

vvvaxp^ovv 143, 6 

vyeia. 35, 2 

crwSetV 1 19, 8 

vypoTTjS 12^, 17 

(Tvi decris 45, 1 1 

v\<Jodr/s 48, i 

<ri>i <5tacru>~eti 130, 5 

UTra/meiSfiv 160, 5 


36, 10 
88, 4 
a log, 5 

ai 4, 4; 8, n; 13, 6; 24, 
i : 58, 15 ; 170, 7 

vtrepK6o /uit.os 30, 11; 31, 10; 102, 15 
uirepoif/ta 88, 5 

VirTJpTil> l6l, J 

vTro(3d\\iv 34, 9; 41, i 
vwoyeios 132, 22 

VTT05V11> 133, 4 

vwddeais 86, 7; 139, 13 
viroKei/uLevov, TO 5, 5; 12, 8; 16, 2; 
21, 20 ; 48, 9; 68, 3 ; 125, n 
inroKpiveadat. 135, II 
virovoelv 8, i, / 
vtrbvoLa. 2, 10 ; 4, 5 
inroaraffLs 7, i ; 8, 14 ; 9, 2 ; 15, 6; 
16, 2, 3; 17, 8; 19, 14; 21, 13; 
40, 4; 44, 15; 147, 7 
163, 19 
32, 10 
88, 3 

OS I 2O, I 

101, 15 
ai. [9, 15 
130, i 

ia 6, 4 ; 17, 6; 8^, [2; 89, 5 
0ap y acu-o7rocna 47, i 
<p9ovos 34, 12; 35, ii ; 36, to 
(pdopd 60, 9 
(pdopoirocos 142, 5; 143, 5 

63, 8; 91, 4; 97, 10 

fa 86, 8 
0tXocro0ia 76, i 
0tXort / tua 88, 10 
0iX6rtyLtos 18, 7 

0p6f?7<TlJ ^ I , l8 

0pou/>a 89, 3 
(pupa/ma 1 1 6, 10 

36, 1 6 

27, 12; 30, 4 

0WlKcDs 23, I 

(pv<TLo\oyla 145, 3 
01/cris 7,1; 12, 2 ; 16, 6 ; 30, 8 ; 96, 
4; ri 7 4 

0WC7T?7p 92, 9 

t T e I/ 5) 6; 24, 6 ; 29, 9; 
47> 4 

120, 13 
52, i 
89, 6 
43, 5, 13 

42, 4 
31, 6 

75, 10 
1 08, 8 
\wvevTripi.ov 139, i 

55, 12; 90, 6, 13 
30, 10 

87, 3 
\fsvxovv no, 6 

8, LO ; 



28 col. 2 for intelligent and sensible read intelligible and sensible. 

30 col. r for the intelligent nature read the intelligible nature, 

ibid. col. 2 for intelligent and sensible read intelligible and sensible. 

37 line 7 for ij aiuyyvi] /cat read r\ afoxtivr), /cat. 

63 col. 2 y^r ATTOppvecv read Airoppe iv. 

141 col. 2 for the reading T<f...KaOt)yovfji^v( i }..^<f>4irffdai read the reading